March 1991, Volume 33 Issue 3


          Research Articles
Purification and Characterization of the polygalacturo nase from Tomato Fruits
Author: Shen Quan-guang, Liu Cun-de, Yan Tian, Ju Rong and Wang Fei-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    The polygalacturonase (PG) isolated fron the pericarp of fully ripe tomato fruits was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, carboxyme-thylsepharose ion-exchang column and sephadex G-75 gel filtration. Specific activity of purified PG was 1.5 ¦Ìmol galacturonic acid mg-1 protein min-1, which was 30 times as high as that of the crude extract with 1.7mol NaC1. When the elution separated by second sephadex G-75 column was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, only a single protein band was detected. It was shown by heat and pH experiments of the purified enzyme that the enzyme activity retained 50%, after treatment with heat at 50¡æ for 10 min, and that the optimal pH was 4.6.
Abstract (Browse 1878)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Cytomorphological Study on the Anther Opening of Foxtail Millet and Wheat
Author: Diao Xian-min and Zhi Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    A concept of ¡°open space¡± in the anther tissue structure of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and wheat (Triticurn aestivum) has been suggested. In the late stage of anther development, ¡°open spaces¡± are formed beneath the epidermis at the opening place between two anther chambers. They get through the bilateral edge of the anther longitudinally making the chambers easy to open. ¡°Open space¡± is considered to be one of the inner factors of anther opening in foxtail millet and wheat.
Abstract (Browse 1906)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Vertical Structure of Seasonal Rain Forest in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan
Author: Wu Bang-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    Following a sequence of field research and observation for many years, the above and underground stratification of the seasonal rainforest is hereby discussed. The result shows that there are seven above-ground strata and also seven underground strata corresponding respectively to the environmental gradient of climate and soil in the seasonal rain-forest. Different ecophysiological features, above-ground canopies, and the morphology of underground root systems are formed because of the effects of environmental gradient. The young shrubs and herbs (including epiphytes) exist in the layer where they are poorly illuminated, but with Little change of tempereture and humidity. Above the young tree and shrub layer is a layer of environmental gradieni with strong sunshine, and variable temperature and humidity. Rapid flow and energy transfor as well as circulation and storage of substances occur in the soil at 0¨C100 cm in depth where is an active bio-activity functional absorption of the fine roots. Under the above-mentioned layer, there is less exchange of energy and substances because of the function of the layer roots is mainly to fix the plant. Measurement of carbon dioxide concentration soil indicate that rainy season is the best season for the flow of substance and energy transfer and for the growth and development of rain-forest during the year. The highest growth speed of rainforest occurs in August and the lowest in January. In addition, in accordance with the structural features of rain-forest, some noteworthy problems on the reconstruction of artificial economic forest after deforestation of the seasonal rain-forest were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on Flavour Volatiles in Qimen Black Tea
Author: Shu Qing-ling and Zhao He-tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    Three kinds of flavor enriched black tea in the world are produced from Qimen in China, Darjeeling in India and Uva in Sri Lanka. The results of analysis from the Qimen black tea showed that there are more than twenty flavour volatiles. The essential aromatic compounds are geraniol, 2,6-di-butul-l,4-benzoquinone, 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyl phenol, benzenemethanol, benzenethanol, linalool and linalool oxides. In Qimen black tea the aroma acquired is produced during the processing aside from the original compounds of fresh leaves.
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
Physiological Effects of Hydration-Dehydration Treatment on Soybean Seeds to Enhance Its Resistance to Imbibitional Chilling Injury
Author: Liu Yan, Chen Hang and Zheng Guang-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    The soybean (Glycine max Merrill) cv. ¡°Heihe No. 3¡± which is sensitive to imbibitional chilling injury was used as experimental material. From the point of cell membranes and by means of physiological tests, the relation of hydration-dehydration to membrane repairation during rehydration in seeds was discussed, and a new point of view on the acting mechanisms of hydration-dehydration was approached. The resistance of seed to imbibitional chilling injury was obviouslv enhanced, its apparent efficiency displayed the enhance of seed rigor, reduction of leakage, especially the K+/Na+ ratio; increasing the K+-Na+-ATPase activity,. The facts indicate that the function of cytoplasmic membrane was enhanced and maintained normally. In the meantime, the activities of SOD, catalase and peroxidase were all enhanced, and the production of volatile aldehydes were decreased. It shows that the function of cell antiautoxidation system was greatly improved. Based on a series of physiological and biochemical index mentioned above and the comparison of water-absorbed curves, a postulated model of membrane system induced by hydration-dehydration treatment is given. It is considered that the effects of the two processes, i,e. physical membrane repairation as well as the physiological and biochemical repairation, will be persisted in the redehydrated seeds.
Abstract (Browse 2490)  |  Full Text PDF       
Motile Fibrils and Cytoplasmic Streaming in Germinated Pollen
Author: Liu Guo-qin and Yan Long-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    The highly vigrous subprotoplasts were prepared from the germinated pollen of Lilium. As the protoplasm mass contracted, many cytoplasmic fibrils with free-ends which moved like animal sperm tails appeared at the surface of the mass. The winding movement of the fibril could tow the free-end's cytoplasm mass, but did not affect the particles moving along the fibril. Only when the fibril free-end adhered to the inner side of the cell membrane, could the, particle movement along the fibril occur, with the disappearance of the fibril¡¯s winding movement. In vitro, the fibril contraction could make both cytoplasmic particles and subprotoplast move in unidirection, and the fibrils could specifically bind fluorescent beads coated with rabbit myosin. This indicates that the fibrils were composed of F-actin. We think that the cytoplasmic streaming may be based on the contraction of F-actin which must adhere to some points of the inner side of the cell membrane, and the contraction of F-actin drives the membrane-bound organells to move, at the same time, propels the sol cytoplasm thus forming the cytoplasmic streaming observed by light microscopy.
Abstract (Browse 1933)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transformation of Populus tomentosa by Agrobacterium and Regeneration of Transformed Plantlets
Author: Bu Xue-xian, Lin Zhong-ping and Chen Wei-lun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    The establishment of efficient transformation system of Populus tomentosa by Agrobacterium is reported. The strains of Agrobacterium used in experiments were: 1. A. rhizogenes R1000, which harboured the Ri plasmid pRiA4b. 2. A. rhizogenes R1000 (pTVK85), which carried the plasmids pRiA4b and pTVK85 Containing supervirulent region. 3. A. tumefaciens C58C1 (pBZ693), the plasmid pBZ693 containing genes 1 and 2. After being cocultured with the bacteria on media containing 0.5 ppm kinetin for 2 days, explants of P. tomentosa were transferred to MS medium containing 500 ppm cefotaxime. Roots appeared on the explants in a week. The roots induced by A. tume[aciens were morphologically different from those induced by A. rhizogenes. The frequency of the explants transformed by A. rhizogenes R1000 (pTVK85) was nearly up to 60%. Some Ri plasmid transformed roots could spontaneously produce adventitious shoots or calli. By adding appropriate plant growth regulators in the media, we could have all of the root lines transformed produce adventitious shoots which would develop into intact plantlets on a hormone-free medium. Some phenotypical differences were observed among clones of the transformed plantlets. Some clones had short internodes, large number of leaves, reduced apical dominance, rich root systems with a great quantity of branches and root hairs, whereas in other clones aboveground parts of plantlets were morphologically normal and only their root systems were different from those of untransformed plantlets. None of the plantlets transformed by A. rhizogenes had the phenomenon of wrinkle leaves and shapes these leaves were analogous to normal plantlets. It was often observed that roots were regenerated from stems above the medium surfaces. Southern analysis on three clones of the putative transformed plantlets by A. rhizogenes R1000 (pTVKS5) showed that two of them were hybridized positively with the probe covering the TL-DNA region of the plasmid pRiA4b.
Abstract (Browse 2065)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Determination of Fatty Acid Components in the Seed Oils of Five Species of Euphorbiaceae
Author: Yu Xue-jian, Wang Hui-ying, Zhang Ji-yao, Liu Bai-nian, Yu Qi-tao and Huang Zhi-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    The fatty acid components of the seed oils of five species of Euphorbiaceae collected in Xishuanbanna district, Yunnan province¡ªAleurites montana (Lour.) Wis., Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Muell-Arg., Ostodes paniculata Bl., Mcaranga denticulata (Bl.) Muell-Arg., and Trewia nudiflora L.- have been analyzed. Long-chain fatty acids were first converted to corresponding 2-substituted 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives (DMOX) by condensing with 2-amino- 2-methylpropanol (AMP) and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The position of unsaturation (double and triple bonds) and substituents (e.g., hydroxyl) in the aliphatic chain can easily be located by interpreting the mass spectra recorded in this way. The qualitative as well as quantitative results can be provided for all constituents in a single GC-MS run. This me thod proves simple and efficient, with good reliability, and is well suitable for the structure determination without reference specimens.
Abstract (Browse 2102)  |  Full Text PDF       
Eukaryotic Algae Associated with Mid-Proterozoic Black Chert in Northern China
Author: Xu Zhao-liang and Gao Jian-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    During the past two decades, Precambrian research, especially in the respect of the occurfence of microbial fossils in silicified rocks has been achieved. It is still in argument, however, at what time the origin of the eukaryote, one of the major events in biological evolution appeared according to the different criteria of the low, er eukaryotic organism fossils identified. The difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal fossils in the cell size of structure and morphological colony and the model of their reproduction in biologic evolution is interpreted based on the knowledge about living lower organisms in this paper. Eight genera and eight species of eukaryotic algal fossils, including three genera and three species (Proto- cosmarium panduratum, Closteriopsis taihangensis and Phyllophycoma sinensis) newly descover ed in black stromatolitic chert from Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Lingqiu, Shanxi Province, China, which is about 1,400¨C1,600 My in age are described and named. All of these are characterized by the big cell size and complex structure of colony in which the cells have been divided into different function in physiology, and some of them produce endospore and autospore which are comparable with their mother cell or colony in morphology. According to the morphological characters of complex and diverse microfossils, it is assumed that the evolution of eukaryotic organisms had been achieved and even evolved up to a higher level at least before 1,600 million years.
Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Development and Abnormality of Embryo and Endosperm in Trigrain Wheat
Author: Wang Yao-zhi, Ding Hui-bin, Chen Chao and Chen Ji-shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    The development processes of embryos and endosperm of trigrain wheat were observed by using paraffin section method and intact dissection. The results were as follows: 1. Fertilization: the development and progression of embryo and endosperm were similar to those as common wheat. 2. The grain come from the primary pistil embryo developed more early among the three-grains. 3. Many abnormal structures, such as Conversion of position between the top and base, back and belly of embryos, horizontal embryos, embryos moved on top, polyembryony and endosperm deficiency etc, appeared in additional pistils. All abnormalities accounted for 88 percent in whole additional pistils.
Abstract (Browse 1864)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Development of Chloroplasts in Sacred Lotus Embryo Bud under Invisible Light
Author: Zuo Bao-yu, Jiang Gui-zhen, Yu Yan-li, Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    The present paper reports that the development ultrastructural observations of chloroplasts from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) embryo buds under invisible light. Embryo bud of sacred lotus is enclosed by three layers of thick integument (pericap, seed coat and thick fleshy cotyledons). During the period of the formation of embryo bud, it remained in dark condition, but turned from pale yellow to bluish-green. It was noteworthy that chloroplasts of the embryo bud had well developed giant grana under invisible light. Their developmental pathway in sacred lotus, however, was different from those of other higher plants grown under sunlight, intermittent light, or even in dark conditions (Fig. 1). The chloroplast development of embryo buds in Sacred lotus seeds in invisible light underwent only in the following three stages: (1) In the first stage the development was similar to that from other higher plants, the inner envelope membranes of the proplastids were invaginating. (2) In the second stage, a proplastid centre composed of prolamellar bodies (PLB)with semicrystalline structure was formed, and was accompanied by one or two huge starch grains in almost each proplastid. In the meantime, prothylakoid membranes extended parallelly from the plastid centre in three forms: (a) One plastid centre extending parallelly prothylakoid membranes from itself in one direction; (b) The same to (a), but extending in two directions; (c) Two plastid centres extending parallelly prothylakoid membranes between the centres. (3) In the third stage, grana and stroma thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts were formed. It is to be noted that most of chloroplasts had only one or two giant grana which often extended across the entire chloroplast body, and the length of the grana thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts from embryo bud in Sacred lotus is 3 to 5 times as many as that in other higher plants. However, their stromatic thylakoid membranes were rather rare and very short. The giant grana were squeezed to the margin of the chloroplast envelope by one or two huge starch grains.
Abstract (Browse 1949)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Secondary Xylem Anatomy of 6 Desert Plants of Caragana
Author: Gao Wan-hong and Zhang Xin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(3)
    The structures of secondary xylem of 6 species of Caragana, which grow in desert regions of Northwest of China, are described in details. The main quantitative characters are compared with species. And a key to the identification of wood structures of 6 species is given. The main similarities of secondary xylem of these 6 species are as follows: vessels per mm2 very numerous, percentage of multiple vessels high; vessel elements very short, perforations simple and in almost horizontal end walls; intervessel bordered pits alternate and vestured, and vessels with spiral thickenings. Libriform fibres are very short, and usually with thick end walls, and with simple pits. Rays are heigh to very low, and with multiseriate and uniseriate, and with heterogeneous type ¢ñ and ¢ò. In addition, there are differences in other characters, e.g. vessel distribution, amount of axial parenchyma and distribution, ray frequency, crystals present or absent, and crystal distribution, if present. These differences can be used as the anatomical characters to identify the wood structures of the 6 species. In this article we also discuss the relation between the structure of xylem elements and the environmental influences.
Abstract (Browse 1926)  |  Full Text PDF       
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