December 1992, Volume 34 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Cryopreservation of Calli of Arnebia euchroma
Author: Li Guo-feng, Ye He-chun, Dong Jiao-wang, Jian Ling-cheng,Sun Long-hua and Gu Li-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    In this preliminary experiment two kinds of cryoprotectants were used: (1). 10% DM-SO + 0.5 mol/L sorbitol; (2). 7.5% DMSO +5% glycerin +5% sucrose. Calli samples were taken at day-10 and day-15 after subculture respectively. The specimens were cooled at a rate of l¡æ/min from 0¡æ, kept ¨C40¡æ for 2h, put into liquid nitrogen(¨C196¡æ) and then thawed in 40¡æ water bath. Calli which bare been subcultured for 10 days showed normal growth by using cryoprotectant 2 and slow-freezing method mentioned above which indicated that they were effective methods for cryopreservation of Arnebia euchoma. Normal growth of the callus after cryopreservation could be restored, but the initial growth rate was somehow retarded. Using polycrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis no difference in esterase and peroxidase isozymes was found in both types of the treated calli. The present experiment indicates it is possible to use this slow-freezing method for germplasm cryopreservation of Arnebia euchroma.
Abstract (Browse 1836)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Taxonomical Revision of Fossil Evergreen Sclerophyllous Oaks from China
Author: Zhou Zhe-kun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    Evergreen sclerophyllous oaks (Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Brachylepides and part of sect. Engleriana) were dominant in Hengduan Mt., south west China, since the Late Tertiary. About 17 species from China have been recorded hitherto. However, some mistakes and confusion were made in their taxonomy and nomenclature. Therefore the nomenclature of the fossil would also be incorrect. An attempt is made in present paper, to revise such mistakes and contusion. 14 species of sect. Brachylepides were reduced to 7 and 3 species of sect Engleriana to one. In addition, the key to these fossil species was made.
Abstract (Browse 1747)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Structure of Albopilosin A
Author: Xu Met-juan, Chen Pei-yuan, Xiong Bin, Wang Zhi-min, Guo Yue-wei and Xu Guang-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    One new diterpenoid named albopilosin A has been isolated from the dry stems and leaves of lsodon albopilosus. Its structure was determined as 7¦Á, 12¦Á, 14¦Â-trihydroxy-18-acetoxyent-kaur-16-en-15-one by means of spectral analysis combined with preparation of derivatives.
Abstract (Browse 1688)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Songbeinone, A New Fritillaria Alkaloid Identified from the Bulb of Fritillaria unibracteata
Author: Yu Shi-chun, Xiao Pei-gen, Shun Nan-jun and Wang Li-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    A compound C was isolated from the dry bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K. C: Hsia which belongs to a main resource species of traditional Chinese drug ¡°Chuan Bei-mu¡± in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1990 ed.). It was identified as D/E cis(22R, 25S)-20-deoxy-3¦Â-hydroxyl-6-carbonyl-5¦Á, 14¦Á, 17¦Â-cevanine by means of spectroscopic methods. It is a new alkaloid of 5¦Á-cevanine group of isosteroidal alkaloids being attributed to the characteristic constituents of this genus, named as songbeinone.
Abstract (Browse 1976)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on Size Hierachies of Individuals OF Elymus nutans Population under Different Densities
Author: Du Guo-zhen and Wang Gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    The size hierachies of a perennial grass population, Elymus nutans, which distributes throghout the subalpine meadow has been studied. A two-year experiment was designed to include seven treatments of different densities and measurements of inequality and distributions of individual mass of the population at different harvest time from 1987 to 1989. Individual mass under each of the seven treatments did not reveal a normal or lognormal distribution. No skewness values smaller than 0.5 occurred in our 48 sets of data, which implied that the distribution of the indiciduals of E. nutans population at any density skewed to small individuals. This result emphasized an evidence that there were differences between perennial grasses and annual grasses in responding to intraspecies competition. Size inequality did not increase with increasing population densities. This however, was not in concert with the results of experiments from others. Size inequality, on the other hand, was wore prominent in the period of vegetative growth than in the period of maturity.
Abstract (Browse 1817)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chromosome Behaviour of F1 and Fertility Restoration in Hybrid of Gossypium hirtutum ¡ÁG. bickii
Author: Liang Zheng-lan, Jiang Ru-qin and Zhong Wen-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    By means of dripping GAs(50 ppm) and NAA(40 ppm) on the hybrid boll-embryo culture in vitro, one F1 plant of G. hirsuturn ¡Á G. bickii was obtained in 1982, the Fx plant flowered profusely but failed to produce any seeds when selfed or back crossed. In meiosis of the pollen mother cell (PMC), mean chromosome coniugation was 33.24 ¢ñ +2.67 ¢ò +0.095 ¢ó + 0.048 ¢ô with high frequence (77.6%) of one chiasma attenuated bivalents. Mean number of chiasmta per bivalents was 1.23. The univalents were scattered over the achromatic figure for most PMCs. Although a few of the bivalents were located in' the equatorial region, but they did not form a definite plate. At the second anaphase the distribution of chromosomes was very irregular. In the majority of cases, multipolar distripution of chromosomes was observed. At the completion of meiosis highly abnormal sporads occurred, which contained from 2 ro 13 spores of various sizes. Thus, all of the pollen grains produced were sterile. When the F1 branches were grafted onto the upland cotton and thence they were backcrossed under short day (12 hours) and cold night(15¨C18¡æ) exposure, BC1 seeds could be harvested. BC1 and BC2 plants could grow up later. In the BC, generation, the fertility of the hybrid was restored. By 1988, ten pure lines of hybrid with the characers of both male parent (viz.red petal with purple spot and strong fibre) and female parent (white fibre, high yield, earliness ect.) were selected for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Microsporogenesis, Megasporogenesis and the Formation of Male and Female Gametophyte in Coix lacryma-jobi L.
Author: Dong Jian-hua and Xi Xiang-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    The development of the anther wall follows the monocotyledonous type. During meiotic stages of prophase I, some cytoplasmic channels are observed on the walls between meiotic cells. which divide synchronously. Cytokinesis in the microspore mother cell is of the successive type and gives rise to iscbilateral tetrad. The cell wall between the generative cell and the vegetative cell in early stage shows PAS positive reaction. The mature pollen grain is of 3-celled type. The development of the female gametophyte follows the polygonum-type; the antipodal cells proliferate to form a multicellular tissue mass. Many starch grains are present in the central cell. The nucleus of the mature egg cell is located at the micropylar end; a great deal of starch grains are in the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus, while vacuoles of various size distribute throughout its cytoplasm but are more and larger at the chalaza,1 end. The nucleus of the synergid cell is located at the micropytar end where a filiform apparatus is formed and many small vacuoles are present at the chalazal part.
Abstract (Browse 2353)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morpho-Histological Investigation of Plantlet Formation In Vitro in Taiwania flousiana Gaussen
Author: Cheng Xiao-fei and Li Wen-dian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    Histological events during adventitious shoot formation in cultured shoot apex of 10¨C12-day-old seedlings and adventitious root formation in the elongated shoot of Taiwania floudana Gaussen were examined. Ceils of the peripheral subsurface layers of the shoot apex responded to cytokinin and divided into meristematic cells from which the shoot primordia were proliferated. A few bud primordia also originated from the epidermis and hypodermis of the adaxial surface of the cotyledon. The parenchyma of leaf gap of the shoots cultured in rooting medium dedifferentiated to regain the capacity of division and form adventitious root. Besides, cells that had relatively low potential of differentiation, such as the cortex parenchyma, pith ray, phloem parenchyma and cambium zone, albeit initiated to divide, but seldom formed root primordium. The origin of the adventitious roots in the leaf gap facilitated the establishment of the vascular connection between the shoot and root.
Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  Full Text PDF       
Confocal Microscopic Observations on Actin Filament Distribution in Lily Pollen Protoplasts
Author: Xu Shi-xiong (S. Y. Zee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    Actin filaments (F-actin) were localized in the isolated pollen protoplasts of lily using TRITC-phalloidin probe and confocal microscopy. Two kinds of pollen protoplasts were examined: one from pollen grains of non-dehiscent anthers(referred to as ¡®nearly mature¡¯ pollen); and the other from pollen grains of just dehiscent anthers(referred to as ¡®just mature¡¯ pollen). In the cytoplasm of the pollen protoplasts of the ¡®nearly mature¡¯ pollen there was a very well organized actin network made up of thick actin bundles. Two types of bundle connections were seen in the network; namely ¡®branch¡¯ connections and 'junction' connections. The ¡®branch¡¯ connection (or branching points) was formed due to branching or merging of bundies. The ¡®junction¡¯ connection (or 'junction' point) had two or more bundles associated with it. Some of the ¡®junction¡¯ points might be actin filament organization: centres. The generative cell in iht pollen protoplasts of the ¡®nearly mature¡¯ pollen also contained an actin network. But this network was structurally quite loose and the pundles made up the network were short and thick. In the cytoplasm of the pollen protoplasts of the ¡®just mature¡¯ pollen the actin net work was more densely packed. The bundles made up the network were also thinner. The actin network in the generative cell was, however, less densely packed. If the pollen protoplasts from both the ¡®nearly mature¡¯ and the 'just mature' pollen grains were transferred from a B5 medium into a Brewbaker and Kwack medium supplemented with sucrose, protoplasts rapidly (i.e. within 2 to 3 hours) developed vacuoles and transvacuolar strand. In these va cuolated protoplasts the vegetative nucleus andthe generative cell became tightly surrounded by a new actin network. In the transvacuolar strands there were numerous actin bundles. The ¡°ends¡± of some of these bundles appeared to be tightly attached to the protoplast membrane indicating that some kind of structures might be present in the protoplast membrane for actin filament attachment.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Rice Stripe Virus Coat Protein Gene in Transgenic Rice Plants
Author: Yan Yi-tang, Wang Jin-fang, Qiu Bing-sheng,He Xue-mei, Zhao Shu-zhen. Wang Xiao-feng and Tian Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    Rice stripe virus (RSV) is a pathogen of rice stripe disease causing great damage to rice. The disease is transmitted by Laodelphax striatellus and three other planthoppers. RSV infects as much as 37 cereals including rice, wheat, maize and results in a significant reduction in yield in epidemic year. In order to develop efficient means of controlling the disease, authors have studied the amino acid composition of RSV coat protein (CP), synthesized and cloned the cDNA to CP, sequenced the full-length CP gene. Having inserted the RSV CP gene into plant expression vector pROK ¢ò, authors transformed rice suspension culture via microprojectile bombardment and obtained transgenic plants expressing the CP gene. The suspension culture was initiated by inoculating yellowish, compact and embryogenic calli derived from seeds into suspension medium containing proline and maltose. After being cultured at 26¡æ in the dark for about half a year, finely-dispersed and embryogenic suspension culture was estabolished. Before bombardment the suspension culture was evently applied onto three-layered filter-paper discs in a petri dish. CaCl2 and spermidine was employed to coat tungsten particle with plasmid DNA. 2.5 ¦Ìl of coated particle was loaded onto bullet and each dish was bombarded three times. Immediately after being bombarded, the suspensions were cultured in modified N6 medium. 2 days later the suspensions were transferred to the same medium but containing G418, which were subcultured weekly. Being subject to G418 selection for two months, white and fast-growing clones were emerged from the brownish cultures. Green plants regenerated when the resistant calli were transferred to differentiation medium. The regenerated plants were firm enough to grow well in the greenhouse. 10 plants regenerated from G418 resistant calli were tested for their transformed nature by Southern blot using 32P-labelled CP gene as a probe. Among the plants tested, 2 plants showed clearly hy bridizing bands with a molecular weight corresponding to RSV CP gene. Western blot further demonstrated that RSV CP gene was expressed in transgenic rice plants. At present tests on the antiviral effects of transgenic plants by feeding plantphoppers infccted with RSV are being underway.
Abstract (Browse 2120)  |  Full Text PDF       
High Protein Somaclones Seleted from Somaclonal Varients in Triticum aestivum L.
Author: Zhu Zhi-qing (C. C. Ghu), Sang Jian-li, Wang Yu-xiu, Li Yin-xin, Zhu Ying-min, Wang Pei, Fang Ren, Fan Guang-nian, Chen Yu-ron and Pei Cui-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    Calli were induced from the explants of young inflorescences of a haploid wheat pollen plant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The calli were subcultured and 138 regenerated plants were differentiated from them. Among the plants 5 set 42 seeds from which 34 R2 plants were obtained. The R2 plants varied in plant height, awnedness, waxiness and maturation period. In R3 generation some somaclone lines segregated but most of them were more or less stable. All clone lines were stable in R4 generation. According to the assay of seed prorein content of 82 selected clones from over 100 R5 stable clones, 5 clones with high protein content, which varied from 19.16% to 21.33%, were discovered. Repeated assay in R6 generation confirmed the results. Differences in electrophoresis pattern of seed protein and amino acid content among clones were also recorded.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Quantitative Measurement ed Pollen Tube Growth and Particle Movement
Author: Tang Xiao-wei Lin Guo-qin, Yang Yan,Zheng Wen-li.Wu Bi-chu and Nie Da-tong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(12)
      
    The growth of pollen tube and the cytoplasmic particle movements in pollen tube of Aloe zebrina Haw. were recorded by micro-video and measured by computer image analysis. The saltatory growth of pollen tube was observed. The movement velocity, diameter and the rate of flux of forward particles towards pollen tube tip were greater than those of backward particles. The results indicate that the cytoplasmic particle movements may play a role in transporting ¡°building blocks¡± for pollen tube growth.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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