May 1992, Volume 34 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Direct Embryogenesis from Protoplasts of Sugar Beet
Author: Li Xing-feng, Chen Hui-min, Shao Ming-wen and Zhang Yue-qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    Unpollinated ovule-derived calli of a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) line 1804/6 were subcultured for three months on a MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5mg/L 6-BA. Good yield of protoplasts was obtained by treating calli with a mixture containing 2.0% cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.05% Pectolyase Y-23, 0.5% snailase, 3mmol/L MES, 0.5% bovine serum albumin and 0.2% potassium dextransulfate prepared in CPW 9M. After purified by washing and centrifugation, protoplasts were cultured in a modified MS medium containing 0.5mg/L 2,4-D, 0.25mg/L 6-BA, 250mg/L casein hydrolysate, 200mg/L yeast extract, 10000mg/L sucrose, 90000mg/L glucose, and 0.3% agarose at a denisity of 4℅104每1℅105 /ml. Sequential divisions gave rise to the development of proembryo. By the eighth day many proembryo-like structures were easily seen, and they developed into globular embryos after 15 days and became core compact and turned into heart-shaped embryos in the following days. Phytohormone combination was one of the factors influencing the direct embryogenesis, and osmotic pressure might also play a role in this respect.
Abstract (Browse 1693)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Records on the History of Mixed Conifer and Hardwood Forest in Northeast China
Author: Sun Xiang-jun and Weng Cheng-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    This paper deals with history of the mixed conifer and hardwood forest in Northeast China. Dated pollen records published so far indicated that forests of this kind were distributed in north and east parts of Changbai Mountain above 900m a.s.l, during the warm period of Holocene, ca. I0,000 to 5,000每4,000 B. P.. During the same period the lower altitude of the region was covered with hardwood forest. From about 5,000 B.P., in accordance with general climatic cooling, pine (mainly Pinus koraiensis) began to migrate to the low altitude and to form the mixed forest with hardwood elements. Pine population at that time was larger than it is now and reduced sharply in the last 2每3 hundred years as a result of human activities.
Abstract (Browse 1772)  |  Full Text PDF       
Strain Responses in Na2CO3-Stressed Leymus chinensis Seedlings and Their Mathematical Analysis
Author: Shi De-cheng and Yin Li-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    The seedlings of Leymus cliinensis were Na2CO3-stressed for 6 days by planting in various culture solutions containing 1.25每30mmol/L Na2CO3. Nine strain indexes, such as the relative growth inhibition rate etc., were determined. The growth was obviously inhibited; the Na+ content was rapidly increased andK+ content was gradually decreased; great amount of proline and citric acid was accumulated; the leakage rate of electrolyte was elevated; the content of chlorophyll was reduced;the activities of both photosynthetic carboxylases RuBPCase and PEPCase were reduced and the ratio of PEPCase activity/RuBPCase activity became great eventually, as the reduction of RuBPCase activity was much more than PEPCase. Mathematic analyses of the experimental data for relationships between the strain indexes and stress (in natural logarithm of molar concentrations of Na2CO3) revealed sigmoidal or inverted sigmoidal relationships which can be expressed by the equation Y= Ym/ [1 + Ke-(ax2+bx)] + C or its varied forms (Y. strain value; Ym. maximum strain value; X. stress value viz. In molar concentration of Na2CO3; K,a,b,C. parameters).
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
Dynamics of Cl and Na in Rhizophora stylosa Mangrove Community in Guangxi
Author: Zheng Wen-jiao and Lin Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    The present paper deals mainly with the absorption, distribution and biological cycle of Ct and Na in 64-year-old Rhizophora stylosa mangrove community in Yinluo Bay of Guangxi, China. The results showed that: (1) In standing crop of the community, the pool amounts of Cl and Na were 349.39g.m-2 and 279.85g.m-2 (g. C1/g. Na=1.25, mol.C1/mol.Na=0.81) respectively; in which the aerial part and underground part held 211.00g. Cl.m , 159.16 g. Na.m-2 and 138.39g. Cl.m-2, 120.69g. Na.m-2 respectively. (2) The biological cycle of Cl and Na in the community were: annual uptake 41.18g. Cl.m-2, 26.56g. Na. m-2; annual retention ll.40g. Cl.m-2; 9.15g. Na. m-2; annual retention 28.78g. Cl. m-2, 17.41g Na.m-2; and cycle coefficient CI: 0.72, Na: 0.66. (3) The turnover period of Cl(12 yrs.) was faster than that of Na(16 yrs.). The enrichment ratio of Cl and Na for the community were 2.18 and 1.80 respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Components of Oxytropis glabra DC
Author: Yu Rong-man, Li Xian, Zhang Hai-jun, Wu Li-jun, Zhu Ting-ru, Li Wen, Liu Lian-yuan and Zhang Gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    Oxytropis glabra DC. has been characterized as one of the most destructive plants to livestock in the northwest of China. In the course of studing the toxic principles of this plant, ten compounds were isolated and identified from the abovegronud parts of Oxytropis glabra DC. by spectra analysis and other physical-chemical means. They have been identified as quercetin(i), kaempferol(j), 3∩,7-dihydroxy-2∩, 4∩-dimethoxy-iso-flavane(k), kaempferol-7-0-汐-L-rhamnopyranoside(l), kaempferol-3-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside(m),kaempferol-3-O-汕-D-ghcopyranosyl(1-2)-汕-D-glucopyranoside(n), kaempferol-3-O-汕-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-汕-D-glucopyrano-side (o), quercetin-3-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside (p), myricetin-3-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside(q) and 3-O-[汐-L-rhamnopyranosyl (l-3)-汕-D-glucopyranosyl(1-6)-汕-D-glucuropyranosyl]-soyasapogenol B(r) respectively. All of them were isolated from this plant for the first time. No. X is a new triterpenoid saponin.
Abstract (Browse 2043)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Magnetic Field on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation of Soybean Nodules
Author: Jing Yu-xiaug, Zhang Bao-tian, Wang Yi-ping and Lin Xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    Treatment of slow growing Bradyrhizobium japonicum ※005§ and inoculated plants with consistant magnetic field revealed that the efficiency of nitrogen fixation could be increased by 4每5 times under an appropriate magnetic intensity. The average number and weight of root nodules per experimental group were also increased by 2每3 times respectively. The change in growth phenotype of rhizobia isolated from the nodules of treated plants showed that the fast growing type of Rhizobium appeared with the frequency of about 17% among 100 plants. The generation time and pH value of the fast growing isolates obtained were similar to those of Rhizobium USDA 191 but different from Rhizobium ※005§. The magnetic field dfect on nitrogenase activity and the change of growing rate of Rhizobium are also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1818)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Sieve Elements in Secondary Phloem of Dalbegia odorifera During Leaf-Bearing and Leaf-Absent Period
Author: Hao Bing-zhong and Wu Ji-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    Ultrastructures of sieve elements of secondary phloem of 1每2 year old branchlet of tropical deciduous tree Dalbegia odorifera T. Chen growing on Hainan Island were studied under transmission electron microscope and a comparation was made between the sieve elements in leaf-bearing and leaf-absent period. During the leaf-bearing period, there was a tailed spindleshaped P-protein body in each mature sieve element. The main part of the P-protein body con sisted of a disordered fine fiber mass with two crystalline tails. The sieve elements had horizontal end walls with simple sieve plate. The inner layers of the wall near the sieve plate appeared intumescent, protruding into the sieve element lumen. During the leaf-absent period, a functional phloem remained about the same thickness as that during the leaf-bearing period. The sieve elements in the leaf-absent period contained normal protoplasts and the P-protein and the sieve plate pores had the same structures as those during the leaf-bearing period. More starch grains and vesicles were found in sieve elements in the leaf-absent period.
Abstract (Browse 2139)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transmissional Effect of Heat Shock in Plants
Author: Yang Jing-feng and George R. Stewart
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    When only roots of 13-d-old sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seedlings were heat-shocked at 45⊥ for 4h, some abnormal proteins were detected in the leaves that were not directly heat--shocked. The molecular weights of these abnormal proteins are around 80kD, 70kD, 33kD and 17 kD, respectively. For 6-d-old soybean (U.S. soybean) seedlings, when only their roots were heat-shocked at 40⊥ for 3h there are at least two abnormal proteins (60 kD and 17 kD) to be obviously detected in their leaves. These abnormal proteins are named heat-shock effect proteins (HSEP). Meanwhile, a comparison of heat-shock protein and HSEP in their distribution of sizes of molecular weights has been made. A possible pathway in which the abnormal proteins could be induced is discussed. In addition, a possible physiological function of heat-shock proteins was also investigated, using a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide.
Abstract (Browse 1804)  |  Full Text PDF       
Helical Structure Revealed upon the Condensation and Decondensation of Chromosomes of Vicia faba
Author: Xing Miao and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    By using conventional and stereo electron microscopy, helical structures were revealed in prophase and telophase chromosomes of root tip cells of Vicia faba. Longitudinal and transverse sections of the chromosomes showed that both prophase and telophase chromosomes were composed of chromatin fibres about 0.5米m in diameter and among the 0.5米m chromatin fibre thinner chromatin fibres with a diameter of about 0.2米m were found. In transverse sections, prophase chromosomes appeared to be a circular structure which contained a low electron density centre encircled by the 0.5 米m fibre. In longitudinal section of the chromosomes, the 0.5 米m fibres were seen to be orientated parallel to each other while constituted roughly a right angle to the long axis of the chromosome. Helical coils consisting of the 0.5米m fibre were identified easily by stereo electron microscopy. In transverse sections of telophase chromosomes, both the circular structure similar to that of the prophase chromosomes and the hoof-shaped structure composed of the 0.5米m fibre were observed, demonstrating4 the de-spiralization of the helical coils in the decondensation of the chromosomes. Based on these observations, the radial loop. model and the multiple coiling model are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       
Release of Pollen Protoplasts in Large Quantities in Brassica napus and B. compestris var. purpurea
Author: Li Shi-qiong, Yang Hong-yuan and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    Protoplasts were released in large quantities from mature pollen of Brassica napus L. and B. campestris var. purpurea for the first time, with a yield up to 66.7% and 70.4% respectively. Most of the pollen protoplasts were viable as tested by fluorochromatic reaction with fluorescein diacetate. The success of isolation of pollen protoplasts in these two Brassica species relied on a technique modified from the previous method developed for several monocotyledonous flowers. The procedure included two steps: First, the pollen was hydrated in 1 mol/L of sucrose solution at 28每30⊥ for ca. 9h. During this process, the exine of most pollen dehisced and was detached from the pollen grains which were then covered by intine alone. Second, the hydrated pollen was transferred into an enzyme solution containing 1% cellulase, 1% pectinase, I mol/L mannitol, 0.5% potassium dextran sulphate and Ks medium salts. After 4每6 of enzymatic maceration, the intine was degradated resulting in the release of protoplasts. Factors affecting the two steps have been investigated.
Abstract (Browse 1826)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure and Lipase Activity of Cotyledon cell During Pod Development in Peanut
Author: Zhuang Wei-jian, Peng Shi-yao and Zhang Ming-lai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    A series of significant changes of the ultrastructure and lipase activity of cotyledon cell were found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) during pod development. In he initial stage of cotyledon development there were many plastids which kept producing starch grain and there were low lipase activity and very few lipid and protein bodies in the cell. In the middle stage of cotyledon development, a great number of larger lipid bodies were seen in the cell and a lot of protein bodies formed in the vacuoles and continued to increase in size. Lipase activity increased in the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, protein bodies, plasmalemma and intercellular space. In the later stage of cotyledon development, the lipid bodies did not increase in number but became slightly larger. The protein bodies continued to increase both in number and in size. Lipase acttvity was even hegher in the cytoplasm. In the final stage the protein bodies became irregular in shape and some of them tended to disintegrate with their content entered into the space around the lipid bodies. The lipase activity in the cell declined. The results indicated that the lipid body originated in the cytoplasm and the protein body originated in the vacuole; that the accumulation of oil and protein in peanut cotyledon resulted from the formation and development of lipid and protein bodies in the cell, and that the changes of plasmid and lipase activity in the cell played a role in the development of lipid body during the development of cotyledon.
Abstract (Browse 1904)  |  Full Text PDF       
Incorporation of Exogenous Macromolecules and Impermeable Fluorescent Dyes into the Developing Proembryo in Triticum aestivum
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng, Yan Wen-mei, Shan Shuang-jian and Gao Xiao-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    Our recent work has uncovered that a direct communication is established between the developing wheat proembryo and the surrounding medium at the parietal area of the basal region, in which a few cells were undergoing structural deformation and disintegration. With fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy a series of experiments were conducted by using cationized ferritin and lucifer yellow CH as tracers to investigate the above mentioned ※direct communication§ in relation to the absorption of external materials. Evidences obtained show that either the macromolecule, ferritin, or the fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow actually can enter into the proembryo cells through non-transmenbrane pathway. Ultrastructural studies confirm that the incorporation of these external chemicals is realized by traversing a special route (ectodesma-like plasmodesmata and open channels) at the boundary wall of the local area of the basal region.
Abstract (Browse 1904)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Transformation of Legume Forage Cicer Milkvetch
Author: Peng Li-hong, Zhou Yue-kun, Wang Guang-li,Zhao Wei-ping and Lin Zhong-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(5)
      
    Astragalus cicer is a fine legume forage. 15kD zein is a sulphur-rich protein, of which sulphur-containing amino acid amounts to 15.63% of the total amino acids. The chimeric plasmid of 15kD zein gene regulated by rbcS promoter was introduced into Astragalus citer by Agrobacterium mediated, and transformed plants have been obtained. NPT j enzyme activity had been demonstrated in the kanamycin-resistant plantlets. The data from Southern blot indicated that the 15kD zein gene had been integrated into the chromosomal genome of Astragalus cicer.
Abstract (Browse 1815)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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