February 1992, Volume 34 Issue 2


          Research Articles
A Simple Method of Obtaining Ultrathin-Sections from a Semithin-Section
Author: Shao Zong-ze, Dong Jian-hua and Cui De-cai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    The Epon-812 semithin-section, which had been observed under light microscope, was stuck to a trimmed resin block with 502 instant glue and was ultrasectioned for electron microscopy. This method, which is simple and tepid, gives a good result and may solve some problems happened in ultrasectioning some special material which needs to be exactly located.
Abstract (Browse 2046)  |  Full Text PDF       
Current Research on Heavy Metal Binding Complexes of Plants
Author: Huang Yu-shan (Wong Yuk-shan), Chen Jian-min (Chan Kin-man) and Tan Feng-yi(Tam Fung-yi)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    Heavy metal binding complexes found in the cytoplasm of plant cells are widely reported to be responsible fox metal resistance. It is believed that these metal binding complexes may play an important role in the accumulation of heavy metal and preventing them from entering the ptant metabolic pathways. This review summarizes information on purification, characterization and properties of these molecules. In view of their inducibility, low molecular weight, specific optical characteristics (high absorption at 254nm and low absorption at 280 nm), high cysteine content and high capacity for binding heavy metal, these complexes were once proposed to be metallothionein-like molecules. However differing from metallothionein of animal system, heavy metal binding complexes in plants are comprised mainly of three amino acids with a unique structure of (¦Ã-Glu-Cys)n-Gly ((¦Ã-EC)nG) (n=2¡ª11). With the presence of ¦Ã-carboxyl group peptide linkage, the complexes are thought not to be synthesized via mRNA but the product of biosynthetic pathway using glutatkione as precursor.
Abstract (Browse 1823)  |  Full Text PDF       
Discovery of Algal Fossils from the Hailar Basin and Its Significance
Author: Wan Chuan-biao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    This article reports Chlorococcalean algae fossil in Member 2 of Damoguaihe Formation, Well Haican-5, South of Hailar Basin. They are Pediastrum simplex, P. boryanum, Scenedesmus cf. bijuga, S. cf. dimorphus, S. beierensis sp. nov.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
Systematic Evolutional Relation of Chemical Components of the Essential Oils from 11 Taxa of Citrus Leaves
Author: Lin Zheng-kui and Hua Ying-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    With fused silica capillary column for GC, according to Kovats retention index ITP of GC and GC-MS-DS double identification, chemical components of the essential oils from 11 taxa in Citrus leaves were studied. It has been found that the characteristic component of Papeda seedon is citronellal; that of ilurantiurn section is ¡°myrcene and linalool¡± or ¡°sabinene and liaalool¡±; that of Microacrumen subsection is linalool; that of Macroacrumen subsection is Z-, E-liaalooloxide and that the characteristic components of Citrophorum section are neral and geranial and those of Cephalocitrus section are neral, geranial and carvone. Our study indicates that there are different GC configurations for various taxonomic units. The differences narrow from sections to species and from species to cultivars. The differences are greatest among sections and remarkable among different species of the same section. Different culativars of the same species of the same section have similar Gig patterns. All these differences or similarities reflect their close or distant relationships, which are the important bases for setting up natural classification. The systematic evolution of the sections of genus Citrus may correlate well with the characteristic components, the biosynthesis pathways and the morphological characters.
Abstract (Browse 2109)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Soil Water Stress on Osmotic Adjustment and Elongation Growth of Wheat Leaves
Author: Li De-quan, Zou Qi and Cheng Bing-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    The results of the experiment showed that leaf elongation rate in two wheat cultivars decreased under soil water stress. Rewatering after water stress, growth restoration.of ¡°Changle No.5¡± was faster than that of ¡°Lumai No.5¡±. The osmotic adjustment ability of leaves in these two wheat cultivars increased to 0.41MPa for ¡°Changle No.5¡± and 0.33MPa for ¡°Lumai No.5¡± as water potential decreased. At the same leaf elongation rate water potential and osmotic potential of ¡°Changle No5¡± decreased more than that of ¡°Lumai No.5¡± Leaf elongation rate fell to zero as water potential and osmotic potential were ¨C1.50MPa and ¨C1.70MPa for ¡°Changle No.5¡± and ¨C1.20MPa and ¨C1.30MPa for ¡°Lumai No.5¡± The threshold turgor pressure of elongation growth in leaf cell was different being 0.22MPa for ¡°Changle No.5¡¯ and 0.15MPa for ¡°Lumai No.5¡±. The difference in the gross extensible coefficient of growing leaf was very small.
Abstract (Browse 1911)  |  Full Text PDF       
High Frequency Induction of Somatic Embryoid of Rice in Suspension Culture
Author: Jin Jian-min, Zhang Jing-lan and Tang Ding-tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    On MS and B5 basic media the mature seed of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was induced to produce somatic embryoid. The results showed that the rate of occurrence of somatic embryoid varied with the variety of rice and the concentration of 2,4-D was important to the occurrence of somatic embryoid. For those varieties of rice suitable for induction, the induction factors such as KT, zeatin, BAP, ABA, osmotic pressure and so forth were stringently required at different stages of somatic embryoid development, and they also influenced the formation of somatic embryoid. The results of various layered cultures of embryonic calli proved that the somatic embryoid was derived from the surface layer callus containing embryonic cells. At the induction stage no somatic embryoid was formed in callus. The rate of somatic embryoid formation was over seventy per cent on liquid differentiation medium I.
Abstract (Browse 1897)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Characterization of Root Morphology of White Clover Infected by Transconjugant of Rhizobium leguminosarum
Author: Huang Shi-zhen, M.A. Djordjevic and B.G.Rolfe
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    White clover plants were inoculated with transconjugant strain' 290 which was obtained from introduction of host specific nodulation genes of wild-type Rhizobium trifolii strain ANU 843 to Rhizobium leguminosarum strain 300. The characterization of root morphology of white clover induced by the transconjugant was observed and compared to the plants induced by the parent strains. White clover started tO form a typical root hair curling inoculated with transconjugant strain 290 24h after inoculation, at 48h a part of cell wall of root hair was degradated, infection thread was observed in the infected root hair cell, cortical cell divisions occurred extensively. All these characterizations were similar to that infected by strain ANU 843. Plant inoculation test indicated that no nodule was formed when inoculated by R. leguminosarum strain 300, while plants nodulated when inoculated with transconjugant strain 290 as well as R. trifolii ANU 843. This suggests that introduction of host specific nodulation genes of R. trifolii results in conferring the nodulation ability of R. leguminosarum on white clover.
Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Protein Bodies and Plastids in Cotyledon of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.at Seed Germination
Author: Shi Gno-xin,Xu Xiang-shen, Chen Wei-pei, Wang Wen and Du Kai-he
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    The present article deals mainly with the formation and dissolution of protein bodies and development of plastids in cotyledon cells of Nelumbo nucifera during seed germination. Electron microscopic studies reveal that protein bodies are formed after imbibition of the cotyledons before germination. They are produced through accumulation of protein material in small vacuoles delivered from the exudates of endoplasmic reticulum or by fragmentation of endoplasmic reticulum itself. In the period of germination, most of the material in the protein bodies dissolute and they coalesce with each other forming large vacuoles. The protein residue of the vacuoles condenses into small blocks with high electron density adhering to the tonoplast or freely floating in the vacuole. Thus, it suggests that the protein bodies of the germinating N. nucifera cotyledons are originated from vacuoles formed by endoplasmic reticulum. Part of the plastids found in cotyledonous cells of mature N. nucifera seeds exists as proplastids. They develop continuously after imbibition of the cotyledons. During the period of seed germination, many concentric lamellae are developed along the plastid membrane on which they later coalesce with the neighboring concentric lameUae forming loosely organized prolamellar bodies which condense into paracrystalline lattices. No ribosomes are present in the inter spaces of paracrystatline lattice. One to several prolamellar bodies can be developed in one plastid.
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Culture and Gentiopicroside Formation in Gentiana manshurica Kitag.
Author: Zhang Zhi-guo,Han Xian-zhong,Cai Zhi-guang,Liu Hua,Wang Li,Zhao Li-hong and Hu Xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    Suitable medium for callus growth and gentiopicroside formation of Gentiana manshurica Kitag. was studied employing orthogonal design and monofactorial experiment. The results showed that combination of NAA 1 mg/L +KT 0.5 mg/L was best for callus growth, while NAA lmg/L, is the suitable phytohormone for gentiopicroside formation. B5 medium was suitable for callus growth while MS medium was suitable for gentiopicroside formation. The experiment of orthogonal design indicates that NH4+/NO3-, K+, Ca2+ and sucrose were the factors significantly affecting fresh weight, dry weight and gentiopicroside content of callus. However, the level of some factors for callus growth was different from that for gentiopicroside formation. In 18 different media, No. 7 was best for callus growth and No.10 medium was best for gentiopicroside formation.
Abstract (Browse 2091)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fertility, Inheritance and Amino Acid Analysis of Lysine Plus Threonine-Resistant Mutant Progenies of Maize
Author: Miao Shu-hua, He Li-ming and Xiao Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    Sixth generation of mutant maize seed homozygous for lysine plus threonine resistancewhich was derived from the resistant callus cultures has been harvested. The resistance could be inherited stably. The fertility, however, was very poor. The resistant homozygotes have been obtained by backcross of the wild type with the resistant plants (W77-R3019 ¡ÁR0), and their fertility could be parlty recovered after selection for the resistant plants from backcross progenies. Genetic analysis showed that the resistance inherited as a single dominant nuclear allele. All of the free amino acids except phenylalan inc in the homozygote are increased by 4 folds. and free essential amino acids by 5 folds which are higher than those in the wild types. Total amino acids increased by 5.53%. The dramatic increase (11 times) in free threonine adds up the total threonine by 17.73%. Difference of the protein content between the homozygote and wild type was not obvious. These results show that selection for the resistance to lysine plus threonine in maize and other cereals is probably very useful for improving their value of protein nutrition.
Abstract (Browse 1885)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study of Pollen Morphology of Some Aquatic Vascular Plants in Honghu Lake, Hubei
Author: Guan Zi-he, Kong Zhao-chen and Du Nai-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    This paper deals with the pollen morphology of 22 species of the aquatic plants belonging to 18 genera and 13 families. 11 species of them are first time reported: Potarnogeton maackianus Benn; P. malaianus Miq., MyriophyUurn spicatum L., Zizania latifolia Turcz., Sagittaria sagittifolia L. var. longilaba Turcz., Polygonum hydropiper L., Ranunculus sceleratus L., Cardamine lyrata Bunge, Cyperus difforrnis L., Eleocharis pellucida Presl and Scirpus rnucronatus Diels. All pollen grains were observed under light microscope (LM) but 12 species among them were also examined under scanning electronic microscope(SEM). The environmental conditions and community structure of aquatic vegetation in the lake are briefly discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2122)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Triterpenes of Terminalia chebula Retz.
Author: Lu Pu-ping, Liu Xing-jie, Li Xing-cong, Zhang De-cheng and Tosho Yokoi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(2)
    Four triterpenes have been isolated from the alcoholic extract of Terminalia Chebula Retz.. Three of them have been identified as terminoic acid (T1), arjugenin (T2) and arjunolic acid(T3). T4 is a new compound, named chebupentol. Its structure was established to be olean-12-ene-2,3,19,23,28-pentol on the basis of its IR, MS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, 1H-13C 2D NMR, 1H-1H 2D NMR and NOESY 2D NMR. The structure of compound T4 was confirmed by the chemical transformation of T4 from arjugenin (T2) with LiAlH4.
Abstract (Browse 2209)  |  Full Text PDF       
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