October 1992, Volume 34 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
A Preliminary Studies on the Biomass of Bothriochloa isohaemum Community of Loess Plateau in North Shaanxi Province
Author: Zhu Zhi-cheng and Jia Dong-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    This paper deals with the seasonal and spacial change of the biomass of aboveground and underground part in Bothriochloa ischaemum community. The results showed obvious biomass seasonal dynamics in B. ischaemum community. The biomass of aboveground achieved peak value (314.66g/m2) in the mid-September. The biomass of underground was minimum during flourishing period and maximum during the withering period. Such change in biomass is relevent to the developmental stages and transport of organic materials.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Synergids in Mature Embryo Sac of Convolvulus arvensis
Author: Sun Fu-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    The main ultras tructure of synergids in mature embryo sac of Convolvulus arvensis L. was studied by means of electron microscope was the same as those previously reported. However, growth of many finger-like projections continuously distributed on the outer surface of synergids was observed. Exchange of material between central cell and synergids was enhanced by the transfer wall. The profile of endoplasmic reticulum which was long and parallelly arranged became shortened and randomly expanded. A narrow path appeared at the junction of egg and synergid.
Abstract (Browse 1804)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Two Palaeozoic Seeds from China
Author: Li Zhong-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    This paper reports two species of the seed order Cardiocarpales: Cardiocarpus (?) minor (Wang) emend and Diplotesta sp. which were found in coal balls. The specimens were collected from Taiyan Formation of Upper Carboniferous near Xiedao Village, West Mountain, 'Taiyan City, Shanxi Province and Wangjiazhai Formation of Upper Permian of Wangjiazhai Mine of Shuicheng district, Guizhou Province, China. The two taxa are described and their taxonomy is discussed in detail. The diagnosis of the species (Cardiocarpus (?) minor (Wang) emend) is amended as follows: Seeds bilaterally symmetric and thinner cardioformed, appoximatly 4每6 mm long, 3每4 mm wide in the primary section and less than 2 mm thick in the secondary section. Integument differentiated into three zones. Outer sarcotesta delimkted into four layers: 1) carbonized cuticle partly preserved; 2) epidermis of thin-walled parenchyma 1每2 rows of small cells; 3) hypodermis of secretory tissue containing large cells, uniform in thickness; and 4) parenchyma layer consisting of thin-walled cells in size varying from 20 to 50 米m middle sclerotesta of vertically arranged fibers is bipartite: outer fibers being smaller in diameter and possessing thicker walls than inner fibers. Sclerotesta 80 米m in thickness commissural laterally to form two lateral ribs. Inner endotesta single rowed of parenchymatous cells. Nucellus free except at base which is attached to the integument by narrow nucellar platform. Pollen chamber not observed. The double vascular system includes integumentary strand beneath secretory layer of sarcotesta and nucellar strand which forms a tracheid mentle; the origin of integumentry and nucellar strands unknown. In addition a computerized three-dimensional reconstuction techniqne is utilized to reconstruct membrane like structure of Diplotesta sp. It is suggested that Cardiocarpus (?) minor is different from other species of the genus Cardiocarpus in the distribution of nucellar vascular tissues. This feature is thonght to be one of the important characters of bilaterally symmetrical seeds in a taxonomic view point. Therefore Cardiocarpus minor wang probally represents a menber of another new seed genus, althongh this species remains in the genus Cardiocarpus.
Abstract (Browse 1708)  |  Full Text PDF       
Formation of Protein Bodies in Cotyledons of Peanut Seed
Author: Zhang Heng-yue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    In the cotyledon ceils of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds, storage protein accumulates in the protein bodies. Protein deposition in the vacuoles does not take place until approximately 6 weeks after anthesis. By depositing onto the centre of the vacuoles at the early stage and depositing in the vacuolus as protein ceous lump or flocculent materials at the later stage, protein accumulates gradually to become a spherial protein body in the whole vacuole.
Abstract (Browse 1783)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations of Cytoskeletal Arrangement in Wheat Young Leaf Cells and Its Intercellular Connection
Author: Wei Xiang-yun and Jian Ling-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    By using the techniques of partial digestidon of cell wall and selective extraction authors examined the cytoskeleton in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) young leaf cells under scanning electron microscope. A three-dimensional cytoskeletal system showing some new features was observed. The cortical network locating beneath the cross wall is an anastomosing organization. Association between nucleus and cell wall by omc skeletal filaments was observed. It is noticeable that there are cytoskeletal filaments, which pass through cell wall, combine adjacent cells cytoskeletal arrays together. Thus it is po sible that an integral skeletal network exist within wheat young leaf tissue.
Abstract (Browse 1712)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics of Phytogeochemistry in Naomuhong Copper Mine Area at the Alasan of Nei Monggol
Author: Kong Ling-shao,Gao Ping, Ren Tian-xiang, Zhang Hua and Yang Shao-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    Characteristics of element contents(in ash) for 13 plant species in Naomuhong Cu mine area are disscussed. Results show that the level of element contents in sequence is: Mn>Cu> Zn > Cr > Ni>Pb>Co > Cd > Ag. Cu contents exhibit the greatest difference between species, with a 20 fold difference or more oetween maximum and minimum contents. Cu content is maximal in Potaninia mongolica, being from 209 ppm to 1543 ppm at various sites, with a mean of 735.2 ppm; whereas Cu content is minimal in Salsola passerina, being from 18 ppm to 54 ppm at various sites, with a mean of 31.01 ppm. Cu, Zn contents in skarn are more than in granite and those in limestone are mole than in sandstone. Correlation coefficients of linear regression between elements in the plants are of positive values. However, they are not significant between Cd, Ag and other eight elements, and between Cu, Cr et al. six elements are significant respectively. The correlative coefficients between elements in plants and soils are positive, Zn and Pb contents between P. mongolica and soils, and Pb content between Zygophyllum xanthoxylum and soils, and Cu content between Reaumuria soongorica and soils and significant, It is found that Cu phytogeochemical anomalies in P. mongolica and Reaumuria soongorica correlate closely with Cu ore deposit, and the anomalies were found not only in the outcropping ore, but also in the blind ore deposits.
Abstract (Browse 1778)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Leaf Anatomy and Photosynthesis of Cymbidium sinense
Author: Ye Qing-sheng, Pan Rui-chi and Qiu Cai-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    The leaf surface of Cymbidium sinense(Andr.) Willd was covered with cuticle and wax. The stomata were distributed in the dorsum of the leaf, the density being 100每130 mm-2 There was a stomatal cover on each stoma. The mesophyll was not differentiated into spongy tissue and palisade tissue. No chloroplast was observed in the vascular bundle sheath cells. The chloroplast in the mesophyll cells had well developed grana, with lightly stacked thylakoids and osmiophilic granules. The highest quantum yield of functional leaf was 0.082. The light compensation point of photosynthesis was about 5 米E﹞m-2﹞s-1, the light saturation point was about 200 米E﹞m-2﹞s-1. The photosynthetic ra,e of Cymbidium sinense was very low, generally 2.0每2.6 米mol CO2﹞ m-2﹞s-1. The optimum temperature of photosynthesis of one-year-old leaf was 25⊥. The photosynthe,ic rate of the three-year-old leaf declined with temperature rise. The ratio of chlorophyll a/b was about 2.7. The CO2 compensation point of photosynthesis was 105每220 ppm. All these data show that Cymbidium sinense belongs to the typical shade plants with low photosynthetic rate and high CO2 compensation point that explains that the growth of Cymbidium sinense is slow in nature.
Abstract (Browse 2204)  |  Full Text PDF       
Kinetin-promoted Polyribosome formation in relation to RNA Synthesis in Excised Mung Bean Cotyledons
Author: Tan Bao-cai and Liang Hou-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    The relative levels of polyribosomes and total ribosomal materials, the rates of RNA synthesis and the contents of each RNA component were investigated in excised cotyledons of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) incubated with and without kinetin. 12 h incubation with 50 米mol/ L kinetin markedly increased the levels of polyribosomes and decreased the levels of monoribosome, especially of the ribosomal subunits. In addition, levels of total ribosomal materials (ribosomal subunit+monoribosome+polyribosome) were also increased in cotyledons incubated with kinetin. The kinetin-promoted polyribosome formation could be arrested by the RNA synthesis inhibitor-actinomycin D(ACTD). Kinetin incubation greatly enhanced RNA synthesis and increased that RNA conten. A marked increase was found in the amount of poly(A)+-mRNA, while the levels of other RNA components (25S, 18S rRNA, 4每5S RNA) were also increased to different extent. These results suggest that the promotion of polyribosome formation by kinetin depends upon the de novo synthesis of mRNAs, and the promotion of ribosome con, struction by kinetin may also be related to the synthesis of rRNAs.
Abstract (Browse 1682)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isozymic Studies on the Wheatgrass Genomes in Wheat-Wheatgrass Octoploids
Author: Gao Ming-jun, Hao Shui,He Meng-yuan and Bu Xiu-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    Zymogram phenotypes of coleoptile, root and leaf esterases (ESTC, ESTR and ESTL); root acid (ACPH) and alkaline (ALK) phosphatase in wheats (Triticum) with A,D,AG,AB and ABD genome constitutions, wheatgrass (Elytrigia intermedia )and the two types of wheat- wheatgrass octoploids were analyzed, h was found that the wheatgrass chromosomes in one of the three genomes, which are, to a certain extent, homologous to the chromosomes of G geno- me could be carried by type i wheat-wheatgrass octoploid(i.e. Zhong 2), and the wheatgrass chromosomes in another genome, which are, to a greater extent, homologous to the chromosomes in A genome might be carried by type j wheat-wheatgrass octoploids (termed Zhong 3,4 and 5).
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical and Histochemical Studies of Haustrial Development of Cassytha filiformis L.
Author: Li Yang-han and Yao Dong-rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    This paper deals with the haustorium development of parasitic plant (Cassytha filiformis L.) parasitized on purple willow (Salix purpurea L.).The polarity occurred in the portion near the host; and the cushion-shaped haustorial plate formed, and then the haustorial primordium initiated in the cortex. Finally, the haustoria reached the cortex of pith of the host, penetrating through its own cortex and epidermis. Tracheary elements were differentiated from the base of the haustoria and the sieve elements were not observed in the haustoria. Histochemical studies revealed that there were starch grains in normal stem cortex. The starch grains were increased in the portion near the axis after twisting on host. After the haustorial plate was formed, the starch grains were richly accumulated in the central group of cells, which were followed by the haustorial development; The starch disappeared in the meristem, in which protein stained deeply; The dynamic change of protein turned oK to be contrary to the tendency of starch accumulation. The structure and parasitic mechanism and the dynamic change of starch and protein are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1930)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Tissue Cultures of Legume Plants
Author: An Li-jia, Li Feng-xia, Zhang Jun-min, Luo Xi-ming,He Meng-yuan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    Plant regenerations were achieved from tissue cultures of 31 species of 15 genus of legume plants on A and B media. Various factors including medium composition (major elements, minor element:s, organic components and phytohormones), seed germination rate, illumination and temperature conditions were tested for their effects on callus differentiation in tissue cultures. Combinations of major elements of A or B medium, minor elements and organic components of B5 medium, illumination of 1500每2500 lx, and temperature of 18每27⊥ were found suitable for callus differentiation of most legume plants. The calli induced from freshly collected seeds had higher differentiation capacity than from seeds sored for three years. Four types(a,b,c and d) of callus were morphologically distinguished during the differentiation in legume plant tissue cultures. Generally, calli from plants of the same genus belonged to the same type.
Abstract (Browse 2206)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Actinidia chinensis Planch.
Author: Xiao Zun-an, Shen De-xu and Lin Bo-nian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    Protoplasts isolated from cotyledon callus line of A14N7 of Actinidia Chinensis Planch. were cultured in the improved NN-69 medium. First division of regenerated cells occurred during 7每10 days of culture, and percentage of the cell division was about 10% at day 20. The best result of protoplast culture was achieved when protoplasts were cukured in liquid medium at a density of 5℅ 104/ml, About 4 months, procoplast-derived calli were transferred stepwisely onto differentiation media where they developed into green compact calli, from which the perfect plants were regenerated.
Abstract (Browse 1716)  |  Full Text PDF       
Nucleotide Sequence of A High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Gene in Wheat
Author: Xin Hua, Jiang Ying,Huang Wei-da, Gu Qi-min and Sun Chong-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    Subclones of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. asarce) genomic recombinant containing high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin gene were constructed by using pUCll8/pUCll9 vectors, their successive shorter deletions were also prepared: The nucleotide sequence of about 560 bp upstream of initiation codon and total coding region was analysed by Sanger's dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. It has 3067 bp which includes 830 codons and reveals high homology with a previously reported HMW glutenin gene. This gene contains no intron but a TAA termination codon within the coding region. Whether this is a silent gene or not merits further investigation.
Abstract (Browse 1763)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Identification of Kupitengester 2, 3 and 4
Author: Wang Guo-liang, Nan Peng, Nan Yu-sheng, Gong Fu-jun, Lu Ling-xian, Ke Zhi-guo, Zhu Xin-qiang, Yuan Xiao and Yuan Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    Angled bittersweet (Celastrus angulatus Maxim.) possesses obvious antifeedant effect to Aulacophora femoralis and Pieris rapae. It is a new resource of insect antifeedant. Four needie crystals were isolated from the active fraction of its seed oil by chromatography based on activity assays. Their chemical structures were identified by IR, UV, MS, 1H-NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H-COSY and NOESY. They were sesquJterpene polyesters with 汕-dihydroagarofurane skeletons. They were new compound reported for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 1733)  |  Full Text PDF       
Radiation Protective Effect of Polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on Plant Cells from Radiation Genetic Damage
Author: Guo Bao-jiang, Pang Qi-shen and Ruan Ji-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(10)
      
    Vicia faba seeds were treated with polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis before and after radiation. From the results of nuclear aberration frequency and types of chromosomal aberration in Vicia faba root tip ceils it is proposed that Spirulina p1antensis was a natural radioprotector. At a polysaccharide concentration of 0.1%每0.15%, radiation damage on Vicia faba could be reduced both in pretreated and posttreated groups. The effect of protection was more significant in posttreated group than in the pretreated one.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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