July 1991, Volume 33 Issue 7

 

          Research Articles
Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Papaya Suspension Cultures
Author: Ye Ke-nan, Ma Lei and Li Bao-jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    Compact embryogenetic calli were obtained from explants on P3 medium after 4 weeks of culture and high-frequency somatic embryogenesis occurred after these calli were transferred into suspension culture. Experimental data showed that low level (0.2%W/V) of activated charcoal had beneficial effects on somatic embryogenesis. Abundant calli on P4 medium however, showed no embryogenesis. On the other hand, callus induction and somatic embryogenesis varied with different rarities of exptants. The efficiency of somatic embryogenesis was much higher, if roots were used as explants, whereas stems were more suitable for callus formation Mature somatic embryos with cotyledons were cultured on MS medium containing different plant hormones. The optimum medium for germination and growth of entire plantlet was Mso medium. The somatic embryos on MS2, MS and MS3 media germinated rapidly, but formed excessive callus from the surface of germinating embryos.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protein Diversity and Cultivar Identification (Review)
Author: Hu Zhi-ang and Wang Hong-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    Diversity of seed proteins and isozymes has been widely used for identification of crop cuhivars and evaluation of seed qualities, such as the bread-making potential of wheat, malting and brewing capacity of barley. After elucidation of the rationale for the use of biochemical methods, more attention was paid to various electrophoretic and electrofocusing methods used in identification of different crops which were arranged in the following sequence: selfed or inbred species, out-or cross- pollinating species, Fi hybrids and asexually propagated clones. Recent progress on the application of some new techniques including monoclonal antibody, high performance liquid chromatography and restriction fragment length polymorphism was briefly described.
Abstract (Browse 1739)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Alkaloids of Stephania lincangensis
Author: Chen Yan, Fang Sheng-ding, Li Hong-wen, Li Yu-hui and Yang He-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    Eight alkaloids have been isolated from the roots of Stephania lincangensis H. S. Lo. et M. Yang which is a novel species growing in Lincang district of Yunnan province. The structures of these compounds were identified as 1-tetrahydropalmatine (), capaurine () isocorydine (), corydine (), roemerine () and palmatine () by means of spectral and chemical methods. Two others, namely lincangenine [4-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-pentamethoxyprotoberberine ()] and l-l,2,3,9,10-pentamethoxytetrahydroprotoberberine (), are new alkaloids, l-tetrahydropalmatine is the main alkaloid with 2.39% yield.
Abstract (Browse 1948)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration of Protoplasts of Trifolium lupinaster L. from Cell Suspension Cultures
Author: Zhao Gui-lan, Luo Xi-ming and Liu Yan-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    paper deals with regeneration of protoplasts in cell suspension cultures of hypocothl from Trifolium lupinaster L. on the SL2 basal medium with BA 0.1 mg/L and picloram 0.06 mg/L for 3--4 month,s. The protopiasts were isolated from suspensions cells subcultured for 3 days and were recuhured in modified liguid medium 8p. The first division of the regenerated cell occurred 3 days after being cultured in medium Bp. Small calli could be seen with naked eyes by one month. The calli when grew up to 2 mm long, were transferred in succession differentiation medium A and B for organ differentiation. The differentiated shoots formed their roots on 1/2 MS supplamented with NAA 1.0mg/L and then grew into plantlets.
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Species of Scolecopteris from the Upper Carboniferous of Shanxi, China and Its Significance
Author: Zhao Li-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    A new species of the late Paleozoic fern Scolecopteris (Marattiales) is described and its relationship within the genus is discussed. Scolecopteris sinensis sp. nov., from Shanxi (coal balls of Taiyuan formation, upper Carboniferous), is similar to S. saharaensis, however some differences in characters are evidenced, such as pedicel and sporal ornamentation, The anatomy of the sporangium wails, pinule morphology, and general spore type support its association with the Minor group of Scolecopteris. The phylogenetic and ecological magnitude of Scolecopteris sinensis is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1796)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics of Plant Communities and Element Contents in Plants at Mengentaoligai Ag, Pb, Zn Mine area in Inner Mongolia
Author: Kong Ling-shao, Gao Ping, Ren Tian-xiang and Hong Hai-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    The types of plant communities in Mengentaoligai mine area are disscussed. Arenaria juncea, densely grown in the phytocommunities of the mineralized zone, is found closely related to the presence of Pb and Zn mineral deposits. Analytical results of seven element contents (in ash) for 34 species (or part of plant) show that: levels of element contents in sequence in. the plants are Fe>Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni>Co; variable ranges of element contents in the plants are Pb, Zn>Fe,Mn> Cu> Co > Ni; and variable ranges of Pb, Zn contents in the same species at different sites are respectively larger than that among species. For example, Pb and Zn contents of Arenaria juncea, l145ppm and 3087ppm respectively, are the highest; the difference among Pb contents of Ulmus macrocarpa, Arenaria ?uncea and PotentiUa chinensis at different sites are more than 10 folds. The difference of Co and Ni contents in the species is less than two to one- Striking correlation is found between elements in plants and in soils, such as the Pb and Zn contents between leaves and twigs of Ulmus macrocarpa, twigs of Prunus sibirica, Artemisia halodendron and soils (lrlܦ 0.05 orܦ 0.01). It is found that Pb and Zn phytogeochemical anomalies, correlate closely with Pb and Zn mining deposits. In addition, analysis of principal component was conducted among seven elements contents of 14 species (or part of plant) in the mineralized zone and 12 species in the unmineralized zone.
Abstract (Browse 1812)  |  Full Text PDF       
Artificial Germination of Gossypium Pollen and Its utilization in Interspecific Fertilization In Vitro
Author: Liu Cheng-zhi, Cheng Feng-xiang, Ma Chao-zhi and Yao Fang-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    The effects of different media and cultural methods on cotton pollen germination were compared. Pollen germination was successful on the improved Taylor solid medium in which the extracts of the stigmata and petals of the original species, and the comprehensive amino acids were added, respectively. The germinating pollens were viable, and active protoplasmic streaming was observed within the pollen tube. It was found that low temperature pretreatment could increase the pollen germination rate. The reasons that low temperature pretreatment stimulated pollen germination and castor oil caused abortive germination of cotton pollens were discussed. In vitro fertilization between two species of Gossypium can be promoted by smearing the stigmata with the improved Taylor medium.
Abstract (Browse 1844)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Influence of Different Factors on Cell Growth and -tocopherol Content of Culture from Carthamus tinctorius
Author: Gan Fan-yuan and Zheng Guang-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    Calli were induced from root, hypocotyl, cotyledon and flower bud of Carthamtus tinctorius. All calli had the capability to synthesize -tocopherol. Among these calli, the hvpocotylcallus was better than others in cell growth rate and -toeopherol content. Culture conditions could intensively influence the growth rate and -tocopherol production of callus from Carthamus tinctorius. Sucrose (30g/L) was good for callus growth and glucose (30g/L) was good for -tocopherol accumulation. High concentration (0.55%) of inositol could obviously stimulate both growth rate and -tocopherol synthesis of callus. The inoculum quantity for best callus growth was 0.035 to 0.067g dry wt/flask (50ml volume). In addition, -tocopherol content was effectively increased by culture callus in high CO2 concentration. Studies on optimum cuhure conditions of callus culture showed that the callus growth rate, -tocopherol content and yield were 1.88, 2.03 and 3.30 times respectively as high as of the control by administration of 0.45%C0.55% inositol, 10% coconut milk, 0.1C0.5% casamino acid, 30g/L sucrose and 10g/L glucose.
Abstract (Browse 1730)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Low Temperature During lmbibition on Ultrastructure in Hypocotyls
Author: Tao Zong-ya, Zou Qi and Cheng Bing-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    Soybean (chilling-sensitive) and pea (chilling-insensitive) seeds imbibed at 25 or 5 for 4.5h, and hypocotyls were removed, fixed nd examined for detecting the effect of temperatures during imbibition on membrane structures, It was shown that plasma membranes and external membranes in mitochondria in both seeds had even repaired their continuity. When the seeds of the two species germinated at 25 for 6 days after imbibed at 5 for 3h, parts of plasma membranes in hypocotyl cells were brokendown and sunken, there were a number of undegraded lipid bodies and protein bodies, in particular, the inner crista in mitochodria in soybean seed nearly failed to develop, and there were few Golgi bodies and rough ER in contrast to the controls and peas. It is suggested that it may be an important cause of imbitional chilling injury that reorganization of biomembrane structures and functions and the Junctional and structural integrity of mitochodria in particular were imbibited due to low temperature during imbibition.
Abstract (Browse 1821)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of Swertia przewalskii Pissjauk.
Author: Hu Bo-lin, Ding Jing-Ye, Sun Hong-fa and Fan Shu-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    Seven xanthonenoid compounds and a triterpenic acid have been isolated from Swertia przewalskii Pissjauk. Their structures were identified as 1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxarthone(), 1,7-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyxanthone (), oleanolic acid (), l-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone (), 1,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (), 8-0-[-D-xylopyranosyl-(l--6)--D-glucopyranosyl]- 1,7-dihydr0xy- 3-methoxyxanthone (), 1-O- [-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6)--D-glucopyranosyl]-7,8-dihydroxy- 3-methoxyxanthone () and 1-O- [-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6)--D-glucopyranosyl]-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyanthone () respectively, by means of chemical and spectral methods or comparing with the authentic samples directly.
Abstract (Browse 1722)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Development of the Embryo and Endosperm of Nitraria sibirica Pall
Author: Li Shi-weng and Tu Li-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    The pollen tube enters the embryo sac through the crassinucellus at the micropylar end, and brings about the porogamy. The embryogeny corresponds to the Solanad type. The defference of the suspensor structure is notable by comparing it with the other genera of Zygophyllaceae that have been studied. The endosperm is of the Nuclear type. Mitosis is the main form of the free endosperm nuclei proliferation. No cell plates develop in the early free nuclear division, however, they appear in late development, without developing into the cell wall and disappear ultimately. At the late globular embryo stage, cell formation in endosperm starts first from the micropylar end. The first anticlinal walls develop from the cell plate that is initiated from tile phragmoplast as a result of normal cytokinesis. Follwing this a wall begins to grow from the base of the cell plates, the outer growing margin soon fuses with the wall of the central cell, and the inner growing margin continues to grow towards the central vacuole. The growing walls branch and eventually fuse on the side nearest the central vacuole. Thus, the first periclinal walls are initiated, and a complete endosperm cell is formed. Along with the development of embryo, cell is gradually formed in the endosperm from the micropylar end towards the chalazal end, but the chalazal endosperm is still coenocytic until the endosperm disintegrate completely. The mature seed has no endosperm.
Abstract (Browse 1814)  |  Full Text PDF       
Detection of Mycoplasmalike Organism of Paulownia Witches-Broom with DAPI Fluorescence Microscopy
Author: Zhu Cheng, Xu Li-yun, Jin Kai-xuan and Wang Yue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    Paulownia witches-broom infected by mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) has been developed several cytochemical methods for diagnosis. These methods all based on the special stain reactions or abnormal fluorescence in groups of infected sieve elements as a diseased symptom,. not really on the direct detection of MLO under light microscope. This paper deals with the demonstration of MLO specific white fluorescence after DAPI staining with GMA sections of diseased young stems. Such fluorescence was absent in sections from health plants. The results were confirmed by the ulrrastrueture of MLO and the structure of sieve elements showing from PAS-TBO stained GMA sections. The described method may not only be used in accurate diagnosis of MLO diseased in different plants, but is also worth in the studies of MLO distribution in plants, MLO dynamics in plant resting stage and MLO transmission to support the theoretical basis for protection.
Abstract (Browse 2018)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Culture of Different Explants from Hubei Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Rice
Author: Wu Yong-zhong and Ling Ding-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(7)
      
    Young panicles, immature embryos, stem nodes, stem tips, leaf segments, root tips and anthers from Hubei Photoperiod Sensitive Genie Male-Sterile Rice (Oryza sativa subsp, japonica) Nongken 58 (abbr. 58s) and fertile Nongken 58 (abbr. 58f) were examined for callus induction, plant regeneration and direct plantlet formation on differentiation medium. 58s and 58f had equal ability in all explants cultures except anther cultures. The induction frequency of the anther callus and the regeneration frequency of the green plant in 58s were much lower than those in 58f, and such differences were not affected markedly by the change of fertility of 58s donor plants. Young panicle, immature embryo, stem node, stem tips showed direct plantlet formation when cultured on differentiation medium containing NAA and kinetin. Different explants produced various types of responses. Young panicles could produce callus and then regenerate plantlets. Evidences from histological observation showed that the plant regeneration in direct plaatlet formation of young panicles were mainly organogenetic, bowever, somatic embryogenesis was also possible.
Abstract (Browse 1701)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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