December 1991, Volume 33 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Study on Chemical Constituents of Swertia verticillifolia
Author: Liao Zhi-xin, Hu Bo-lin, Ji Lan-ju, Fan Shu-fen, Ding Jin-ye and Sun Hong-fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    Eight compounds have been isolated from Swertia verticillifolia by means of silica-gel column chromatography. Their structure have been identified as 1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanrhone(); 1,3,5,8-tetrahylroxyxanthone();1,3,7,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone();8-O-B-D-glu-copyranosyl-1, 5-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone();8-O-B-D-glucopyranosyl-l,3,5-trihydro-xyxanthone(); 1-O-B-D-glucopyranosyl-3, 8-dihydroxy-7-methoxyxanthone (); ursolic acid () and B-sitosterol(), on the basis of UV, IR, NMR analyses and chemical methods.
Abstract (Browse 1734)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fossil Plants from Xingyuan Formation, Pingzhuang Chifeng, Nei Monggol
Author: Zhao Li-ming and Tao Jun-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    This paper reports fossil plants from Xingyuan Formation, Pingzhuang Chifeng, Nei Monggol of China. The relationships between this flora and Fuxin Formation are discussed. We have also considered the relationship between this flora and the Japanese Late Jurassic flora. Meanwhile, We have described the new species-Ginkgoites pingzhangensis, and studied its cutical under both optical microscope and scanning electron microscope.
Abstract (Browse 1914)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Species of Petrified Ovules of Late Paleozoic
Author: Wang Shi-Jun and Tian Bao-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    Ovules (or seeds) are distributed widely in the beds of Paleozoic of China, but what have been found are all impressions or molds of them. Recently, while studying the fossil plants in coal balls of Coal Seam No.7 (P1) at the upper part of Taiyuan Formation in Xishan Coal- Field, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, We found a kind of petrified ovules with internal structures, which not only are abundant but also quite well presserved. Having been studied, they are put into Cardiocarpus Brongniart and considered as a new species C. samaratus. In the coal bails they are often found associated with the leaves, stems and fructifications of Cordaites, so it is very possible that these ovules belong to Cordaites. It is very interesting that these ovules are very similar to those of the earliest conifers Lebachia described by G. M. Rothwell in 1982. This indicates' that there is a close relation between Cordaites and conifers. Cardioearpus samaratus ap.nov. The ovules are small, flat and obviously-winged. The average length is 6C7mm. The largest width (nearly equal to the length) is at the lower middle part of the ovule. Wings and the top and base of the ovule bend to the same side in a varying extent. The ovule is not cordate at the base. The integument can be divided into three layers: the sarcrotesta consisting of parenchymatous cells, the sclerotesta and the endotesta consisting of longitudinally-elongated sclerenchymatous and parenchymatous cells. The lower midrile part of the nucellus is vascularized. The micropyle is elliptical in transverse section. One main vascular bundle extends upwards from the base. Before it arrives at the sclerotesta, it biforcates into two vascular bundles and extend upwards in the sarcrotesta at the wings. In the meantime, the main vascular bundle continues' to extend upwards and passes across the sclerotesta and reaches the base of the nucellus from where it extends into the nucellus.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationships Between Population Growth and Population Density in Monocultures of Larix leptolepis
Author: Fang Jing-yun, Kan Makoto and Yamakura Takuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    One year-old Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis) seedlings were planted in a nursery from 1984 to 1986 at four density levels with four replicates in order to investigate the relationships between plant growth and density of survivors. As the results shown, self-thinning occurred severely in populations growing at high densities. The rate of the self-thinning followed a trajectory defined by the 3/2 power law. The relationship between mean dry weight per tree and population density at a given stage of growth followed the reciprocal equation and power equation at early experimental stages, but changed gradually to follow the 3/2 power law as plants grew further. Shch a change was mainly caused by the constant basal area per ms and decreased growth of tree height along a gradient of the density. The relationship between tree height (h) and density (p) also be discussed and in the 3/2 power law system it could be described by an equation consisting of h=p-1/2 where is a constant.
Abstract (Browse 1856)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Construction of the Plasmid Containing the Chimaeric Patatin-GUS Gene and Its Expression in Potato
Author: Ming Zhen-huan and G. Ooms
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    A 3.8 kb fragment containing 5 flanking DNA of the patatin gene was used to construct a transcriptional fusion gene with the coding DNA of the bacterial glucuronidase (GUS) gene and the termination sequence of the nopaline synthase gene (nos). Plasmid pPOT414 containing the chimaeric gene construct was transferred from E. coli strain JM83 to A. grobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 (pRAL4404) by the triparental mating method. Then, the chimaeric gene was introduced into potato cultivar Desiree by agrobacterial transformation of tissue slices'. Regenerated plants were selected by growth on media containing kanamycin. GUS activity was measured in extracts of leaf, stem, root and tuber tissues from independent transgenic lines and chimaeric GUS gene was expressed in all transgenic plants. To the same transgenic lines, GUS activities in light cultured shoots were significantly higher than those in dark cultured ones. It seems that the expression of the chimaeric gene was probably regulated by light.
Abstract (Browse 1860)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies on the Organ Development of
Author: Longan Flower [Euphoria longan (Lour.) Steud.] Xu Shi-xiong (S. Y. Zee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    The pattern of development of the floral parts of Longan flower was followed using scanning electron microscope. Floral initiation begins with the formation of calyx protrusions around the floral apex. After the calyx protrusions have appeared, the petal primordia at the base of the floral apex start to appear and then followed by the androecium primordia which appear at the periphery of the floral apex. Gynoecium formation begins much later (at about 30 days after floral initiation). In the male flower, androecium develops normally forming anthers and filaments. Anthers also develop in the female flowers but they are smaller and the filaments much shorter. Gynoecium in the female flower is well developed and when mature it produces a long style, a two-prong-stigma and two ovaries. In the male flower the gynoecium is poorly developed the style is short and the stigma seldom splits. Ovaries are also poorly developed in the male flower. In addition to male and female flowers, Longan also forms a number of abnormal flowers with poorly developed androecium and gyn6ecium. Male and female flowers only become apparent at about 40 days after the initiation of flower differentiation. Prior to this it is difficult to know whether a particular developing flower is going ultimately to become a male or female flower. The formation of abnormal flowers also become obvious' at about 40 days after the initiation of flower differentation.
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Coriandrum sativum
Author: Li Bao-ping, Zhang Jiang-tao, Chen Rou-ru. Hao Jian-ping and Guo Shuang-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    Calli produced from stem segments of seedling of Coriandrum satwum which were cultured on MS agar medium containing NAA 1.0mg/L. The embryogenic cell colony suspension was estabilished on MS liquid medium containing NAA 1.0mg/L%2,4-D 0.2mg/L+BA 0.5 mg/L. The cell suspension culture was used for protoplast preparation. Protoplasts were obtained in the enzyme mixture containing 2.0% Onozuka R-10, 1.0% pectinase, 0.5% snailase, 0.5% dextran sulfate potassium Salt, 0.6mol/L mannital CPW solution at pH 5.8 and 25. Cultured in a KM8P liquid medium containing NAA 1.0mg/L+2,4-D 0.2mg/L+6-BA 0.5 mg/L, glucose 0.4mol/L and CM 20mi/L; the protoplasts entered the stage of derision after three days, cell clusters formed in 10 days and calli formed after about 50 days. When the calli were transferred to MS agar medium containing many growth substances, they differentiated into embryoids, and then developed into plantlet with many green leaves and roots on the 1/2 MS agar medium.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Physical and Chemical Factors on Callus Growth and Shikonin Derivative Formation in the Callus Cultures of Arnebia euchroma
Author: Ye He-chun, Yin Zuo-hong, L1 Guo-feng, Wu Xin, Dong Jiao-wang and Wu Zheng-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    The effects of some physical and chemical factors on callus growth and shikonin derivative formation in the callus cultures of Arnebla euchroma were discussed. According to experiments, the optimum temperature for callus growth and shikonin derivative formation was 25, and the favorable initial pH of media was in the range of 5.3C5.8. Authors also found that both callus growth and shikonin derivative formation were strongly inhibited by white light. Callus growth was promoted when 0.2 mg/L IAA and 0.5 mg/L KT were added to the media, but IAA and KT did not promote shikonin derivative formation. Furthermore, the content and yield of shikonin derivatives in cultures decreased in company with the increase of IAA and KT concentration in the media.
Abstract (Browse 2063)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Contractile Proteins and Calcium Mediated Gelation and Contraction of Pollen Tube Extracts
Author: Ma Yong-ze and Yan Long-fei (Yen Lung-fei)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    The crude extracts of pollen tubes, like other nonmuscle ceils, showed gelation at Iow Ga2+ concentrations and ATP-dependent contraction at higher Ga2+ concentrations. The contracted cytoplasmic clots contained a lot of filaments which were mainly composed of actin, myosin, 105 kD, 67 kD, 48 kD, 38 kD, 34 kD and 28 kD proteins. It is likely that Ca2+ are able to mediate tranformation of acfin from a less ordered state to a more oriented filaments, which interact with actin-binding proteins to form the filamentous network, thus to induce the gel formation of cytoplasm, to regulate the interaction of actin and myosin which transform the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work of contractile movement of cytoplasm.
Abstract (Browse 1653)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Study of Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes of Thylakoids of Bryopsis and Spinacia
Author: Wu Xiao-nan, Zhou Bai-cheng and Zeng Cheng-kui (C. K. Tseng)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    properties, pigment compositions, Chl a/b ratios and apparent molecular weights of chlorophyll-protein complexes were compared between spinach and a marine green alga, Bryopsis corticulans. The results are as follows: 1. Ten chlorophyll-protein complexes were resolved from spinach thylakoid membranes solubilized by SDS in a final SDS/Chl weight ratio of 10:1, and subjected to SDS-PAGE with 11% resolution gel. CPIa 1C3 and CPI belonged to photosystem , and the rest to phorosystem . The maximum absorption of CPIa2, CPIas and CPI were all at 674nm, but that of CPIa1 at 670nm, and those of LHCII and D2 at 670 and 673nm, respectively. Chlorophyll ia PS was 63% of the total. In PS, most of chlorophyll was in LHCII which contained 86% of the chlorophyll in PS. In PS, chlorophyll in CPla was 72% of the total. Chlorophyll a was the main pigment in PS components which have Chl a/b ratio over 15. 2. Eight chlorophyll-protein complexes were isolated from B. corticulans with a SDS/Chi weight ratio of 8:1 and 8% resolution gel. The maximum absorption of CPIa, CPI, LHCII and D2 were respectively at 671nm, 673nm, 669nm and 664nm. PS contained 77% of the total chlorophyll. LHCII chlorophyll was 95% of the PS chlorophyll. CPI held 77% of PS chloro~ phyll. There was more chlorophyll b in Bryopsis complexes, especially in LHCI1 (Chl a/b< 0.8). The molecular weights of Bryopsis complexes were higher than those of the spinach complexes. Bryopsis LHCII contained siphoxanthin and siphothin, the marked pigments of Siphohales, as functional pigments. The above results revealed three points of difference between these two plants. Firstly, Chl a is the main pigment in spinach, whereas in Bryopsis the main pigments are Chl b and siphoxanthin. This is in accordance with the suggestion that plants may change their pigment composition to adapt light regime in the environment during evolution. Secondly, in Bryopsis, chlorophyll is concentrated in photosystem , but in spinach chlorophyll is shared evenly by two photosystems. Finally, CPI in Bryopsis contained the major part of chlorophyll in PS, yet in spinach CPIa is the superior.
Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fusion Experiments of Isolated Generative Cells in Several Angiosperm Species
Author: Wu Xin-li and Zheu Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    The generative cells used for fusion experiments were isolated from pollen grains of Zephyranthes candida and Lycoris radiata by 2-step osmotic shock and from those of Hippeastrum vittata, Hemerocallis minor and Iris tectorum by weak enzyme treatment as reported previously. Using PEG method, fusions have been successfully induced between generative cells of the same species mentioned above, between generative cells of Z. candida and L. radiata, between generative cells and petal protoplasts in L. radiata, and between generative cells of L. radiata and hypocotyl protoplasts of Brassica napus. In all cases either homokaryons or heterokaryons could be obtained. Fusion of nuclei was observed sometimes in homokaryons of generative cells in L. radiata. The generative nuclei in fusion products could be well identified by labelling the generative cells before fusion with DAPI. FDA test demonstrated that most of the fusion products were viable. Factors affecting fusion efficiency including cell density, PEG concentration, duration of PEG treatment and effect of calcium ions were studied in fusion of generative cells in Z. candida. Our experiments indicate that isolated generative cells are likely to be deprived of cell wails and may be regarded as a special kind of protoplasts for direct fusion experiments.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spectrum Analysis of Esterase Isozymes of culti-species and wild Species in Arachis
Author: Wu Ai-zhong and Zhan Ying-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    The electrophoresis analysis of isozymes of Arachis show a very close relationship among four types of cultispecies (A. hypogaea) and A. monticola, the tetraploid wild species is a related species. Among the five diploid wild species of Arachis Section, both A. cardenasii with A genome and A. batizocoi with B genome are found to be relatively nearer to cultis'pecies than A. correntina, A. stenosperma and A. villosa, while A. rigonii of Erectoides Section and A. pusilla of Triseminala Section are the distant species.
Abstract (Browse 1731)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemicai Constituents of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.
Author: Zhang Jian-xing, Lao Ai-na, Ma Guang-en and Xu Ren-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(12)
      
    In our previous paper, it was reported that peimine, peiminine and a new alkaloid, Zhebeinine, were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. In consecutive investigation of the plant, an additional new alkloid, 5, 14-cevanine-3-hydroxy-6-one, named zhebei rine(2) and a known eduardine (1) were isolated and the structure of zhebeirine was determined on the basis of spectral analysis. Eduardine(1) was firstly isolated from the bulbs.
Abstract (Browse 1913)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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