September 1991, Volume 33 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
The Structure of →"-Dehydroaloperine
Author: Wang Zhong- xiao, Zhang Shu-sen, Fang Sheng-ding, Zhang Rui and Yu Han-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    A new alkaloid named ll-dehydroaloperine was isolated from the leaves and stalks of Sophora alopecuroides L. during flowering. Total alkaloid was obtained by diluted acid percolation and cation-exchange resin, then the new alkaloid was obtained via various polar solvent extraction under various pH value and Al2O3 column chromatography. The new alkaloid was proved to be analogous to aloperine through UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. Its structure was further identified by 1HNMR, 13CNMR, 1H-1H cosy spectrum, NOE as well as by some other chemical methods.
Abstract (Browse 1889)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Parvifoliside
Author: Guo Yue-wei, Gheng Pei-yuau, Xu Mei-juan, Wang Zhi-min and Xu Guang-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    A new diterpene glucoside was isolated from Isodon parvifolia (Batalin) Hara collected in Sichuan,China. Its structure was established as 7,20-epoxy-ent-kaur-16-ene-l汐, 6汕,7汕, ll汕, 15汕-pentaol-ll-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside(1)by spectroscopic and chemical evidence.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of the Chemical Composition in the Root of Zanthoxylum utile Huang
Author: Ren Li-juan, Xie Feng-Zhi and Zhang Lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    Four pure compounds were isolated from the root of Zanthoxylum utile Huang. One of them is a new aromatic amide named utilamide. Its structure was elucidated as (m) on the basis of spectral data. The other three were known compounds as fargesin (j), 6,7,8,-trime- thoxycounmarine (k), anl skimmianine (l).
Abstract (Browse 1906)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Development of Stigmatic Branches and Style and Their Relation to Pollen Tube Growth in Wheat
Author: Li Bai-ling and You Rui-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    The style of wheat divides into 2 branches, separated from its base and covered with a large number of slender stigmatic branches. The stigma is of dry type. The style is solid. There is no transmitting tissue differentiated in the style. Young stylar cells appear polygonal in transverse sections and elongated in longitudinal sections with an increase in length of the cells from periphery towards center. In transverse sections, mature stylar cells look extremely irregular. They are contorted and mosaicked with one another. During their development, stylar cells elongated vigorously with intrusive growth. The wall of stylar cells is thin, except at the corners where cells connect, that slight thickening of the cell wall occurs. Stylar cells start vacuolation at the earlier stages and gradually become highly vacuolated, but still remain rich in organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes and chloroplasts, the amount of which varied with the development stages of the style. Stigmatic branches are differentiated from the stylar epidermal cells, composed of 4 files of cells which link end to end with one another. Not long before anthesis, wall material in the intercellular corners becomes loose and porous. After pollination, pollen tubes grow along the intercellular spaces among the 4 files of cells in the stigmatic branches and then enter the style. Pollen tubes may pass through any intercellular corner throughout the 2 branches of the style, except for the lateral-outer portion which is composed of larger stylar cells. Eventually, pollen tubes enter the ovary.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protoplast Culture and Plant Regeneration of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Author: Li Hong-chao, Yang Xiao-hui, Hu Dao-fen, Liu Jian-ping and Guo Zhong-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    Suspension cultures were established from embryogenic calli derived from cultured anthers of cv. Jinghua No.1 and mature embryos of cv. Youmangbai No. 7, respectively. After being isolated and cultured in WPMI, protoplasts began to form cell walls within 1 day post-isolation, followed by cell division observed between 2每3 days. A division frequency of 22.0% was estimated on the 7th day of culture, and 43.7% on the 14th day. During 10每15 days after the initiation of culture, a large number of cell aggregates emerged, with 0.5每0.8% of plating efficiency. Protoplast-derived calli grew up to lmm or more in diameter when cultured for 4 weeks, and eventually gave rise to green plants through embryogenesis and organogenesis after being transferred to differentiation media. Plant regeneration from protoplasts was already obtained from Jinghua No.l, and protoplast-derived calli from Youmangbai No.7; an experiment on organ differentiation for the latter is under way. A few factors affecting the protoplast cultures were also studied.
Abstract (Browse 2719)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Epidermal Structure of Two Species of Rhaphidopteris
Author: Chen Ye and Jiao Yue-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    This paper deals with the epidermal structure of Rhaphidopteris latiloba sp. nov. and R. liuzhiensis sp. nov. The specimens were collected from the upper Triassic caol series of Liuzhi district, Guizhou province. In R. latiloba, the ultimate pinna are wedge-shaped, segments are wider (about 0.2每0.25cm). The leaf is amphistomatic. Stomatal apparatus are haplocheilic, with sunken guard cells and irregullarly orientated stomata, 28每30 per sq. mm in the lower epidermis. In R. liuzhiensis, leaf is tripinnate, oval. Ultimate pinna lanceolate. Segments are narrow about lmm in width. Stomatal apparatus are haplocheilic and round-oval in shape with irregularly orientated stomata 35每40 per sq. mm in the lower epidermis.
Abstract (Browse 1789)  |  Full Text PDF       
Electron Microscopic Cytochemical Studies on the Glycoproteins in Cellular Membranes of Winter Wheat Seedlings with Concanavalin A-Horseradish Peroxidase Method
Author: Jian Ling-cheng, Sun Long-hua and Shi Guo-shun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    The localization and distribution of the glycoproteins in cellular membranes of strong cold hardy winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yanda 1817) seedlings were studied employing the modified cytochemical method using Concanavalin A-Horseradish peroxidase conjugates. The results obtained showed that the reaction products of Horseradish peroxidase activity which indicated the presence of glycoproteins appeared as individual particles distributed at plasmalemma, endoplasmic reticulmn, nuclear envelope and tonoplast in the leaflet cells of the seedlings grown under optimum temperature 25⊥ day/20⊥ night. After cold acclimation of the seedlings at low temperature during late autumn and early winter, the quantity of glycoproteins distributed in endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope was significantly increased, and glycoproteins were transported into almost all of the plasmodesmata. At some sites of mitochondria and plastides newly formed glycoproteins were observed. However, no distribution of glycoproteins was for,nd in Golgi bodies during the whole observations. The role of glycoproteins for the development and stability of cold resistance in plant through blocking up the plasmodesma passage in the overwintering period of winter wheat seedlings, and the possible differences of the synthetic site and transportation pathway of glycoproteins between animal and plant systems were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1715)  |  Full Text PDF       
Using Stomatal Resistance Index of Plants to Evaluate the Quality of Atmospheric Environment in Fuzhou
Author: Lin shun-hua, Huang Yin-xiao, Han Rong-zhuang and Yao Yi-qun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    This paper deals with studies on the stomatal resistance of plants in different polluted environment in the Fuzhou region and their use in evaluating the quality of atmospheric environment. The results show that among the seven function areas under investigation, the plants in Mawei, Guantou and Fuzhou have larger stomatal resistance, the average value is 6每7s cm. In Mawei function area, half of the plants have normal stomatal resistance of 2每4s/cm, only in a few industrial-mining and heavy-traffic areas, the stomatal resistance of plants is 6每12s/cm, which is of grade k to j and exceeds the normal level, indicating that these areas have been lightly polluted. In the other four function areas (Gushan, Tingjiang, Changle, Minhou), the average value of stomatal resistance is 3s/cm, which is of grade l or normal. The average value of stomatal resistance in the sixty observation sites is 4.14s/cm, which is a little higher than the normal level. From the stomataJ resistance values we can infer that the stomatal openings of most plants in the Fnzhou region are normal, but the transpiration rate of plants is comparatively low, which is 5.19米gH20 cm-2﹞s-1 in average. This is due to the moist subtropics climate where the precipitation and vapourization is similar in amount. The stomatal resistance value not only correlates positively with the pollutant contents in leaves, but also conforms to the polluted states of SO2 and TSP. From what we have mentioned above we can conclude that the Fuzhon region is not polluted except for a few industrial-mining, heavy traffic and crowded sightseeing areas which are only lightly polluted. This conclusion is in agreement with that of the local environmental monitoring department, that is, "the present environmental quality of the Fuzhou Economic-Technological Development Region is fine". We believe that it is an ideal means to use stomatal resistance index of plants in evaluating the quality of atmospheric environment.
Abstract (Browse 2119)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mass Isolation and Preservation of Viable Sperm Cells in Brassica campestris var.purpurea
Author: Mo Yong-sheng and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    The two-step osmotic shock and grinding methods reported by Yang and Zhou (1989) were modified for isolation of viable sperm cells in large quantities from pollen grains of Brassica campestris var. purpurea. Factors affecting the yield and survival of isolated sperm cells have been investigated. These included physiological status of donor flowers, sucrose concentration used for pollen hydration, basic media, protectants and osmotica supplemented in the medium etc. As a result, two procedures have been developed. For osmotic shock method, pollen grains at the day of anthesis were hydrated in 25% sucrose solution for 30 min and, after centrifugation and removal of the supernatant, the pellet was shocked by a medium containing 12.5% sucrose, 0.1 g/L KNO3, 0.36 g/L CaCl2, 2H2O, 0.3% potassium dextran sulphate (PDS), 0.6% bovine serum albumin (BSA), and 0.3% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The viable sperm yield was 34%. After removal of pollen wall debris by filtration and centrifugation, the sperm cell-rich pellets were resuspended in a medium containing 20% sucrose, 5% sorbitol, 0.1 g/L KNOs, 0.36g/L CaCl2﹞2H2O, 0.6% BSA and 0.3% PDS, and preserved at 4⊥ for two days. For grinding method, the pollen grains hydrated in 30% sucrose solution for 30 min. were resuspended in a medium containing 20% sucrose, 5% sorbitol, 0.1g/L QNO3, 0.36g/L CaCl2﹞2H2O, 0.3% PDS, 0.6% BSA, 0.3% PVP and 20 米g/ml fluorescein diacetate, then ground with a glass homogenizer to release the sperm cells. The viable sperm yield was up to 86%. Following filtration and centrifugation for removal of pollen wall debris, the sperm cells were stored at 4⊥ in the same medium but without supplementation of PVP. Tested by fluorochromatic reaction, the sperm cells could survive up to one week with a gradual decline of viability. Cytological observations revealed that pairs of ellipsoidal sperm cells just released were linked together; one of the pair had a long tail-like extension which also show fluorochromasia. Soon after, the sperm cells separated and turned to be spherical. The present results open a prospect to use isolated viable sperm cells for further experimental manipulations.
Abstract (Browse 1996)  |  Full Text PDF       
Oxidation of Betaine Aldehyde by Betaine Dehydrogenase from Spinach Leaves
Author: Liang Zheng, Zhao Yuan, Li Yu-chun, Zou Yu-ping, Luo Ai-ling and Huang Ju-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    Betaine content in leaves of fifteen plant species was determined. The results showed higher betaine levels in those salt-, drought-, and chilling-resistant species. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8 ) was isolated and partially purified from spinach leaves. Some properties of this enzyme were studied. BADH was precipitated by 60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4. Its activity was not detected in 70% saturation of (NH4)2SO4. BADH has two isoenzymes. The activity of BADH was quite stable below 每80⊥. It was inhibited by 0.125每1.0 mol/L NaG1 or KC1 but not by Mn2+ and Mo6+, and slightly increased by Mg2+.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fertilization and Embryo Development in Wheat x Maize Crosses
Author: Wang Jing-lin, Sun Jing-san, Lu Tie-gang, Fang Ren, Cui Hai-rui, Cheng Shu-zeng and Yang Cai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    The fertilization and embryo development in crosses of hexaploid wheat ※Kangxuan 9§ X maize ※SS 7700§ were studied. Of 180 florets fi,ced after pollination 34(18.9%) had embryo and endosperm, 46(25.6%) had only embryo and 12(6.7%) had only endosperm. Percentages of single or double fertilization were higher than that in control (※Chinese Spring§ X maize). The hybrid embryos and endosperms obtained were karyotypically unstable and characterized by rapid elimination of the maize chromosomes to produce haploid wheat embryos. The potentials for wheat haploid production and transfer of DNA segments, including transposable elements, from maize to wheat is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1798)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Comparative Study of PEPC Activity of Green Organs in C3 Plant
Author: Hao Nai-bin, Tan Ke-hui, Na Song-qing, Jia Zhi-wang, Ge Qiao-ying, Zhang Yu-zhu and Du Wei-guang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    PEPC and relevant enzymes in different photosynthetic organs of wheat and soybean were studied. Almost all green organs examined have been found to contain PEPC. PEPC activity in pod hull and seed coat of soybean as well as in paleae of wheat is higher than that in leaves. 14CO2 can be fixed in different green organs either in light or in dark, however in dark, 14CO2 fixation in pnl hull and seed coat of soybean as well as in paleae of wheat is higher than in leaves. Similarly, N AD-malic enzyme and NAD-malate dehydrogenase are also higher in those organs than in leaves. It was shown that active 汕-carboxylation of PEPC took place in the fruit organs. The above results indicate that PEPC is important not only for CO2 fixation during photosynthesis but also for recapturing CO2 released from respiration.
Abstract (Browse 1975)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Heat Sensitivity of Esterase Isozymes in Maise Inbreds
Author: Zhang Wei-qiang and Tang Xiu-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(9)
      
    Crude extracts of 44 maize inbred seeds were treated under different temperatures, i. e. 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70⊥, in order to determine their heat sensitivity of esterase isozymes. The results showed large discrepancy of heat sensitivity of anodic esterase isozymes between different or same relative mobility bands of isozyme, but similar inactivating temperature (65⊥) of the cathodic ones for different inbreds. The heat sensitivity of isozymes for inbreds may be adopted in the identification of variation and purity of inbred and hybrid seeds of maize.
Abstract (Browse 1830)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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