January 1992, Volume 34 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Studies on Fermentation Culture of Cells of Panax notoginseng
Author: Zhou Li-gang, Zheng Guang-zhi,Wang Shi-lin,Gan Fan-yuan and Xu Chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    The saponin content of Panax notoginseng cell cultures-was 11.14% of dry weight, the saponin yield was 1513.3mg L-1, and yield of cell cultures was 13.58g dry wt L-1 per month in fermentation culture, which were all better than those obtained from in suspension culture. Increasing inoculum quantity could obviously increase growth rate, saponin content and yield of cell cultures. An aeration rate of 0.8vvm was optimal for fermentation culture of the cells. The pH value of the culture broth went down from 5.80 to 3.92 gradually and never returned in fermentation culture of P. notoginseng cells.
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Population and Community Characteristics in Platycladus orientalis Forest
Author: You Zuo-liang, Zhou Guang-yu and Ye Zheng-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    The population and community characteristics in the Platycladus orientalis forest on Qianfo Mountain in Jinan are studied. The specific composition, spatial pattern, biological spectrum and main species dispersions are reported. It is found that all the main species dispersions are aggregated. The diversity of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indexes are markedly not correlated with the habitat factors. The patch indexes and niche breadths of the main species have been analysed on such axes as light, soil water and soil organic matter. The value of niche overlap between every two species is high on soil resource axis.
Abstract (Browse 1807)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents in Inula salsoloides (Turcz.) Ostenf.
Author: Chen Jie, Huang Shao-guang, Li Fang-gui, Fang Sheng-ding and Chen Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    Nine known compounds, taraxasterol(), taraxasteryl acetate (), taraxasteryl palmitate (), daucosterol (), luteolin(), stigmastanol(), -sitosterol(), melissic acid() and eupatolide(), were isolated from lnula salsoloides for the first time. Their structures were determined from spectra date and chemical evidence. () and () exhibited cytotoxic effects.
Abstract (Browse 1956)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Components of Lobelia davidii Franch.
Author: Zhang Ming-zhe, Wang Jing-chao and Zhou Shu-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    Some constituents were isolated from the fresh whole plant of Lobelia davidii Franch. collected from Yunnan Province, with silica gel chromatography, ion exchange and preparative TLC. The structures except lelobanonoline, were identified by techniques comparision of their MS, IR, 1NHMR and 13C-NMR with the literature data thereof. They are -sitosterol, -amyrin palmitate, -amyrin, norlelobanidine, norlobelanine, lelobanonoline, lobelanidine and norlobelanidine. Lelobanonoline is a new alkaloid with the structure of l-[6-(2-hydroxy-2-phenple-thyl)-l-methyl-2-piperidinyl ] butan-2-one.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Environmental Regulation of CO2 Exchange Pattern in Facultative CAM Plants
Author: Gong Ning, Wei Ya-hui and Zhang Wei-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    Three facultative CAM plants, Sedum spectabile, S. aizoon and Mesembryanthemum cordifolium, could take up CO2 throughout the night and daytime, and no phase Ill was observed during cloudy weather. The CO2 exchange patterns during cloudy day differed obviously from that during sunny day. But in the obligate CAM plants, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Orostachys fimbriatus and Bryophyllum pinnatum, there were phase during cloudy day. These results showed that the COs exchange patterns with uptake of CO2 throughout the night and daytime were universal in facultative CAM plants during cloudy day, but not in obligate CAM plants, of which the CO2 exchange patterns were very stable. In the three facultative CAM plants, the difference of exchange patterns between cloudy and sunny days depended mainly on temperature change. The effect of the temperature on CO2 exchange patterns was mediated by the decarboxylation rate. At high temperature, the decarboxylation rate could be enhanced. It was found that the accumulation of malic acid at night in the three obligate CAM plants was much more than that in the three facultative C AM plants. So during cloudy day, the decarboxytion rate in the three obligate CAM plants was also higher. This might be an important cause that obligate CAM plants need not to take up CO2 during the daytime.
Abstract (Browse 2149)  |  Full Text PDF       
Classification of Artificial Forest Site of Larix olgensis in Liaoning Province
Author: Li Shao-zhong, Meng Kang-min, Zhao Bing and Yang Xiu-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    Determinant factors influencing growth of Larix olgensis were screenced and interrelationships among topography soil and growth of L. olgensis were studied employing pathway analysis (PA), principal component analysis(PCA) and canonical analysis(CA). The research indicates that determinant factors are exposure soil texture, soil depth, and exposure is closely related to organic matter, soil texture, soil depth. Site classification was made by using a method of ecological forest site classification. 3 groups of site type and 14 main site types were devided for L. olgensis in the East part of Liaoning. Group of site type on shaded slope included 5 site types: thick, moderate silt loam and thick, moderate loam and thick clay loam. Group of site type on half-shaded and half-sunny slope included 6 site types: thick, moderate silt loam and thick, moderate loam and moderate sandy loam soil and thin soil. Group of site type on sunny slope included 3 site types: thick, moderate and thin soil.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Deactivation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase by Light-Reduced Thioredoxin
Author: Mu Hong, Li Ming-qi, Wu Guang-yao and Wu Xiang-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, E. C. 1.1.1.49) in a reconsituted pea chloroplast system was assayed spectrophotometrically by the reduction of NADP, ming glucose-6-phosphate as substrate. Deactivation of G6PDH could be intensified by adding lightreduced thioredoxin (Td) into the reconstituted chloroplast system. The experimental results presented suggest that Td plays an important role not only in the dark activation, but also in the light deactivation of G6PDH in chloroplasts. There were two isozymes of G6PDH in green and in etiolated pea seedlings. The effects of dithiothreitol (DTT) and Td on G6PDH in etiolated seedlings were different from that in chloroplasts. The light regulation of G6PDH in chloroplasts is mediated through Td.
Abstract (Browse 1933)  |  Full Text PDF       
A High Efficient Transformation System and the Introduction of Sweet Protein Gene into Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Author: Yang Mei-zhu, Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    Tuber, minituber and in vitro-grown microtuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars 85-14-3, 86-2 and Favorita were used in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. A simple, rapid and efficient transformation system was established. Among the three kinds of discs used, the microtuber disc was superior in obtaining transformants. Microtuber discs star ted to form shoots on shoot inducing medium containing kanamycin two to three weeks after cocultivation. Rooted transformants could be obtained in 6C7 weeks. The transformation efficiency could reach as high as 67.5%. The majority of kanamycin resistant plants gave nopaline positive or GUS expression. A number of transgenic plants were obtained using the plasmid containing a sweet protein NPT and nopaline synthase genes. The leaf callus assay and nopaline assay indicated that the foreign sweet protein gene was introduced into the potato genome.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
GUS Expression in Protoplasts of Immature cotyledons of Soybean
Author: Huang Jian-qiu, Wei Zhi-ming and Xu Zhi-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    The E. coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was used in gene expression experiments with the protoplasts isolated from immature cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max L.). Transient expression of GUS gene could be detected in 16 days after DNA incorporation into soybean protoplasts by using a fluorogenic substrate MUG. Stable transformation was observed by histochemical localization with the use of a substrase X-Gluc. Some factors such as PEG toxicity and protoplast stability affecting PEG-mediated transformation were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1961)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Ultrastructural Study on Triggering of Cell Division in Young Pollen Protoplast Culture of Hemerocallis fulva L.
Author: Wu Yan and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    The ultrastructural changes of young pollen protoplasts under culture condition in Hemerocallis fulva were studied. In comparison with the original pollen grains, the pollen protoplasts had been completely deprived of pollen wall, but kept the internal structure intact, including a large vacuole, a thin layer of cytoplasm and a peripherally located nucleus. After 8 days of culture a few pollen protoplasts were triggered to cell division: some of them were just undergoing mitosis with clearly visible chromosomes and spindle fibers; the others already divided into 2-celled units. The two daughter cells were equal or unequal in size but with similar distribution of organelles inside. Besides cell division, there were also free nuclear division, amitosis and formation of micronuclei indicating a diversity of division modes in pollen protoplast culture, A series of changes occurred during the process of induction of cell division, such as locomotion of the nucleus toward the central position, disappearence of the large vacuole, increase of electron density of cytoplasm, increase and activation of organelles, diminishing of starch granules in plastids, etc. However, the regeneration of surface wall was not sufficient it contained mostly vesicles with only a few microfibrits. The wall separating the two daughter cells were either complete or incomplete. The weak capability of wall formation is supposed to be one of the major obstacles which has so far restricted sustained cell divisions of young pollen protoplasts under current culture condition.
Abstract (Browse 1729)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fine Structure of Tapetal Cells and Ubisch Bodies in the Anther of Ophiopogon japonicus
Author: Liu Ning, Wang Fu-xiong (Wang Fu-hsiung) and Chen Zu-keng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    The development of the tapetum in Ophiopogon ]aponicus is of secretory type Tapetum develops at their peak during the microspore mother cell stage. There are abundant organelles, consisting of a lot of mitochondria, dictyosomes and plastids, especially endoplasmic reticulum. Pro-Ubisch bodies e. merge as early as at the stage of microspore mother cell. At tetrad stage, a large number of pro-Ubisch bodies accumulate between inner tangential face of the plasmalemma and the cell wall. At the early microspore stage, pro-Ubisch bodies are distributed in the small embayments of the plasmalemma. As the sporopollenin begins to deposit on them, proubisch bodies develop into Ubisch bodies which consist of two types: single and aggregated. Tapetal cells degenerate completely when pollen grains reach maturity.
Abstract (Browse 3890)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Microfilaments in Pollen and Pollen Tubes of Hosta Ventricosa (=H. voerulea)
Author: Hu Shi-yi, Li Chun-gui and Zhu Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(1)
      
    Ultrastructure of microfilaments in pollen grains and pollen tubes of Hosta ventricosa (=H. coerulea) was investigated. Results indicate that microfilaments with conventional chemical fixation are preserved only in pollen grains, but destroyed in pollen tubes. Microfilaments treated with phalloidin before chemical fixation are found preserved in pollen tubes. In pollen grains a pronounced organization of parallel microfilaments appeared in bundles with its distribution characteristics is always restricted to their functional domains where bundles were in close contact with the vegetative nucleus. In young pollen tubes cytoplasmic bundles of microfilaments appeared also to pass close to the surface of mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles and small vacuoles, and always associated with lipid bodies. These findings strongly indicate that there is a relationship between microfilaments and the movement of vegetative nucleus and other organelles in the germination of pollen grains and in the growth of pollen tubes.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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