June 1991, Volume 33 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Analysis of Headspace of Root of Levisticum officinale
Author: Chu Jian-qin, Zhang Zheng-ju, Pu Fan,Shi Yan, F. Perineau, A.Gaset and M. Delmas
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    The headspace of root of Levistlcum officinale was subjected to adsorb by means of XAD 4. The chemical components of the headspace obtained were analysed by GC/MS and GC/FTIR. 64 compounds have been seperated, of which 20 compounds were identified. The main compounds were monc, terpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, such as 汕-phellandrens (16.47%), citronellal (12.85%) and ligustilide (20.94%) etc.
Abstract (Browse 1786)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of the Cell of Peucedanum terebinthaceum in Different Stages of Embryogenesis in Suspension Cell Culture
Author: Xia Guang-min and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    The ultrastructure of the cells from single cell to globular embryo stage in suspension culture were investigated. The amount and morphology of the organelles, especially the plastids spherosomes and protein bodies changed obviously during the embryogenesis. In embryogenetic clump stage there occured in the vacuolated cells direct nucleus division and peripheral cytoplasmic swelling. The vaeuolated cells returned to embryonic state quickly in this way. In this paper the physiological and biological significance of the ultrastructural changes of cells in different stages of somatic embryogenesis are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1792)  |  Full Text PDF       
Suspension Culture of Endosperm Callus Cell and Amitosis In Vitro
Author: Gu Shu-rong, Gui Yao-lin, Liu Shu-qiong and Xu Ting-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    The endosperm calli were induced on MS basic medium supplemented with lppm 2,4-D, 0.5ppm KT and 5% sucrose. The medium which contained lppm BAP, 0.1ppm NAA and 2% sucrose was used for cell suspension culture. In suspension cell culture, amitosis of cleavage division of nucleus have been observed after 5 days of culture. First the nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappeared. The crevice appeared in the center of the nucleus, and the nucleus divided into two daughter nuclei of similar size and each with a nucleolus. The daughter nucleus resembled an eye in shape. Following the emergence of cell wall, the two new unequal cells were produced. Such amitotic division proceeded repeatedly until the callus developed and eventually plantlet regenerated.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Physiological and Morphological Responses in Flooded Maize
Author: Li Rui-qiu, Gao Xiao-yan and Wu Dun-su
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    After flooding of maize seedlings for fourteen days, their stomata were closed, and total nucleic acid was accumulated in subwater knots before adventitious roots appeared. Aerenchyma were developed and some physiological and morphological changes were induced in fourweek old Zea mays L. seedlings. It aeems possible that the maize seedlings had adapted to the flood circumstances by forming adventitious roots on submerged knots of the stems, which was not only thick and white but also with no root hairs and grew upwards.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Mathematical Model for Leaf Photosynthesis of Mulberry
Author: Chen De-xing and Wang Tian-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    A mathematical model of leaf photosynthesis has been established. In this model, the processes of photosynthesis are divided into two parts, ie., the carboxylation process driven by light which is dependent on temperature and CO2 concentration, and the diffusion of CO2 from atmosphere to the carboxylation site. Finatly, CO2 uptake by the leaf is understood as dependent on 1), the CO2 response curve of the leaf mesophyll and 2). the CO2 partial pressure in the intercellular space in leaf. The COs response curve of the leaf photosynthesis is described mathematically in terms of carboxylation efficiency (Ca) or its initial slope and the photosynthetic capacity (Pm) or the CO2-saturated uptake rate of CO2 uptake, and dark respiration (Rd). The dependency of photosynthesis on leaf temperature and incident light intensity is incorporated into variations of those parameters which establish an appropriate response to internal CO2 pressure for particular light and temperature conditions prevailing at any time. Secondly the interactiion of stomata with photosynthesis is represented as an empirical relation between stomatal conductance and a combined environmental physiological index, APn﹞Hx/CaThe parameters used in the modelwere estimated with Marquardt-Newton method for non-linear function. Field measurements of mulberry leaf photosynthesis provided a data set for model testing. The resuks show that the simulated values of the model agree well with observed data. The model was used to analyse the response surface of leaf conductance and photosynthesis to environmental factors〞Applications and limitations of the model are discussed
Abstract (Browse 1971)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Anatomical Studies on Vessel Elements of Chinese Ranunculaceae
Author: Chen Yong-zhe and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    The vessel elements in 77 species of 36 genera of Chinese Ranunculaceae were studied. The vessel elements of Ranunculaceae could be divided into primitive and more specialized groups on the basis of their morphological characters through clustering analysis. The most primitive type of the vessel elements was seen in Asteropyrum, and some vessel elements were considered more primitive, as in Paeonia, Trollius, Actaea, Helleborus, Souliea, Calathodes, Beesia, Caltha, Coptis, Kingdonia, Circaeaster, Adonis, Hepatica, than others. There was a marked difference between Paeonia and other genera of Ranunculaceae. The vessel elements of Paeonioideae and Helleboroideae with follicles were more primitive than Ranunculoideae with achenes. In Thalictroideae, .the vessel elements of Thalictrum with achenes were more specialized than other genera with follicles. All these findings coincided with the evolution of fruits. The character of evolution of vessel elements ran parallel with that of other parts of plant (flower, carpel, petiole, venation). The features of vessel elements in the same genus were at similar evolutional level, however, some difference between species do exist.
Abstract (Browse 2007)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on Vegetation and Climate Changes in Dianchi Lake Area in the Last 40000 Years
Author: Wu Yu-shu, Chen Yin-shuo and Xiao Jia-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    This paper presents results of pollen analysis on sediments of core Cao 2 from Dianchi Lake. Four pollen zones are defined, namely zone I, which is further divided into four subzones, zone j, zone k and zone l. Zone i(ca. 47600每11800 yrs B. P.) is characterized by low land pollen sedimentation rates and constant presence of Abies pollen. In zone j (ca. 11800每6900 yrs B. P.) broad-leaved tree pollen increases and Abies pollen gradually disappears. In zone k (ca. 6900每3800 yrs B. P.) evergreen broad-leaved-tree pollen and total land pollen influx reach their maximum values while, Tsuga pollen decreases. Zone l shows a great decreases in pollen influx of various pollen types and a increase in Monolete psilate spores. In the past 40000 years vegetation in this area trend changes from a dominantion of coniferous tree to an evergreen broad-leaved forest, co-existing or mixing deciduous broadleaved forest and coniferous forest. In the past 3800 years, due to climate changes and / or human activities, the vegetation cover in this area has been greatly reduced. The above vegetation changes indicate a climate change process from cool and humid, to warm and humid and finally to mild and dry.
Abstract (Browse 1829)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological Studies of Rhaphidopteris hs邦i sp. nov
Author: Chen Ye and Jiao Yue-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    The present paper deals with the cuticular structure of Rhaphidopteris hs邦i sp. nov. The specimens were collected from the Upper Triassic cos series of Liuzhi district, Guizhou Province. Based on the shape and cuticular structure of leaf and segments, this new species is assigned to Corystospermaceae of Cycadofilicales. According to the assemblage of the fossil plants, the writers consider that the geological age of this flora is assigned to the middle Keuper-Rhaetic stage of Late Triassic.
Abstract (Browse 1741)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of Alien Chromatin and Ribosomal DNA in Wheat by in Situ Hybridization
Author: Zhong Shao-bin, Zhang De-yu, Zhou Nan, Jiang Jian-dong, Yao Jing-xia, A. R. Leitch and I. J. Leitch
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    In situ hybridization was carried out to somatic cells of hexaploid Triticale ※Badger§, lB/IR translocation line ※Ning 8026§ and IR(ID) substitution line ※84056-1-36-1§ using biotin-labelled total rye genomic DNA and wheat rDNA as probes, the results were as follows: 1. The probe containing the total genomic DNA from rye hybridized to the entire length of all rye chromosomes, as a result of the formation of a brown precipitate over the sites of hybridization, the rye chromosomes could be distinguished from wheat chromosomes counterstained by Wright*s solution, the distinguishable appearance of the wheat and rye chromosomes resulted in an efficient method of detecting rye chromosome or segments in wheat. 2. When the probe PTA 71 containing wheat ribosomal DNA was used to hybridize to somatic chromosomes of "Badger" and ※84056-1-36-1§, six signals in ※Badger§ and eight in ※84056-1-36-1§ were observed on lB, 6B, 1R and SD, among which lB and 6B showed large in situ signals corresponding to many copies of the genes. 3. The expression behavior of wheat rDNA was found in interphase cells by in situ hybridization.
Abstract (Browse 1841)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cause of Senescence of Nine Sorts of Flowers
Author: Zhang Wei, Zhang Hui, Gu Zhu-ping and Zhang Jian-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    The levels of endogenous phytohormones and respiratory rate in nine sorts of flowers such as Cymbidium faberi Rolfe, Nopalxochia ackermannii Kunth and others were investigated both at full bloom and senescence and meanwhile the effect of exogenous phytohormones on prolonging the blossoms and promoting ethylene production were tested. There is a high content of endogenous ethylene in all the long-lived flowere, about 3每16 folds higer than the short-lived ones. There is a high level of ABA at full blooming flowers of short-lived flowers, in which there is no or only some cytokinins in it, but the ratio of CTK (6BA+zeatin)/ABA is smaller(l.7). The endogenous ABA reached a much higher level at senescence in all nine sorts of flowers, so it is reasonable to consider that it is ABA which plays an important role of regulation in controlling flower's senescence. There is a much higher level of GA3 and zeatin in the long-lived flowers which is not demonstrated in the shortlived ones. The respiratory rate is one of the factors controtling the longevity of flowers, but it does not play a decided role. Application of 6BA and zeatin prolongs distinctly orchid*s longevity, however exogenous IAA through the promotive action on ethylene production, evidently extends the longevity of the flowers of the Nopalxochia ackermannii Kunth.
Abstract (Browse 1868)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Studies of Codonopsis pilosula Nannf.
Author: Niu Jia-tian and Shen Jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    This paper reports the studies of megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis, development of female and male gametophytes, fertilization, and development of embryo and endosperm, The anther wall consists of four layers, i.e. epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. Part of the tapetum cells originates from the primary parietal cells, and the other part comes from the basic tissue of the anther partition. Tapeta? cells are uninucleate or binucleate, and belong to the secretory type. Microsporocyte originates directly from the primary sporogenous cell, Cytokinesis is of the simultaneous type. Arrangement of microspores in tetrad is isobilateral. Mature pollen grain is of the 2-celled type. The ovary is tricarpellum, trilocular with many ovules. The ovule is mono-integinous, tenui-nucellar and anatropous. The embryo sac originates from the single-archesporial cell. The one chalazal megaspore in linear tetrad is the functional megaspore. The development of embryo sac is of the Polygonum type. Before fertilization, two polar nuclei fuse in to a secondary nucleus and the antipodal cells degenerate. Fertilization is porogamy, fusion of one sperm with secondary nucleus is faster than that of one sperm with egg nucleus. The development of endosperm is of the cellular type. The first three divisions of endosperm ceils are regular. Two endosperm cells near the ends of chalaza and the micropyle develop into haustorium without division. The haustoria gradually degenerate at the late stage of globular embryo. The mature seeds contain abundant endosperm. The development of embryo is of the Solanad type. The suspensor consists of 12每20 cells. The optimum development of the suspensor is at the early stage of the globular embryo. It begins to degenerate after late globular stage. The embryo develops from proembryo, heartshaped embryo, dicotyledenous- to mature embryo.
Abstract (Browse 1974)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anther Culture of Naked Oat and the Establishment of Its Haploid Suspension Cell
Author: Sun Jing-san (C. S. Sun), Lu Tie-gang and M. R. S身ndahl
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    This paper reported the production of haploid plants through anther culture in naked oat (Arena nuda). Calluses were induced from anthers of naked oat placed on various culture media. MS medium with 4% sucrose, 1% activated charcoal and no hormones gave the highest initiation frequencies (14.7%) of anther callus among media tested. Twelve green plants and one albino plant have been regenerated from anther calluses. Cytological examination of mitotic rooot tip ceils from three green anther plants showed that two of the plants were haploid (2n=3x=21) and one was diploid (2n=6x=42). The cell suspension cultures were established from pollen friable calluses in liquid medium. The suspension cells were cytologically stable during one year subcultures. Most of the ceils examined were haploid.
Abstract (Browse 1902)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from the Protoplast Culture of Multitiller and Multispike Forage Maize and Seeding of the Regenerated Plant
Author: Shi Jie-cun, Liu Ji-hua and Guo Zhong-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(6)
      
    This paper deals with systematic studies on the protoplast culture of multitiller and multispike forage maize, including selection of genotypes, induction and subculture of embryogenic calli, cell suspansion culture and protoplast culture. Methods such as liquid culture, nurse culture and agarose bead culture were used for protoplast culture. Four cell clones were obtained. Of which calli and embryoids derived from protoplasts were induced from 79, 55 and 79-8 three genotypes, and regenerated plants were acquired from 79 and 79-8. One of the regenerated plants, after being transplanted into soil, developed normally with flowering and earing. After self and cross pollinations three ears with normally developed seeds were obtained. These seeds germinated well in germination test.
Abstract (Browse 1929)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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