April 1991, Volume 33 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Projects of Plant Science Supported by National Natural Scienc Foundation of China in 1990
Author: Qi Shu-ying and Gao Wen-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
Abstract (Browse 1605)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of Glycyrrhiza eurycarpa P. C. Li (1I)
Author: Liu Qin and Liu Yong-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    Huang Gancao (Glycyrrhiza eurycarpa P. C. Li) is a new species discovered recently. Its chemical constituents have not been reported before. This paper reports the isolation of ten components (񡪢) from its roots and rhizomes collected in Jinta County, Gansu Province. On the basis of physico-chemlcal constants and spectroscopic (IR, UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS, and CD) analysis, they were identified as ononin(), liquiritigenin 4 -O--D-apio-D-franosyl-(1 2)--D-glucopyranoside(II), isoliquiritigenin-4-O--D-apio-D-franosyl-(1 2) -D-glucopyranoside (), choerospondin (), violanthin (), isoviolan thin (), vicenin-2(), uralsaponin A(), daucosterol (), and phloretic acid (), respectively All of them were isolated from this plant for the first time. Choerospondin, violanthin, daucosteroi and phloretic acid were not found in this genus before.
Abstract (Browse 2120)  |  Full Text PDF       
Middle and Early Upper Devonian Miospore Zonations in Eastern Yunnan and the Significance of Their Stratigraphy
Author: Xu Ren (Hs Jen) and Gao Lian-da
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    The Devonian marine and non marine deposits were widely distributed in East Yunnan, where rich marine faunas and floras were present. The Middle and early Upper Devonian miospores of Eastern Yunnan were also abundant and usually well- preserved. The present paper provides both analysis of qualitative and quantitative composition development of Middle and early Upper Devonian spore assemblage in Eastern Yunnan, and a palynological zonatlon containing four successive assemblage zones: 1.Zone of Calyptosporites velatus-Rhabdosporites langii (VL); 2. Zone of Archaeozonotriletes variabilis-Calyptosporites proteus (VP); 3. Zone of Geminospora lemurata-Cristatisporites triangulatus (LT); 4. Zone of Archaeoperisaccus ovalis-Lagenicula bullosum (OB). The Middle and early Upper Devonian spore assemblages of Eastern Yunnan may be compared with those in South China and West Qinling. The spore zonation possesses stratigraphical dating of the Devonian megafloras of the region, particularly those from the Middle and Upper Devonian. The proposed spore zonation is closely compared with that erected for the Middle and early Upper Devonian of Old Sandstone Continent and adjacent Region. Based on palynological data, the reconstruction of Paleogeography and Paleoecology are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2006)  |  Full Text PDF       
Classification of Some Fossil Ginkgolean Leaves by Computerization
Author: Mi Jia-rong, Yuan Qing-yang, Sun Chun-lin and Hou Hai-tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    Based on the description of the four species of fossil impressions of ginkgolean leaves, Ginkgo digitata (Brongn.) Heer, Ginkgo huuoni (Sternb.) Heer, Ginkgoites sibiricus (Heer) Seward and Ginkgoites taeniatus (Braun) Harris, the authors attempted to expand the qualitative study of their characteristics to quantitative study by means of computerization. The discriminant analysis was applied to the classification of these fossil. The statistic variates selected were the lobe number, length, and width, and the nerve number and the angle between two outer lobes. The diseriminant equations of the four species established by the analysis were substituted, respectively, with the variates of the type specimens as well as the Chinese or the foreign specimens of the same species. The results correspouded well with species classification. The source programme was designed in the FORTRAN 77 algorithmic language and the calculation was done on the IBM-PC computer.
Abstract (Browse 1773)  |  Full Text PDF       
Response of Higher Plants to Heat Shock
Author: J. F. Yang and G. R. Stewart
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    When sorghum seedlings were rapidly shifted from the cultural temperature of 30 to 40 and 45, a set of abnormal proteins, generally referred to as heat shock proteins were induced. They are a group of high molecular weight proteins (about 66C117 kD), a few intermediate molecular weight proteins (33C66kD) and a low molecular weight protein of 18 kD. At the same time, the synthesis of normal proteins was relatively depressed. The res ponse of the shoot tissues of sorghum seedings to heat shock is similar to that of the root tissues, but there are some differences in more detail between the two tissues. The synthesis of heat shock proteins in sorghum seedlings was rapid. After one-hour exposure at 45 their synthesis in the roots was detectable. Maximum induction took place in the second hour of exposure, thereafter their synthesis began to decline markedly. Finally, there appear to be some proteins whose synthesis was not supressed during heat shock, It is not yet known why the synthesis of these proteins is so stable.
Abstract (Browse 2030)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Photosynthetic Characteristics of Wheat Ear
Author: Wang Zhong and Gao Yu-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    The stomata and green cells in wheat ears were observed by electron microscopy, and the photosynthetic activity of the ears was measured with an infra-red gas analyser. 1. The awn, glume, palea, lemma, and axis were photosynthetic organs on the wheat ears. Stomata, however, only existed at the green parts in these organs. The ears which had longer awns and higher content of chlorophyll usually showed relatively high photosynthetic rates. 2. The structure and photochemical activity of the chloroplasts in the awns were similar to those in the leaves. 3. The photosynthetic rate of ears could be promoted by increasing light intensity and CO2 concentration. The CO2 compensation point (110 ppm) and the light compensation point (200Em-2 s-1)of ears were higher than those of leaves. 4. The wheat ears had photoresplration. The CO2-releasing rate of the ears under light could be promoted by high O3 concentration. The CO2 outburst and the oscillation in photosynthesis in the awns could be measured. These results suggested that the photosynthetic pathway in the wheat ears was Cspathway. 5. The highest photosynthetic rate of ears emerged at flowering stage. Thereafter, the photosynthetic activity of the ears fell down as the chlorophyll content declined and the grains were filled up.
Abstract (Browse 2075)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Analysis of Constituents of Protein Subunits from Culti-Species and Wild Species in Arachis
Author: Zhan Ying-xian, Wu Ai-zhong, Cheng Ming and Zhou Xiang-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    The analysis of constituents of protein subunits by protein SDS-PAGE technique in 11 sp ecies of Genus Arachis including 4 types of culti-species and 7 wild species showed that the band patterns may be divided into three sections, i.e. P, P and P presenting 5, 13 and 16 subunits respectively. The subunit number of diploid species was less than that of tetraploid species in general, but the difference of intraspecies or interspecies was mainly located in sections P and P. According to the indices of similarity of protein subunits, the relationship among four types (Virginia, Peruvian, Valencia and Spanish) of tetraploid culti-species (Arachis hypogaea) seemed mostly close to each other and A. monticola, the tetraploid wild species was related to one of them. Among four diploid wild species in Arachis section, A. cardenasii and A. batizocai were rather closer than ,A. correntina and A. duranesis and both A. villosulicarpa in Extranervosae section and A.pusilla in Triseminalae section were all distant relatives.
Abstract (Browse 1756)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation Between Activity of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Photosynthesis in Aloe vera Leaves
Author: Lin Zhi-fang, Lin Gui-zhu, Sun Gu-chou and Li Shuang-shun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    The chlorophyllous layer of leaf of a PEP-CK type CAM plant Aloe vera was stripped tiff from the colorIess water storage tissue and used to stuly the interrelation between the activity of decarboxylating enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and photosynthesis. Oxaloacetate, malate+ADP, and NaHCO3 were found to stimulate photosynthetic oxygen evolution. During the period from 6:00 to 18:00 of the day time, a diurnal fluctuation was observed in both PEPCK activity and the rate of oxygen evolution. The maximum of photosynthesis appeared at 10-12:00, but the maximum PEPCK activity appeared at 14:00. The PEPCK activity and photosynthetic rate in leaf discs increased with temperature from 10 to 35, then decreased at 45. Similar decline of both parameters was found in the leaf discs stressed by different concentration of PEG-6000 solution for 4.5 h. At light intensity of 900 mol m-2 s-1 and 25, the PEPCK activity and photosynthetic rate of leaf discs rised with the illumination time, then a slight inhibition followed at the time of 30 min (Pn) or 40 min (PEPCK). The strong response of PEPCK activity to high light intensity in leaf discs, and a progressive increase of PEPCK activity in direct illumination of crude enzyme extractm the range of 0-55 min, indicated that light s likely to be an activator for PEPCK. Leaf discs were infiltrated with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l, 1-dimethylurea, DL-glyceraldehyde and 2,4-dimitrophenol resulted in the partial inhibition of light-ependent photosynthesis and decarboxylation of C4 acid. The activity of PEPCK was also stimulated by Mg2+ or Mg2++ATP infiltrated into the leaf discs in the dark. The evidence presented here suggested that PEPCK activity of CAM plants showed a close interrelation with photosynthesis. Both of them were regulated by the environmental changes. The activity of PEPCK might be coupled to electron trsnsport and photophosphorylatiou.
Abstract (Browse 2401)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Studies of Microsporogenesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Author: Zhang Xian-sheng and Xi Xiang-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    Microsporogenesis in dwarf Phaseolus vulgaris was studied under the electron microscope. Before meiosis the microspore mother cell had a lot of organelles especially plastids and ER in its cytoplasm. There were many osmiophilic granules adhering to the membranes of the plastids and vesicular ER until meiosis began. Some cytoplasmic channels were present between adjacent microsporocytes from pachytene to telophase . The organelles were at early stage in the early rnlcrospore, the plastids and mitochondria of which showed regional distribution. Original vacou[es were produced by smooth ER. The organelles in the tapetum cells were mainly mitochondria, plastids and ER. The ER was concentric circles in shape in transverse section.
Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Development of Gametophytes in Cornus officinalis (Cornaceae)
Author: Yu Xiang-yu and Li Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    The floral bud of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. began to differentiate at the end of April. In the beginning of November, female and male gametophytes reached their maturation. The flowers fell off in the following March. The wall of the microsporangium comprised epidermis, endothecium, two or three middle layers and a single layer of amoeboid tapetum with two nuclei. The extra-tapetal membrane was formed during the later stage of the development of anther. Meiosis of microspore mother-cell was normal and cytokinesis was of the simultaneous type. The tetrad was tetrahedral in shape. The mature pollen grains were 2-celled and 3-colporate. The ovule was unitegminous and tenuinucellate. During the development of the ovule, some special structures were formed, e. g. hypostase and obturator which originated from the integument. A single archesporium differentiated immediately below the nucellar epidermis. It functioned directly as the megaspore mother-celL This cell under went meiosis to form a linear tetrad. The chalazal megaspore was functional. The development of the embryo sac was conformed as the polygonum type. Two polar nuclei fused into the secondary nucleus and 'three antipodal cells degenerated soon after the embryo sac reached its maturation, at that time the female gametophyte had become an embryo sac which consisted of only four cells each with a nucleus just before two months of blooming. The nuclei of some synergids located in the chalazal part of the cells. Contrarily, the micropylar past of the synergids were occupied by a large vacuole. The secondary nucleus was usually located in the chalazal part of the embryo sac.
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplast of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn
Author: Wang Ji-mei and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    Calll were initiated from the seedling segment of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn and subcultured on the MS agar medium with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Cell suspension culture with a lot of embryogenic cell clumps was obtained in liquid medium. Protoplasts were isolated from the cell clumps in enzyme mixture solution containing 1.5% Onozuka R-10, 0.3% Macerozyme R-10, 0.5% helicase, 5 mmol/L CaCl2 and 0.6 mol/L mannital, at pH 5.6 and shaking for 5- hours at 25. Helicase is necessary for isolation. After purified by washing, the protoplasts were cultured in liquid medium containing 1 mg/L 2,4-D +0.5 mg/L zeatin. First cell division was observed after four days. Large cell clumps were formed after thirty days. Microcalli of 1 mm in size was formed after about fifty days, and continued to grow on the MS solid medium containing 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 200 mg/L casein hydrolysate, and later differentiated into embryoids when transferred to MS agar medium with 0.1 mg/L zeatin. Eventually, embryoids developed into whole plantlets on the MS solid medium without phytohormones.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomy of the Lithocyst in the Epidermis of Leaf in Broussonetia papyrifera
Author: Yu Fu-gen and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-tee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(4)
      
    This paper deals with the structure, development and composition of the lithocysts and their cystoliths in the epidermis of leaf in Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. Both epidermal layers had the hair-like lithocysts. The lithocyst seen in the adaxial epidermis had a central hair-like lithocyst with 1C3 rosette-forming small round lithocysts at its base which was absent in the comparatively fine hairy litbocyst on the abaxial epidermis. All these lithocysts had cystoliths. The hair4ike lithocysts in adaxial epidermis developed more quickly, and showed obviousgliding growth. One or two stalks were seen clearly in the early stage of the cystolith development. Later, the stalks were covered gradually by the cystolith deposition. The majority of cystoliths were mainly composed of polysaccharides, also mixed with a little suberin and calcium carbonate. But, large variation in material composition was found in different cystoliths and different developmental stages of individual cystolith. Exceptionally, there were large amorphous and shaped crystals of calcium carbonate in the cystoliths of the hair-like lithocysts. The ultrastructure of cystolith components exhibited no orderly arrangement and there was no stratification as seen under optical micoscope.
Abstract (Browse 3652)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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