April 1992, Volume 34 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Experimental Studies on Optimization Medium of Japonica Rice Anther Culture
Author: Sun Zhi-rong,Ni Pi-chong and Huang Zhuo-zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    With N6 as the basic medium, each component was tested for its influence on the growth efficacy of anther culture: In the results of 1988, the growth efficiency of anther culture was over fifty percent using the optimal medium. In the continuous experiments of 1989 and 1990, the growth efficiency of anther culture in the optimal medium was 58.8% using zhonghua No. 11 as a rice variety.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Sweet Diterpene-Glucoside in Leaves of Rubus suavissimus
Author: Zhou Wen-hua, Satomi Hirono,Ryoji Kasai and Osamu Tanaka
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    From leaves of Rubus suavissimus, two minor ent-kaurane type diterpene glucosides were Isolated in addition to the major sweet principle, rubusoside. The bitter glycoside was identified as sugeroside which has been isolated from leaves of Ilex sugerokii var. brevipedunculata etc. The new glucoside named suavioside-A has a sweet taste and the structure was elucidated as 3, 16, 17-trihydroxy-ent-kaurane-17-0--D-glucopyranoside.
Abstract (Browse 1992)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Epidermal Hairs of Gossypium
Author: Hu Shao-an and Zhao Qing-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    The characteristics of stem and leaf epidermal hairs in 22 wild species and 3 cultivated varieties of Gossypium studied under scanning electron microscope showed that the epidermal hairs of Gossypium can be classified into hairs and glandular hairs and the former can be further typified into monohairs and multiple hairs. Both monohairs and multiple hairs are needle shaped while glandular hairs are capitated and rod-like. Some species even showed a few chrysanthemum-like multiple hairs. These observations indicate that the epidermal hairs in Gossypium are specific. The relationships between the characteristics of multiple hairs and their resistance to insect and drought were studied through analysis of ecological and morphological structure correlations in Gossypium.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Essential Balm Method for Preparing Rice Chromosomes
Author: Zhuang Nan-sheng and Li Jing-du
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    An essential balm (EB) method was described for preparing mitotic chromosomes in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Briefly, root tips were pretreated with EB, fixed in 3:1 methanol-acetic acid. Chromosome specimens were made by squash and smear technique without cell wall degradation, and then stained with Giemsa. The G-bands of chromosomes could be distinctly visible with this method.
Abstract (Browse 1926)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on Infraspecific Types of Chemical Character of Cinnamomum burmannii
Author: Wu Hang, Zhu Liang-feng and Li Yu-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    In Huidong County, Guangdong Province, a wild population of Cinnamomum burmannii (C. G. & Th, Ness) B1 was divided into four types of chemical character resulting from qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composition of leaf essential oils. On the basis of the experiments of chromosome and isozymes, the evolutionary trend of the types of chemical characster was elucidated, viz. cymene/cineol-typecineol-type cineol/borneol-type borneol-type.Furthermore, the relationship of the compounds az major constituents was in correspondence with the biosynthesis of monoterpenes.
Abstract (Browse 1985)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Fossil Plants from Gutian Formation of Lianyang, Guangdong Province and Their Significance
Author: Zhu Jia-nan and Feng Shao-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    This paper deals with the fossil plants from Gutian Formation in Lianyang, Guangdong, totaling 14 genera and 18 species. They are: Paracalamites sp., Annularia pinglogensis (Sze) Gu et Zhi, Lobatannularia cathaysiana Yao, L. Multifolia Konon et Asama, L. sp., Schizoneura wangtangiana sp. nov., Pecopteris hemitelioides Brongn., P. valida sp. nov., Cladophlebis vavia sp. nov., Danaeites guangdongensis sp. nov., Ptychocarpus unauriculatus sp. nov., Odontopteris plicatoides sp. nov., Neuropteridiopsis longovata gen. et sp. nov., Compsopteris contracta Gu et Zhi, Gigantonoclea crassa sp. nov., Gigantopteris ?nicotianaefolia Schenk, G. parvipinnulata sp. nov. and Rhipidopsis sp. Among them one new genus, 9 new spp. and 2 undetermined spp. are described. According to the fusulinids lived in the late Early Permian era are descovered at the top of this Formation, the geological era of present flora must not be later than late Early Permian. Therefore, the geological era of Gutian Formation are certain to be the Late Early Permian.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Formation from Somatic Hybridization of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) by Electrofusion
Author: Chen Wen-pin, Wu Qin-sheng, Liu Da-jun and M. G. K. Jones
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    Somatic hybrid calli were recovered following electrofusion of protoplasts from a chloroplast-containing cell suspension culture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a cell suspension culture of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The protoplasts of wheat were inactivated by iodoacetamide; in addition morphology and colour were used as markers to aid selection of putative hybrid calli. For isozyme analysis of putative hybrids, nine isozymes were tested for differences in bands between the parental lines. Of these, three showed differences (ADH, GOT, SDH). Analysis of ADH bands of calli indicated that six lines were hybrids. These lines were analysed with the ,ther isozymes, and at the DNA level by Southern hybridisation with a wheat ribosomal DNA probe. The overall results indicated that one line was an almost complete combination of the genomes of the parental lines, but the other 5 lines were probably partial hybrids. In the latter, some loss of the wheat genome had probably occurred.
Abstract (Browse 1904)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification and Characterization at Phosphomannomutase from Fresh Seeds of Sesbania cannabina
Author: Gu Xiang-ju, Shan Xue-qin and Jing Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    Phosphomannomutase (PMM) was isolated and further purified from the fresh seeds of Sesbania cannabina by using preparative Sephadex G-200 slab IEF. The pH of Sesbania PMM was 5.0. Purified PMM showed a distinct band on SDS-PAGE with the molecular weight of 41 kD. The pH value for optimum catalysis of the enzyme was 7.3 at 30, and the equilibrium constant of PMM reaction was 16.2. In addition, the amino acid composition of the purified PMM was measured which conformed the property of acidic protein.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Embryo and Endosperm and Nutrient Accumulation in Vigna sesquipedalis (L.) Fruwirth
Author: Gao Rong-qi and Xi Xiang-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    The structure of embryo sac, fertilization and development of embryo and endosperm in Vigina sesquipedalis (L.) Fruwirth were investigated. Pollization occures 7C10h before anthesis, and fertilization is completed 10 h after anthesis. After fertilization, wall ingrowths are formed at the micropylar and chalazal ends of the embryo sac. Embryo development conforms to the Onagrad type, and passes through 2 or more celled proembryo, long stick-shaped, globular, heart shaped, torpedo, young embryo, growing and enlarging embryo and mature embryo. Wall ingrowths are formed on the walls of basal cells and outer walls of the cells at basal region of suspenser. The suspensor remains as the seed reaches maturity. The starch grains accumulate in the cells of cotyledons by 9C16 days after anthesis, and proteins accumulate by 12C18 days after. The endosperm development follows the nuclear type. The endosperm ceils form at the micropylar end, and remain free nuclear phase at chalazal end. The outer cells are transfer cells. Those cells at the micropylar end form folded cells with wall ingrowths. At heartembryo stage, the endosperm begins to degenerate and disintegrates before the embryo matures.
Abstract (Browse 2058)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning and Structure Analysis of rbcL Gene in Rice
Author: Yuan Wei-ming, Cao Kai-ming, Huang Wei-da and Sun Chong-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    The gene for the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in rice(Oryza sativa L., ssp. indica) has been cloned using M13mpl8/19-JM101 and pUC118/l19-MVl184 systems. After subcloning and construction of a series of unidirectional deletions, the nucleotide sequence was determined by the dideoxychain termination method. The structure gene encompasses 1434, which encodes 477 amino acids. The two subspecies of rice, i.e. japonica and indica have only one diverse nucleotide, which is located in the third site of a codon and does not change the kind of amino acids. The promoter region of rbcL gene is closely contiguous to that of atpB gene in its 5-terminal upstream of rbcL gene. A repetitive sequence homologous to a part of rp123 gene exists in the 3-terminal downstream of rbcL gene. With the aid of computer, we have compared the sequence of rbcL gene in rice with those in other species determined so far to investigate the phylogenetic topologies.
Abstract (Browse 2097)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on Immunoreactivity of Antibodies Against Plant and Animal Calmodulin
Author: Li Jia-xu and Sun Da-ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    The immunoreactivities of three rabbit anticalmodulin antibodies with plant and animal calmodulin(CaM) were tested using the techniques of ELISA and immuno-gold electron microscopy. The results showed that the relative affinity of anti-wheat calmodulin antibody(WAb) was greater than that of anti-dintrobenzene-modified porcine brain CaM antibody(D-Ab), and the relative affinity of anti-bovine brain CaM antibody(B-Ab) for wheat CaM was weak The dissociation constants(KD) of CaM antibody and CaM measured by ELISA were: 2.50 10-9 mol/L for W-Ab/wheat-CaM, 2.8210-8 mol/L for D-Ab/wheat CaM, and 1.9010-8 mol/L for D-Ab/bovine brain-CaM. The affinity of B-Ab for wheat CaM was so Iow that ELISA detection of the KD value was not feasible. Localization of CaM of corn root4ip cells with immuno-gold electron microscopic technique revealed that using the W-Ab probe, the labelled CaM density was greater than using the D-Ab probe, and with B-Ab probe, the density was very low. In quantitation of wheat CaM by competitive ELISA, the detection sensitivity of W-Ab for wheat CaM was higher than that of D-Ab for wheat CaM. These results suggest that the affinity of anti-plant CaM antibody for plant CaM is higher than the affinity of anti-animal CaM antibody for plant CaM. Using anti-plant CaM antibody in the study of plant CaM could raise the sensitivity of immunological detection for plant CaM. The difference in cross-reaction of anti-plant CaM antibodies and anti-animal CaM antibodies with animal CaM and plant CaM was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1918)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on in Vitro Regeneration of Style-Stigma-Like Structure in Crocus sativus L.
Author: Lu Wen-liang,Tong Xi-ran,Zhang Qi and Gao Wei-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    Effects of age and variety of explant as well as of exogenous hormones on regeneration of style-stigma-like structure in vitro were observed in saffron. (1) Explants excised from stalk, perianth, anther, ovary, style and stigma showed different reactions in vitro, only young perianth and style could regenerate the style-stigma-like structures; (2) Age of the perianth explant had obvious effect on induction frequency, and the explants excised from an inflorescence of 24mm in length showed the highest frequency (37.5%) and (3) Experiments on exogenous hormones made clear that supplement with K 5mg/L and NAA 4mg/L was advantageous to regeneration of style-stigma-like structure. Induction frequency reached 35.3%. Supplement with 6-BAP 7mg/L and NAA 9mg/L could promote the formation of stigma like structures.
Abstract (Browse 2022)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation Between Anaerobic Switch-off Nase Activity and ATP/ADP Ratio in Ceils of Azospirillum brasilense
Author: Li Jiu-di, Wang Ji-wen and Li Yong-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(4)
      
    Anaerobic switch-off of Nase activity in A. brasilense "Yu-62" cultured aerobically in liquid medium with glutamic acid as N source was described. CCCP inactivated Nase rapidly. Western blotting experiment demonstrated that the molecular basis of inactivation of Nase was the modification of the Fe protein subunit. The anaerobic condition reduced ATP/ADP ratio in the cells and switched-off the Nase activity. The restoration of aerobic condition gave rise to rapid increase of ATP/ADP ratio and Nase activity. CCCP reduced ATP/ADP ratio rapidly. Metronidazole, a low potential electron acceptor, inhibited Nase activity but has no effect on modification of Fe protein, however, caused a slight change of ATP/ADP ratio. Our experiments demonstrated that the change of ATP/ADP ratio in cells was a signal trigging the modification of Fe protein.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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