June 1992, Volume 34 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Construction of Alfalfa Genomic Library and Some Improvements in Methodology
Author: Guan Chang-hui, Zheng Hong-gang,Wang Bin and Jing Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    A genomic library of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was constructed using 竹 bacteriophageEMBL4 as vector. The number of the phage recombinants obtained was 8.75℅ l05 pfu which reached the desired capacity of the library, with some modifications of the frequently adopted methods in the experiments, high quality of the library was obtained. The use of urea and CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) in the preparation of genomic DNA increased the yield and removed the polysaccharides that inhibit many enzymes. The vector and donor DNAs were recovered by centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient, which could not only protect the cohesive ends of the DNA molecules, but also avoid the agarose contamination produced easily from electric elution or Iow melting point agarose in DNA recovery. Both the DNA insertion identification of the recombinant phages and the preliminary screening with an alfalfa leghemoglobin cDNA probe, proved the efficiency of the library.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Triterpenoids of Tripterygium regeli
Author: Shen Jian-hua and Zhou Bing-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    Ten triterpenoids were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of Tripteryglum regeli collected from Jilin Province, north-eastern China. They were identified as wilforlide A(1), wilforlide B(2), regelide (3) 3汕-hydroxy-olean-ll,13(18)-diene (4), orthosphenic acid (5), salaspermic acid (6), 3-epikatonic acid(7), maytenfolic acid (8), 3汕-acetyl-oleanolic acid (9), and celastrol (19), by spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlations. Compound 3〞10 were isolated from T. regeli for the first time, among them regelide 3 was a new comound and its structure was elucidated to be 3-keto-22汐-hydroxy-olean-ll,13(18)-dien-29-oic acid(29, 22汐)-lactone. 3-epikatonic acid(7)showed obvious spermicidal effect, while cealstrol (10)revealed significant immunosuppressive activity.
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Components of Cell Cultures of Arnebia euchroma
Author: Xiang Gui-qiong, Lu Fu-sun, Zhu Feng-chi, Li Guo-feng, Ye He-chun, Dong Jiao-wang, Wu Xin and Chen Jian-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    Five naphthaquinones were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the cell cultures of Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst.. Their structures were identified as deoxyshikonin, 汕,汕-dimethylacrylshikonin, acetylshikonin, teracrylshikonin and 汕-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin by means of chemical methods, HPLC, IR and 1H-NMR data respectively. There was no shikonin in the cell cultures, which was obtained from the roots of A. euchroma. The contents of each compound in the cell cultures are different from those in the roots of A. euchroma.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of PVA and PEG Pretreatment on Development and Ultrastructure of Plumular Root Mitochondria in Soybean Seed During Low Temperature Imbibition Process
Author: Yang Yun-zhu, Chen Wen-tao and Guo Jin-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    Electron microscope observation revealed that mitochondria in plumular root cells of soy bean seed were invisible at the beginning of seed germination. They were sequentially formed re-differentiated and developed from proplastids during the process of germination. The proplastids in the control plumular root markedly expanded at low temperature imbibition process and did not develop into mitochondria when normal temperature was restored. Even the structure of reticulata membrane was further destroyed and vacuolized. In contrast, mitochondria of soybean seed pretreated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polythylene glycol-6000 (PEG) continused to develop well under the same conditions, as characterized by a clear structure of bilayered membrane and tube cristae. The results suggest that continuous re-differentiation and development of proplastids into mitochondria at low temperature imbibition process play an important role in the increase of soybean seed vigour and its resistance to chilling injury.
Abstract (Browse 1818)  |  Full Text PDF       
Specific Proteins in Chloroplasts of Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Rice
Author: Wang Tai and Tong Zhe
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    The chloroplast proteins of a male-sterile mutant Nongken 58S, namely ※Hubei Photoperiod-sensitive Genic Male-sterile Rice§, which is male sterile under long day (LD) cycles and fertile under short day (SD) cycles, and its original cultivar Nongken 58 (Oryza sativa L. subsp, japonica, Nongken 58) at seedling stage and photoperiod sensitive stage of fertility transition could be resolved into at least 20 major and more than 70 minor protein components on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, with molecular weights ranging from 10kD to 67kD and isoelc points (pI) from 4.3 to 8.5. The mutant Nongken 58S had twospecific proteins with molecular weight of 45kD(pI6.7) and 61 kD (pI6.0) as compared with Nongken 58. Another 61 kD(pI6.2) protein was more in Nongken 58S than in Nongken 58. The existance of these proteins was not influenced by SD or LD treatment. The results showed difference in patterns of gene expression between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58. A possible function of these proteins in relation to regulation of sterility was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
Energy and Activated Oxygen Metabolisms in Anthers of Hubei Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Rice
Author: Chen Xian-feng and Liang Cheng-ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    The energy and activated oxygen metabolisms in male-sterile and fertile anthers of Hubei photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile rice (HPGMR)have been comparatively studied. Among the male-sterile anthers, lower total activities of cytochrome oxidase(COD), ATPase, peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) in six anthers of a spikelet were seen, which were equivalent to about 2每64%, 20每76%, 26每60%, 6每77%, 29每55%, respectively, of those of their fertile counterparts during different development stages of pollens. The sterile anthers lacked 1每5, 1, 1每2 isozyme bands of COD, POD and SOD, respectively, and also displayed lower content of ATP, higher contents of H202 and malondiald ehyde (MDA) and higher efficiency of O2- which were equivalent to about 14每77%, 152每424%, 153每238%, 230每340%, respectively, of those of their corresponding fertile ones. It is concluded that the physiological features of male-sterile anthers, viz. lower efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, higher efficiency of O2 and H202 generation, weaker activity of scavenger system of activated oxygen and higher level of lipid peroxidation, are indicative of some relationship between abnormal energy, activated oxygen metabolisms in male-sterile anthers and male-sterility in HPGMR.
Abstract (Browse 1825)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Isotype of Tubulins in Mung Bean Seedlings
Author: Liu Jian, Wang Xiu-zhen and Pang Shu-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    The tubulin in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) seedling was purified by employing DE-AE-A50 ionic exchange column and PGGE. Western blot and immunodot analysis indicated that there are two kinds of isotubulins which have different degree of polymerization. The subunit molecular weights of monomer were 56kD and 56.5kD and those of tetramer were 54 kD and 54.5kD. The results suggest that the assembly of 汐-and 汕-Subunit is a selective process which might be related to the expression of tubulin genes.
Abstract (Browse 1779)  |  Full Text PDF       
Role of Lysosomal Vesicles in the Digestive Process of Armillaria mellea by the Large Cells of Gastrodia elata
Author: Wang He, Xu Jing-qiu and Xu Jin-tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    The hyphae of Armillaria mellea Fr. invade the large ceils of Gastrodia elata BI. Through the wall pits of cortical cells. During early stage the plasmalemma of large cell invaginates and the cell wall forms papillary thickenings to restrain the hyphae from invading. When a hypha enters a large cell, it is encircled tightly by the invaginated plasmalemma which is surrounded by a large number of vesicles coated by a unit membrane. As these vesicles fusing with their membranes to the plasmalemma and discharging their contents into the space around the hypha, the space lined by the invaginated plasmalemma enlarges gradually and becomes a digestive vacuole in which a hypha is completely digested. Reaction product form acid phosphatase activities in the vesicles and digestive vacuoles testifies that the vesicles and digestive vacuoles are identical with primary and secondary lysosomes of plant lysosomal system respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl. EndEmic in China
Author: Ma Zhong-wu and He Guan-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    Four compounds were for the first time isolated from trunk of Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl. grown in Yunnan. They were identified as 3-epi-betulinic acid(l), 3,5,7-tri-hydroxy-flavanonol (pinobanksin) (2), daucosterol (3) and 汕-sitosterol (4), respectively by chemical and spectral (IR, NMR, and MS) analyses. 1 and 2 were the main components.
Abstract (Browse 2003)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Saponins from Aralia decaisneana Hance
Author: Fang Zha-pu, Zhou Ying-xin and Zeng Xian-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    Three saponins (Ad-i, Ad-j, Ad-k) were isolated from root bark of Aralia decaisneana Hance, and a prosapogenin Ad-l was obtained from hydrolysis of Ad-k. Their structures were elucidated by spectra (IR, FAB-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C- NMR) and chemical analyses (acid and base hydrolysis), they were araloside A(Ad-i), 3-0- [汐-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1↙4)-汕-D-glucuronopyranosyl-]-oleanolic acid (Ad-j), 3-O-[汕-D-galactopyranosyl-(1↙4)-汕-D-galactopyranosyl-(1↙3)-汕- D-glucuronopyranosyl-]-oleanolic acid-28-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside (Ad-k), 3-0- [ -汕-D-galact opyranosyl- ( 1 ↙4)-汕-D-galactopyranosyl-( 1↙3 )-汕-D-glucuronopyrano- syl-]-oleanlic acid (Ad-l). Ad-i and j are for the first time found in this Plant, Ad-k and l are new compounds.
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
Amplectosporangium〞A New Genus of Plant from the Lower Devonian of Sichuan, China
Author: Geng Bao-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    A new genus and species Amplectosporangium jiangyouense, is described from the Pingyipu Formation (Siegenian) of the Lower Devonian in Jiangyou district, Sichuan, China. The plant consists of naked dichotomizing erect axes with terminal fertile branch-systems. Sporangia are oval-shaped each with a short stalk and are arranged along the inner side of dichotomized axes in single row. By comparison with other known Devonian plants the genus is considered to represent a new morphological type of early land plants. Based on the theory of the telomic origin of the ovular integument, the plant may represent an early stage in the evolution of integument.
Abstract (Browse 1676)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Analysis of Seasonal Variation of Vegetative Propagation and the Relationships Between Biomass and Population Density of Aneurolepidium chinense in Songnen Plain of China
Author: Yang Yun-fei and Zhang Bao-tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    Aneurolepidium chinense (Trin.) Kitag. is a perennial rhizome grass with fertile vegetative propagation. According to the field-investigation at fixed locations in fixed period, the seasonal change of vegetative propagation of A. chinense population and the autopopulation were specifically analysed. The results showed that both A. chinense population and the autopopulation could continuously make vegetative propagation in the entire growh season. The vegetative propagation brought more potential into play in the autopopulation of planting tillering than in the autopopulation of planting seedling, and the dynamics conformed to the Logistic curve growth for every experimental autopopulation in the planting growth season. The vegetative propagation of the population and the autopopulation was more seriously affected by the sexual development and the growth. The plant size was rigorously restricted by the population density, and the change of regularity followed每0.6699 power between mean weight per plant and the population density in the period of maximum biomass in the natural cutting grassland. The comprehensive analysis showed that A. chinense population depended on vegetative propagation and the population regeneration of the self-regulation, but the population hadnt far reached the most density which could be accommodated by standing conditions in the natural cutting grassland in the Songnen Plain of China.
Abstract (Browse 1760)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Algal Fossil from Early Cambrian in Qingzhen County, Guizhou Province, China
Author: Yin Chong-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    A new algal fossil was collected from the lower part of the Lower Cambrian, a Sinian-Cambrian boundary section in Abazhai of Qingzhen County, Guizhou Province. It was discovered in petrographic thin sections of a black laminated chert. The new fossil, Symphysosphaera radialis gen. et sp. nov. is a fossilized muhicellular colony characterized by a surface layer of cells enclosed in an envelope, inner cavity permeated with dark dense mucilage embedded with numerous spherical units. Its difference from all morphs discovered in Precambrian, indicates that the genus may represent member of a new order at the beginning of Cambrian. hs stratigraphic and biological significance merits our attantion.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Seed Development and Embryogenesis in Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg
Author: Fan Ru-wen,Ye Jian-guo,Yin Zeng-fang, Gao Han-dong and You Lu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    Embryogenesis, seed formation and the relationship between pollination and seeding rate were investigated by means of artificial pollination, X-ray analysis, routine paraffin-embedded sectioning technique and fluorescence assay. Pollen germinated two hours after artificial pollination and the peak germination rate reached by six hours. The stigma vitality lasted about thirty hr. The pollen tube grew into the stigma canal through the secretion between the stigma hairs, then passed the style canal, obturator and nucellar cap and finally reached the embryo sac where porogamy was conducted. Two weeks after artificial pollination, ab initio cellular endosperm was formed first as a narrow tissue of two to three cells in thickness, but six weeks later it filled the entire embryo sac, along with the disappearance of the nucellus. The spherical or cordate-like embryo appeared during the seventh to the eighth week. The cotyledon was formed during the fourteenth to the sixteenth week. By the twenty-second weeks the seed became matured, containing abundant endosperm, the seeding rate of an individual plant with natural pollination was less than 1%; after artificial pollination, however the highest seeding rate of an individual fruit could reach 39%, the average rate of nine fruits being 17.7%.
Abstract (Browse 1892)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two Novel Diterpenoid Alkaloids Isolated from Delphinium grandiflorum L.
Author: Li Cong-jun and Chen Di-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(6)
      
    Two minor novel diterpenoid alkaloids, grandifloricine (i) and grandifloritine (j), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Delphinium grandiflorurn L. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral evidences and confirmed by chemical transformations to takaosamine.
Abstract (Browse 1735)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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