August 1991, Volume 33 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
The Chemical Constituents in Dacrydium pierrei
Author: Xu Ya-ming, Fang Sheng-ding and He Qi-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Nine compounds are isolated from the leaves and branches of Dacrydiurn pierrei Hickle for the first time. Comparison of physico-chemical data were assayed by means of spectrometry chemical analysis. They are identified as sotetsuflavone (1), amentoflavone-4', 4'", 7, 7"-tetramethyl-ether (2), trans-communic acid (3), 19- hydroxy-totarol (4), 12-methoxy-dehydro-abietic acid (5), (+) phyllocladene (6), daucosterol(7), 汕-sitosterol (8), and n-tetratriacontanol (9).
Abstract (Browse 1823)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Flower-Nipping on Morphology and Yield and the Formation of Wound Periderm of Tse-Pear
Author: Tao Shi-rong, Liu Qing-hua, Xu Fang and Li Zheng-li (Lee Chenglee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Variations of the external form of Tse-pear (Pyrus bretschneideri cv. Tse-li) occurred after flowernipping. It became conical in shape in comparing with the natural rounded spindle-shaped pear without flower-nipping. The wound periderm formed rather rapidly on the floral tube after flower-nipping. Four days after flower-nipping, the initiation of phellogen became visible. Seven days later, the cell division of phellogen increased and the cork layer formed near the surface. After 15 days, the closed-layer on the surface and the hypertrophic cell layers mostly collapsed, cork cells increased and they subsequently formed the protective layer. The effects of flower-nipping on the yield of pear depended upon the degrees of treatment. In heavy treatment, the yield decreased about 15% from the harvest.
Abstract (Browse 1688)  |  Full Text PDF       
Evapotranspiration of Maize Plant in the Northern Part of the Linze Oasis
Author: Huang Zi-chen and Pu Jin-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Evapotranspiration (ET) of maize plant during the developmental stages was measured with electronic weighing lysimeters. The results show that the crop ET varied with watering conditions and reached its maximum in the blooming-grouting period. The ratio ground evaporation to maize transpiration is 1:4. Influence of field micro-climate to crop ET is comprehensive, and solar radiation plays a leading role. Stomatal diffusion resistance is negative correlateff with the rate of crop ET . Leaf water potential decreases along with the acceleration of crop ET. Our preliminary conclusion is that stomatal diffusion resistance and leaf water potential would be the two important parameters of soil-plant-atmospheric water circulation.
Abstract (Browse 1708)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Cold Acclimation on Several Enzyme Activities in Cucumber Seedling
Author: Dai Jin-ping, Shen Zheng-yan and Jian Ling-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    The changes in activities of SOD, peroxidase, catalase and ATPase in chilling sensitive cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings using biochemical and cytochemical methods were studied. The results indicated that the activities of SOD, peroxidase and catalase enhanced dramatically in cold acclimated cucumber seedlings and the three enzymes remained stable under chilling stress. Consequently, the ability of cleaning up free radical of oxygen and peroxidates increased. The cold-tolerant character of plasmalemma ATPase activity was developed after low-temperature acclimation. All these changes provided the possibility for protecting the stability of membrane structure and metabolism from chilling injury, and for the enhancement of cold tolerance by low temperature acclimation.
Abstract (Browse 1812)  |  Full Text PDF       
Hormonal Control of Sex Differentiation of Potentially Female Floral Buds of Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida In Vitro
Author: Ying Zhen-tu and Li Shu-xuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    In the present study, several kinds of phytohormones were used for the control of sex differentiation of the potentially female floral buds of Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida in vitro. It was shown that both GA3 and STS (silver thiosulphate) could effectively change the direction of sex differentiation of the potentially female floral buds in vitro. In the MS medium, supplemented with IAA, BA and ACC(1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid) at l nmol/L, male flowers would be induced from the potentially female floral buds by the addition of GA3 (1每500米mol/L). Herein the male flowers were induced more effectively by GA3 within 5每-20 米mol/L but it was not as effective as STS. In the MS medium supplemented with IAA, BA and ACC at 1 nmol/L and with GA3 at 20 nmol/L more male flowers were differentiated from the potentially female floral buds with the addition of STS within 100每500 米mol/L. On the contrary, when the MS medium were supplemented with IAA and ACC at 1 nmol/L and with BA increased to 100 nmol/L more female flowers were differentiated from the potentially female floral buds, even with addition of 10每50 nmol/L of GA3.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
Soilless Culture of Higher Terrestrial Plants on Tai Lake
Author: Li Zhi-zheng, Huang Guo-hong and Ni Jin-shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Thirty nine different kinds of the higher terrestrial plants were experimentally grown on large area of water borne soilless culture in Tai Lake. All tested plants could grow, flower .and fruit themselves. Lolium perenne and lpomoea aquatica have given a good harvest, the yield of fresh shoot of the former was 2710kg in 0.07 ha, the latter was 6350 kg which were 50 percent more than the yield obtained from those cultured on land. Besides, the other 10 different kinds of the plants, as Cucumis sativus, Luffa cylindrica, Fragaria ananassa, Glycine max etc. grew as well as those cultivated conventionally. There were two methods of the soilless culture we used. One was the use of polypropyrene sacks filled with balls of the rigid expanded polystyrene or its broken pieces. The other was the floating frame which was made of the rigid expanded polystyrene, bamboo twig and plastic sheet, looking like a pot. Both the polypropyrene sacks and floating frames were linked together and floated on the lake, in which the young plants were grown. The utilization efficiency of the fertilizer Co(NH2)2+ KCI+Ca(H2PO4)2H20 of above methods was high, about 70% of fertilizers were used by the plants. The experiment of soilless culture on large water surface of Tai Lake has given successive results in growth of terrestrial plants.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum in the Formation of Peribacteroid Membranes
Author: Han Shan-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    The relation between the endoplasmic reticulum and peribacteroid membranes during the development of infected cells of Chinese soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Harvest 11) root nodules by transmission electron microscopy was observed. After the host cells are infected by bacteria, the ultrastructures of the infected cells appear to have many changes, such as that their cytoplasm becomes thicker, the vacuoles decrease in size and organelles rapidly increase in number, among these organelle changes are more obvious than the others. However, changes of endoplasmic reticulum is mostly striking. It is not only increases greatly in number but often swells and forms wider inter-spaces. The swelling of endoplasmic reticulum is especially conspicuous at its ends and often form various vesicles. Sometimes, the front part of the endoplasmic reticulum also forms a gourd-shaped structure, which together with the vesicles usually contain fibrillar material. After they are released from the endoplasmic reticulum to the host cytoplasm, they continuously move towards neighbouring bacteria and close to the peribacteroid membranes. The gourd-shaped structures always locate near but never fuse with the peribacteroid membranes. However, the vesicles can do that and form a kind of papillae, often containing fibrillar material, on the peri bacteroid membranes. These papillae and their fibrillar material gradually disappear whilst the membrane of the vesicle derived from endoplasmic reticulum becomes one part of the peribacteroid membrane by way of fusing with the latter to form a papilla on it.
Abstract (Browse 1734)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Observations of Microsporogenesis and Pollen Development in Triticum Sect. Trititrigia, T. aestivum and Their Hybrids
Author: Kong Ling-rang, Wang Hong-gang and Guo Feng-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Cytological observation of microsporogenesis and pollen development of two parents, Xiaoyan 7430 and Yannong 15, and their hybrids were carried out by using squash method in this study. The results show: that microsporogenesis of the two parents, Xiaoyan 7430 and Yannong 15, is normal but their microspores usually aborted at first meiosis in pollen development. The frequency of abortion is higher in the former than the latter. However, the pollen development of which passed through the first meiosis is normal at the 2- or 3-nucleated stage. The rate of setting of both parents is basically normal. The meiosis of pollen mother cell (PMC) of two hybrids of Xiaoyan 7430 ℅ Lumai No.1 and Xiaoyan 7430 ℅ Yannong 15 is quite chaotic. Despite of the high frequency of univalents and multivalents at meiotic MI of PMC, and of micronucleoli in tetrad as well of the laggards at meiotic Al observed, the frequency of abortion of microspore are both at about 10%, similar to that of Xiaoyan 7430, at first meiosis of microspore in the stage of pollen development. Even though the pollen developments are basically normal in the 2- or 3-nucleated stage, but the percentage of setting of two hybrids is 28.24% and 33.82% respectively, apparently lower than that of their parents. The above-mentioned results indicate that although meiosis of PMC of F1 is chaotic, yet normal microspore could be formed and stages of pollen development cart still be carried on. The lower seed setting of F1 is not mainly due to abortion of pollen.
Abstract (Browse 1845)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of BYDV Infection on the Cell Surface Glycoproteins in Common Wheat,Wheatgrass and Octoploid Wheat-Wheatgrass
Author: Zhang Xiang-qi, He Meng-yuan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Changes in the cell surface glycoproteins in common wheat 3B-2, Agropyron intermedium and octoploid wheat-wheatgrass Zhong 5 after the inoculation with barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) were sdudied using electron microscopy and ruthenium red staining. The results indicated that, after the inoculation with BYDV, different changes in cell surface glycoproreins were observed in the plant species with different levels of resistance. In A. intermediurn which is immune to BYDV, inoculation with BYDV did not cause significant change in cell surface glycoprotein layer. In cotoploid wheat-wheatgrass Zhong 5 which is highly resistent to BYDV, BYDV infection caused significant thickening in most cell surface glycoprotein layer. In common wheat 3B-2 which is susceptible to BYDV, BYDV infection did not cause thickening in cell surface glycoprotein layer, but in most cells, glycoproteins on the cell surface were partially peeled off or disappeared completely. Therefore, it is suggested that the glycoproteins on cell surface play certain roles in BYDV resistance. The phenomenon of the thickening of cell surface glycoprotein layer caused by BYDV infection was possibly a resistant reaction to the virus.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structures of Two Flavonoid Glycoside from Oxytropis ochrocephala
Author: Li Ping, Yu Wei-le, Zhang Ren-bin and Zhou Bing-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Two flavonoid glycosides separated from water soluble fraction of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bge. were identified by using IR, NMR, and MS spectroscopic methods. The aglycones and sugars of the two compounds were determined directly from the hydrolytic solutions by using a sugar column and a bonded phase column. The results showed that compound 1 contained two kinds of sugars which have the same retention times as galactose and glucose, compound 2 only contained galactose. The aglycones of the two compounds have the same retention times and UV-spectra of rhamnocitrin. Finally, the structures of the two compounds were elucidated as rhamnocitrin-3-galactoside-4*-glucoside and rhamnocitrin-3-galactoside. The first one is a new flavonoid glycoside and the second one is, for the first time, found in the Oxytropis species.
Abstract (Browse 1853)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of the Seeds of Sabina vulgaris Antoine
Author: Xu Ren-sheng, Fan Zhi-yun, Sayef Musadillin, Wu Jian-fei and Bahang Zakaria
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Sabina vulgaris Antoine (Cupressaceae) is widely distributed in Northern China Provinces. It was used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, analgesic and invigorator of blood circulation. Its seeds were used as abortifacient. Sabilactone and other ten components were isolated from the bark. And now, sugiol, coumasabin, siderin, 6-hydroxy-luteolin-7-汕-D-glucoside, propyl myristate, 汕-sitosterol and sucrose were isolated from the seeds and their identifications were described in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 1985)  |  Full Text PDF       
Late-Glacial and Postglacial Vegetation and Associated Environment in Jianghan Plain
Author: Liu Guang-xiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    Pollen percentage and influx diagrams were prepared from two cores in Jianghan Plain, and studied by means of Fuzzy cluster and radiocarbon dating. This paper reports that there was a cool-temperate evergreen coniferous forest in late-glacial epoch, representing that the climate was cold and wet. In Holocene, the hypsithernaal interval took place about 9100每3500 year B. P. and the maximum was about 8000 year ago. At that time, the vegetation, was that of an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaf mixed forest, and the climate was warmer and damper than that of present. It also shows that the history of vagetational development and climate chenges in this area in the past 21900 years can be divided into five stages: (1). During 21000--10000 year B. P., the vegetation was one of the cool-temperate evergreen coniferous forest, dominated by Abies. The climate was cold and wet. (2) During 10000每9100 year B. P., the vegetation was that of the coniferous and deciduous broad-leaf mixed forest, consisting of Pinus. Quercus, Ulmus and Liquidambar, with a mild and cool climate. (3) During 9100每3500 year B. P., the mixed forest of evergreen and deciduous broad-leaf was predominant, consisting of Cyclobalanopsis, Fagus, Castanopsis, Castanea, Pterocarya, Quercus and Ulmus. The palaeoecological environment was warm and damp. (4) During 3500每2400 year B. P., there was deciduous broad-leaf, consisting of Quercus, Pterocarya, Liquidambar. and Pinus. The climate was droughter and cooler than that of stage(3). (5) During 2400 year B. P. to present, the broad-leaf forest, consisting of Quercus, Fagus, Liqui-dambar and Castanea, was dominant. The climate was warm and damp.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Biological Identification of a Rice Salt Tolerant Line
Author: Chen Shou-yi, Zhu Li-huang, Hong Jian and Chen Shao-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    A rice salt tolerant line No.170 was obtained from EMS treated anther culture of japonica variety and selected under salinity stress. The salt tolerance trait has been stably inherited through nine generations. In order to characterize this mutant line in molecular biological respects, 130 RFLP genetic markers along 12 pairs of chromosomes based on McCouch*s. rice RFLP linkage map were used to assay polymorphism between the mutant line and its original variety, was shown that allelic differences were found at two linked loci RG711 and RG4 on chromosome 7. Besides, proteins of roots and leaves between the mutant and the control plants were compared by means of two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The comparison showed that some new proteins appeared in the salt tolerant plant under salinity-stress condition, which might be produced by salt inducible genes.
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultracytochemical Localization of ATPase Activity in the Ovules of Sunflower
Author: He Cai-ping and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(8)
      
    The ultracytochemical localization of ATPase activity was determined employing the method of lead precipitation in the ovules of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). No ATPase activity is observed in the egg and synergids except some at the filiform apparatus. Much ATPase activity is localized on the plasma membrane and wall of the central cell. In the antipodal cells, ATPase activity is also found on the plasma membranes, but only a little in their walls. In the integumentary tapetum, besides the plasma membranes, most of the nuclei are rich in ATPase. Between the integumentary tapetum and uncontinuous cuticle surrounding the embryo sac, there is a gap where a lot of ATPase are found. These ATPases are continuously linked with those in the central cell wall throuth the intervals of the cuticle. At the sites of the wall ingrowths of the central celT, abundant vesicles and other structures with high ATPase activity aggregate noticeably in the gap region. According to the ATPase distribution in the ovules, we propose that the whole surface of embryo sac functions in absorbing nutrients directly from the apoplast outside the cuticle, especially via the wall-membrane apparatus of 'he central cell.
Abstract (Browse 1744)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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