February 1991, Volume 33 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
The Comparison of the Chemical Composition from Natural Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz and Its Tissue Culture
Author: Chen Jian-min, Yu Min-qian, Shen Yin-zhu, Liu Zhi-yi and Huang Zhan-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    The essential oils of the rhizomes from natural A. macrocephala and its tissus culture have been extracted. The chemical components of these essential oils have been determined and compared by TLC and GC-MSD. Their chemical components are identical and thirteen components have been identified as 汕-humulene, 老-elemol, 汐-humulene, 汐-curcumene, 3汕-ace-toxyatractylon and isobutenolide, A, selina-4(14)-7(ll) diene-8-one, atractylon, anhydrobutenolide, palmitic acid, butenolid A, eudesmol and hydroxybutenolide. Six compounds are first reported containing in A. macrocephala.
Abstract (Browse 1924)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Characterization of Antagonistic Bacterium A014 and Its Antibacterial Proteins
Author: Liu Jin-yuan, Liu Wei, Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    A strain of Bacillus spp. has been screened from thousands of bacteria isolated from rice paddy field. The strain can secrete large amount of antibacterial proteins and has a strong in hibiting activity against the pathogen of rice leaf blight disease. Eight species in 4 genera of plant bacterial pathogens were tested for the antibacterial spectrum with the antibacterial proteins and results indicate strong inhibiting the growth of 4 species bacteria of xanthomonads and pseudomonads. Large amount of antibacterial proteins have been extracted by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation from overnight culture of king*s B medium. Further experiments are underway to purify the antibacterial protein with chromatography and to clone the gene encoding the protein.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Cuticle from Lepidophylloides sp. and Saportaea cf. nervosa Halle
Author: Mei Mei-tang and Du Mei-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    Lepidophylloides sp. and Saportaea cf. nervosa Halle were found in the Permian coal bearing strata (Lower Shihhotse Formation) from Huaibei coal field, Anhui, China. Lepidophylloides sp., leaves are linear. The longest one is more than 13cm in length. The specimens obtained show about 3每16mm width with single vein. The epidermal cells are re. ctangular with smooth walls. Stomata align in regular rows, widely spread, particularly, in the lower cuticle. Saportaea cf. nervosa Halle The lamina stomata composed of two reniform guard cells are slightly sunken, the lamina of Saportaea of. nervosa Halle is in broal shoveled shape with 5.6 cm in length, and 6.5 cm in width. Petiole is 1.6cm in length and about 8mm in width. At the upper end of the petiole, it divides into two branches. The veins appear from the branches of the petiole and divide by repeated dichotomy. In the upper part of the lamina, the veins become numerous (about 13 per centimetre). The epidermal cells are elongated polygonat to polygonal, with smooth walls. Stomata surrounded by 5-8 subsidiary cells.
Abstract (Browse 1754)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Application of Computer Graphics Technique to Reconstruct Three-Dimension of Coal Ball Plants
Author: Lu Hui-min and Li Zhong-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    This paper reports a new way by which three-dimensional images of coal ball plants are revealed conveniently. In order to reconstruct outer images of coal ball plants, especially seeds, three different reconstruction methods (additional method, symmetric method and mixed method) have been developed. In the meantime, the way of reconstruction of membrane-like structure was explored. The establishment of these methods contributes to the reconstructing the whole shape of coal ball plants and relating coal bails to other fossil forms. In addition, the difficulties in three-dimensional reconstruction of coal ball plants by using computer are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Genus Hamatophyton
Author: Feng Shao-nan and Ma Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    This paper mainly focuses on the investigation of the rich sporangia and unite growing vegetative branch material in Tizikou Formation, Liujiachang sulphanilamide mine and confirms that sporangia of Hamatophyton is Sphenophyllostachys Seward, 1898. In view of the above, it is considered that Hamatophyton is in fact Sphenophyllostachys Seward, Hamatophyton Verticillatum Gu et Zhi which orinally decided before should be changed to S. verticillatus (Gu et Zhi) comb. nov. It represents the plant combination of South China as late Devenian. The flora is named as S. verticillatus-Lepidodendropsis hirmeri combination. This paper describes also two new species of Sphenophyllostachys Seward.
Abstract (Browse 1798)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution of Dacrydium in South China During the Late Quaternary
Author: Zheng Zhuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    The pollen analysis of the Late Quaternary from South China, in particular, Yunnan and Guangdong provinces, made possible to restore the past distribution of Dacrydium in China. The chinese mainland flora today is totally devoid of Dacrydium. However, a single species (D. pierrei Hickel) is represented in the montane rainforests of Hainan Island (extreme south of China). The fossil pollen grains, morphologically comparable to that of D. pierrei, were discovered from the Tertiary and the Quaternary sediments in an extensive area of China. Even in the Last Interstadial of Wurm (40000每20000 Yr. B. P.), its distribution might extend to 22-24 degrees north latitude. The climatic deterioration and the environmental change during the Last Glacial (Late Wurm) had been a crucial factor when the flora of South China underwent drastic modification. It is in the same period that the present-day restriction of D. pierrei to Hainan Island took place.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of Glycyrrhiza aspera Root
Author: Zeng Lu, Zhang Ru-yi, Wang Dong, Gao Cong-yuan and Lou Zhi-cen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    The chemical constituents of the root of GlYcyrrhiza aspera Pall. collected in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China were studied. Seven compounds were isolated and identified, They are glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, glycycoumarin, isoglycycoumarin, glycyrol and isoglycyrol. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical transformation. They were all isolated from G. aspera for the first time, among them isoglycycoumarin is a new compound, its structure was proved to be 3-(2*,4*-dihydro-xyphenyl), 5-methoxyl, 6,7-(6*,6*-dimethyl pyrano) coumarin.
Abstract (Browse 2037)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Desiccation and Storage of Mango Seeds
Author: Wang Xiao-feng and Fu Jia-rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed is recalitrant which taken from ripened fruits con,ained as high as 69.2'每75.5% moisture content (The moisture content of embryonic axis is 73.8每86.3%). When seeds were naturally dried for 8 days, the moisture content declined to 39.1% (in embryonic axis the moisture content declined to 46.5%) and the viability of seeds completely lost. Embryonic axis lost water slower than whole seed because of the prevention of desiccation by the large cotyledons. During natural desiccation, the conductivity of leachate increased rapidly from 2.2 米次﹞cm-1﹞g-1 (the same unit below) to 56.7, whereas the activities of dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase decreased drastically. When seeds were rapidly dried for 42 hours, the moisture content declined from 75.5 to 29.9%, the conductivity of leachate increased from 1.8 to 36.9 and the percentage germination changed from 100% to 10%. Desiccation damaged the cell membrane and decreased the activities of enzymes. Rapid drying was better for maintaining longevity than natural (slow) drying because the former did less damage to the cell membrane than natural (slow) drying as shown in the conductivity changes. The moisture content of excised embryonic axis decreased to 11.8% when they were dried for 8 hours by silicagel. The survival percentage of these embryonic axis was 80% when they were incubated in MS+0.2 mg/L BA+2.0 mg/L NAA+500 mg/L gln+3% sucrose+0每9% agar medium. Seeds with 51.0% moisture content (rapidly dried for l0 hours by electric fan blowing) had 65% viability after 7 months wet storage with the polyethylene bag at 15⊥.
Abstract (Browse 2127)  |  Full Text PDF       
Interaction of Two Populations of the Blue-Green Algae in Co-Culture
Author: Liu Shi-mei and Li Shang-hao (S. H. Ley)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    Interaction of the populations of two species of blue-green algae Tolypothrix tenuis and Anabaena variabilis "1058", in mixed culture, was observed in three different ways: (1) The growth competition was studied in mixed-culture, where the two species grew in one batch of culture. (2) The effect of the filtrate, the extracellular products, from the culture of one species on the growth of the other species was studied. (3) In fitrated culture, two algal species were cultivated separately in either side a U-form container partitioned by a micro-pore membrane in the middle. The extracellular products were permeable through the membrane from one side to the other side. The influonce of the biologically active substances prosduced by the algae at different growth stages can be observed and estimated. The growth was measured by dry weight of biomass andchlorophyll-a content. The proportion of components of phycobiliprotein (e. g. ratio of phycocyanin to phycoerythrin) was estimated as the specific growth rate of two blue-greens in the mixed cultures. 1. The results obtained are summarized as follows. There were three types of the bioactivity of the extracellular products: (1) The lethal effects on each other caused the by the lethal agents of these two blue-greens were different. (2) The suppressive effects on growth by each other in one community were also found. (3) Effect on growth promotion exhibited only in the extracellular products of A. variabilis "1058". 2. The results indicate that there occur a direct competitive interaction of two populations. This Competition was controlled by the bio-active substances of the extracellular products which might regulate the structural composition and inturn, the succession of the comunity.
Abstract (Browse 1927)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Anatomical Structures and Floral Development of Euryale ferox Salisb
Author: Chen Wei-pei,Zhang Si-mei,Xu Xiang-sheng,Zhang Wei-ming and Shi Guo-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    The pedicel of E. ferox possesses closed, scattered vascular bundles and contains no cambium. Four main air canals are well developed. Mesophyll of sepal is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Petal is simpler in structure than that of sepal with no palisade tissue differentiated. Stamens show a wide varity of shapes; those in the outer whorls are usually petaloid while the inner whorls are of the conventional type bearing four-loculate anthers. Ovary is inferior, multicarpellarv and syncarpous with laminar plancentae in each locule. The flower primordium grows out from the mixed bud. It is enveloped by an axillary scale. The preliminary indication of floral initiation is the periclinal divisions of the second layer of the shoot apex which is closer to the leaf base. By the time a flower primordium becomes 465米m high, the floral parts begin to arise in a continuous acropetal sequences, namely sepals, petals, stamens and carpels successively with initiation of their primordia by periclinal divisions of the second or third layer on the flank of the floral apex respectively. By the fact that the growth of the outer layered cells of the receptacle is faster than those of the inner ones, an epigynous flower and an inferior ovary is thus to be formed. The ventral margin of the carpel has become conduplicately appressed and fused in the lower portion, while the upper part has not been fused, an ovarian canal is appeared from top of the ovary. There is no differentiation of a style. A central receptacular core is found among the carpels. On the basis of anatomical and developmental studies of the floral organs, we suggest that Euryale ferox exhibits a number of most primitive features, such as petaloid stamens, carpel with ovarian canal, elongated receptacle, prominent residual floral apex and laminar placentation. The development of floral parts and characteristics of ovary indicate that genus Euryale is much more similar to Victoria, Nymphae and Nuphar than to Nelumbo and Brasenia.
Abstract (Browse 2281)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Tissue and Protoplast Culture of Wild Cotton (Gossypium davidsonii)
Author: Lu Zhen-xin and Xia Zhen-ao (Hsia Chen-au)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    This paper deals with the study on the condition of callus formation, embryogenesis, organogenesis, plant regeneration and protoplast culture of wild cotton (G. davidsonii) Callus cultures derived from several organs such as root, stem, leaf, cotyledon and hypocotyl. The results obtained in these cultures showed that the modified MS medium containing 2,4-D 1.0+KT 0.1; 2,4-D 0.1+KT 0.01; NAA (IAA) 2.0+KT 0.1 and NAA (IAA) 1.0+KT 0.1 mg/L were favorable to callus formation. Modified MS medium containing 2,4-D was suitable for initiated callus of G. davidsonii Besides, suspension cultures from callus of G. davidsonii were saccessfully initiated. Optimum concentration of 6BA (or ZT, or 2ip) and NAA (IAA) was for shooting, somatic embryo or leaf formation. Plantlets regenerated from somatic embryo at lower concentration of 6BA, or ZT, or 2ip. As to protoplast culture of this species, the age and physiological condition of callus or suspension cells and concentration of enzymes used for protoplast isolation affected the yield and survival of protoplasts. Protoplast of this species cultured in modified MS medium containing 2,4-D 0.5+NAA 0.5+ZT 0.1每0.2 mg/L. and divied after 3每4 days. The rate of division was 3--4% and cell cluster formed after 14 days, then these cells died.
Abstract (Browse 1959)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of a New Biflavone from Podocarpus fleuryi
Author: Xu Ya-ming and Fang Sheng-ding
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    Continuing the former report, another new minor biflavone was isolated. Its structure was assigned as robustaflavone-7-methyl ether (i)by means of chemical reaction and lower shift of acetylation in 1HNMR.
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Plantlets from Leaf Protoplast Culture in Brassica juncea var. tsatsi
Author: Lei Jian-jun,Chen Shi-ru, Guo Yu-long and Huang Ju-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    Protoplast of two mustard cultivars: Brassica juncea var. tsatsi cv. ※Quxian Jiaoercai§ and ※Bangbangcai§, were isolated by enzymolysis from leaf grown in vitro. Protoplasts were suspended in liquid medium and semi-solidified medium with 0.35% low melting point agarose which formed a thin layer floating on the surface of the liquid medium. The first division appeared after 48h in the culture. One week after the original culture, a diluted medium with gradual dicrease of mannitol concentrations (6%↙4%↙zero) was then added to the culture three times respectively at one week's interval. In this culture method cell division and formation of microcalli were achieved. During the liquid culture of protoplasts, shaking at 20 rpm from time to time was beneficial in the formation of cell colonies and microcalli. Cell colonies developed into calli of approx 0.5〞1mm in diameter one month after culture. The plating efficiency, which defined as the percentage of microcatli to numbers of protoplasts, was 0.2%〞1%. Shoot regeneration occured when leaf protoplast-derived calli of ※Quxian Jiaoercai§ were transferred onto the modified MS medium supplemented with BAP 2.0mg/L, KT 1.0mg/L and NAA 0.2mg/L, and those of -'Bangbangcai" were transferred onto the modified MS medium supplemented with BAP 2.0mg/L. Individual shoot was rooted on a rooting medium supplemented with NAA 0.2 or 0.4 mg/L.
Abstract (Browse 1736)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultracytochemical Localization of ATPase Activity in the Ovules of Antirrhinum majus L.
Author: He Cai-ping and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(2)
      
    The ultracytochemical localization of ATPase activity was carried out by the method of lead precipitation in the ovules of Antirrhinum majus L. No ATPase activity is observed in the egg apparatus, but some in the polar nuclei, cytoplasm and plasma membrane of the central cell. Between the embryo sac wall and the cuticle surrounding it, there is a gap where some filamentand vesicle-like structures were demonstrated by conventional staining method, and much of ATPase activity is found there. At the chalaza of the ovule, a lot of ATPase particles are found irt the nuclei, plasma membranes and the thick and loose wall of the hypostase cells. The particles of ATPase in the hypostase and those in the gap surrounding embryo sac are continuously distributed through the intervals of the cuticle at the chalazal end of the embryo sac. Some of ATPase particles are found on the plasma membranes and plasmadesmata of integument ceils, noticeably much more in the nucleoplasm of the integumentary tapetum. According to the ATPase distribution pattern in the ovules, we suggest that the function of the integumentary tapetum and hypostase is secretion, and that the gap surrounding the embryo sac may be an apoplastic ehannal for nutrient flow into the embryo sac.
Abstract (Browse 1761)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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