May 1991, Volume 33 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
The Chemical Constituents from Podocarpus nagi (II)
Author: Xu Ya-ming and Fang Sheng-ding
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    Continuing the former report, four more constituents Were isolated from the seeds of Podocarpus nagi (Thunb.) Zoll. et Mor. ex Zoll. (Podocarpaceae). They were identified as sciadopitysin (), amentoflavone-4', 4"', 7, 7"-tetramethyl ether (), nagilactone C() and ethyl--D-pyranoglucoside (). , and were first reported in this plant. shows stronge cytotoxic activity.
Abstract (Browse 1936)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation of Gene Expression in Higher Plants
Author: Chen Zhang-liang and Qu Li-jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    The study on regulation of gene expression in higher plants has attracted attention of many scientists and is also one of the major scientific research areas in modern biological studies. With advancement of the technology of genetic engineering, more and more details of gene regulation are revealed and it has been found that regulatory zones of most genes are located at the 5' upstream promoter regions. Now,the study on regulation of gene expression is mainly focused on light regulated genes, tissue specific genes, environmental stress induced genes, bormone-induced genes and so on. This article gives a more or less comprehensive review on the several aspects mentioned above.
Abstract (Browse 1886)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Hormones on Embryo After-Ripening of Panax ginseng G. A. Mey. Seeds
Author: Li Xian-en, Chen Ying and Zhang Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    Panax ginseng C. A. Mey seed has a deep dormancy for the morphologica and physiological after-ripening of embryo. This paper described the changes of some enzymic activities and of soluble-protein content during after-ripening of seeds, in the first stage of morphological after-development the activities of amylase, peroxidase and catalase increased gradually, whereas the soluble-protein content decresed rapidly. A high level of enzymatic activities and increasing protein content were also observed, indicating vigorous metabolism in physiological after-ripening of seeds. Hormone treatment increased the activities of the above-mentional enzymes, promoted the development and differentiation of embryo, causing the time of seeds germination one year earlier than that of untreated ones.
Abstract (Browse 2003)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis and Histological Observation in Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312
Author: Liu Chun-ming and Yao Dun-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    A reproducible 3-step procedure of somatic embryogenesis of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312 has been developed. Calli were initiated on LSC medium containing 0.1mg/L 2,4-D plus 0.1 mg/L KT from cotyledon tissue of 5-day-old-seedlings, and subcultured on the same medium with 4 mg/L NAA and 1 mg/L KT. Embryogenic calli and few globular embryos developed at a frequency of 67.5% after 55 days culture in the latter medium. When the embryogenic calli were transferred to growth regulator-free medium, embryogenesis occured and all stages of normal zygotic embryos, globular-, heart- and arrowhead- or torpedo-shaped embryo, ,were developed. Cyto-histological study showed that embryogenic calli were very easily distinguished from non-embryogenic calli. Embryoids were mainly initiated from the cells in the peripheral area of embryogenic calli. At the early stage the development of embryoid was limited in a boundary of thicken cell wail. There were 2 peaks of starch accumulation in the process of embryogenesis, one was at the early globular stage, and the other at the later torpedo-shaped stage.
Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Study of Triptriolide Isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii
Author: Ma Peng-cheng, L Xie-yu, He Cun-heng and Zheng Qi-tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    A novel diterpene bisepoxide, ,riptriolide was isolated from the root and leaves of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook- f. Triptriolide was obtained as white cluster crystal, mp. 260-262. Its molecular formula is C20H26O7. The structure and stereochemistry of triptriolide were determined by UV, IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2d-NMR, 13C-NOE, NOE difference spectroscopy and direct X-ray crystallographic analysis. Preliminary pharmacologic assay revealed that triptriolide has a potent anti-inflammatory action.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
The cDNA Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of Potato Virus X Coat Protein Gene
Author: Wang Chun-xiang, Gao Qian, Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    Potato virus X(PVX) was isolated and purified from infected tobacco leaves. The cDNA was synthesized with synthetic oligonucleotide as a primer and cloned into bluescript vector. The gene encoding coat protein of PVX was cloned with restriction enzyme analysis and DNA hybridization. The full length of DNA sequence of the gene was determined and compared with sequence reported before. It was found that the gene cloned from PVX infected in China has high homology in DNA sequence to that reported abroad. We transformed the coat protein, gene to potato plants and obtained potato shoots on selective medium.
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ecological Relation Between Pinus taiwanensis and Fungi in the Process of Ectomycorrhizae Synthesis
Author: Zhu Wei-xing, Hu Jia-qi, Wu Ren-jian and Zhou Ji-lun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    The root samples of Pinus taiwanensis from seedlings to large trees of Mt. Huangsban were studied under light microscope(LM) and scanning electron microscope(SEN). It is obvious that ectomycorrhizae from extensively between the pine roots and the fungi. Isolation and pure culture of the samples of sporocarps were carried out, of which six strains were inoculated to the dissinfected seedlings were under laboratory condition. Pisolithus tinctorius was introduced to inoculate the pine seedlings too. Studies on the development of dichotomous mycorrhizae and the early stage of ectomycorrhizae formation were specially emphasized. Three types of the process of hyphae infection and the ontogeny of ectomycorrhizae synthesis, development and subsequent degeneration were described. Some ecological effects of ectomycorrhizae, which increase the growth of pine trees were also mentioned. Finally the authors sugge. st that the success inoculation of Pisolithus tinctorius to the pine trees will offer a new device for the formation and development of the ectomycorrhizae in terms to promote their growth.
Abstract (Browse 1879)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryo Sacs of Hevea brasiliensis and Carica papaya Isolated with Enzyme-Squash Technique
Author: Qiu De-bo, Lu Feng and Xie Shi-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    The enzyme-squash technique had been employed to study the development of megaspores and embryo sacs from tropical plants of Hevea brasiliensis Muel-Arg. and Carica papaya L. Ovules fixed with FAA or FPA were enzymatieally macerated in 3% pectinase cellulase solution or in 3C4% snailase solution for 4C6 h, at 28C30 to isolate the embryo sacs after being squashed. The whole structural images of megaspores and embryo sacs at different developmental stages were observed and identified without staining under Olympus BH-2 phase contrast microscope or light microscope after ron-aceto-carmine staining.
Abstract (Browse 1927)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Immobilization on Photosynthesis, Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonium Ion Excretion of Mutant and Wild Type Cells of Anabaena variabilis
Author: Shi Ding-ji, Wang Yong-xu and Fang Zhao-xi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    Ammonium ion photoproduced by nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria is formed from water, air nitrogen and solar energy under normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. It is reported here that the mutant and its parent wiid type cells of Anabaena variabilis from Shanmugan lab were immobilized into the polyurethane foams. The growth curves measured by cell counting, O.D750 measurement and ch]orophyll a determination showed that the growth of the immobilized wild type cells was more rapid than the immobilized mutant cells, and for both two types of cells the free-living cells grew better than the immobilized ones. The nitrogenase activity (reduction of C2H2) was 44% greater in immobilized mutant cells and 232% greater in immobilized wild type cells than both free-living cells, respectively. Free-living cells of wild type A. variabilis almost did not excrete any ammonium ion and the immobilized cells of the wild type had the ammonium ion excretion activity similar to that of the free-living mutant cells. Moreover, immobilization stimulated the activity of ammonium ion excretion 55.6% greater than the free-living cells, in the mutant strain. The fluorescence enhancement induced by DCMU (3-(3,4-dichlor-benzene)-1, 1-dimethl urea) indicated the photosynthetic capability of wild type ceils in both free-living and immobilized states were higher than that of the mutant cells, and the free-living cells of both two types of cells had higher capability than the immobilized cells. The fluorescence emission spectra at 77K showed that there were four peak emission: F646(F645 or F650) and F662(F664 or F665) from phycobilin, F693(F698,F700 or F702) from PS and F732(F728 or F733 from PS In both two types of immobilized cells the photosynthetic light energy distribution tended to be in PS and it seems to be benefitlal for the nitrogenase activity and ammonium ion excretion. SEM observation indicated that the shape and size of the immobilized cells remained unchanged incompared with the free-living cells, However, the surface of the immobilized cells had accumulated some mucilage, and particularly, the film of mucilage coated both surface of the mutant cells and the foam matrix.
Abstract (Browse 1780)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Observations on Microsporogenesis and Pollen Development of Regenerated Stamen in Hyacinth
Author: Lu Wen-liang, Zhu Ying-jie, K. Enomoto and Y. Fukunaga
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    The present study consists of the cytological observations on the process of microsporogenesis and pollen development in the regenerated stamen of hyacinth; and a comparative study of the cytological changes in stamens of both regenerated and produced under natural condition. Results showed that the cytological changes of microsporogenesis and the pollen deveLopment in the regenerated stamen of the hyacinth were basically normal. But in the stage of the mature pollen there was an obvious cytological difference between both stamens in vitro and in nature. The mature pollen of the regenerated stamen consisted of three cells: one vegetative cell and two sperms, while mature pollen grain under natural condition was made up of two cells: one vegetative cell and one generative cell. This difference mainly resulted from different time and place of the generative cell division. The reason resulting in the differences and their influence on sperms were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1810)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vascular Bundle Distribution Within Broad Bean Seed Coat and the Structure of Unloading Region
Author: Wang Xin-ding
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(5)
      
    Cytological observations were made on developing seed coat of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) by use of light and electron microscopy. Attention was focused on vascular distribution. The seeds were attached by the funiculus to tile large vascular bundles of pericarp of broad bean. The vascular bundle passed through hilum and two layers of palisade, entered the pa- renchyma of seed coat, then diverged in to two routes. One was a complete vascular bundle composed of both'phloem and xylem elements, it stretched down through seed raphe, then upward and terminated near the radical. The other was a two-recurrent-vascular-bundle with only phloem constitutents, they extended forward detoured the micropyle and extended downward, but did not join with the upward complete vascular bundle. The recurrent vascular bundles branched out many small short branches. The obvious difference between phloem of recurrent vascular bundle and of complete vascular bundle was that the companion ceils of the former did not normally modify to transfer ceils, but connected to the adjoining parenchyma cells through abundant plasmodesmata. It is deduced from the structural analysis that the symplastic route may play an important role, particularly in the region of recurrent vascular bundle, in the course of importing assimilates unloading in seed coat and transporting to the embryo.
Abstract (Browse 2417)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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