July 1992, Volume 34 Issue 7

 

          Research Articles
Application of Polyethylene Glycol on Preparation of Plant Specimen of Freeze-Fracture
Author: Zhang He-min, Gao De-lu and Zhao Jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    We report for the first time the use of polyethylene glycol 1540 as a freeze-fracture reagent on plant specimen prepared for observation by scanning electron microscopy. This method is a good fracture technique after being successfully experimented, which in some aspect is better than the ※O-D-O§ method.
Abstract (Browse 1777)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphologied Studies of Ctenozamites Drep A-Noides Chen ET Duan Sp. Nov
Author: Zhang Ye Duan Shu-ying and Jiao Yue-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    The present paper deals with the exteral form and the cuticle structure of Ctenozamites drepanoides Chen et Duan sp. nov. The specimens were collected from the upper Triassic coal series of Liuzhi district, Guizhou province. Main characters of the new species: Leaf bipinnate, ultimate pinna lanceolate, pinnules drepaniform, entire, apex obtuse, pinnules arising from the upper side of pinna rachis. Cuticles rather thick. Stomatal apparatus haplocheilic, smaller, confined to the lower epidermis, scattered in the areas between veins, variably orientated, 70每80 per sq. mm.
Abstract (Browse 1986)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Growth of Asparagus Seedlings
Author: Lin Xian-gui, Gu Xi-xian and Hao Wen-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    Experiments on asparagus (Asparagus of)icinalis L.) inoculated with VA mycorrhizal fungi were conducted under two fluvo-aquatic phosphorus deficient soils. This study was to examine the growth response of VA mycorrhizae and fertilizer effects on the growth of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal asparagus seedlings in pots and under field conditions. Inoculation with VA mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased mycorrhizal infection and enhanced seedling growth. In treatments of fertilization by different batches of NPK or by different amount of application it was shown that phosphorus was most favourable to VAM activity. Both the prevalance of mycorrhizal infection and the dry weight of seedlings in treatment with NPK in 1:0:1 was similar to that in 1:1:1 and 1:2:1 after inoculation. Further more the prevalance of infection, plant growth and P content in the treatment of 1/2 an amount of NPK in 1:1:1 were even higer than those in full amount of NPK and in non-fertilization. It is indicated that phosphorus uptake and plant growth benefit greatly by mycorrhizal inoculation. Mycorrhizal plant requires only about half as much phosphorus to achieve maximum growth as the uninoculated plants.
Abstract (Browse 2207)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation of Storage Protein to Vigor and Its Mobilization Pattern in Germinating Peanut Seeds
Author: Huang Shang-zhi and Fu Jia-rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds harvested at the last stage of maturation were divided into five grades by size. The content of total protein, salt-soluble protein, arachin, conarachin I and 2s globulin in these seeds were measured. No obvious differences in germination percentage and the length of radicle and hypocotyl within 3d germination in dark were observed among the five grades of seeds. But there were significant differences in the seedling growth after two weeks of germination in light. There was a very close correlation between the storage protein in cotyledons and the seedling growth. When seeds germinated in light, the efficiency of mobilization of the salt-soluble protein in the cotyledons was higher than that in the cotyledons of the seeds germinating in dark. All of the salt-soluble protein in cotyledons was used up after 14d seedling growth in light. SDS-PAGE of salt-soluble protein showed that 23.5, 38.5 and 41 kD subunits of arachin were first mobilized during germination. The 18 kD subunits of arachin were not mobilized until the above-mentioned subunits were used up. The 60.5 kD subunit of conarachin I and 2s globulin were degradated within 2 to 3 days during germination.
Abstract (Browse 1920)  |  Full Text PDF       
Degradation of Storage Photosynthates in Isolated Spinach Mesophyll Cells in CO2-Free System and Its Regulatory Factors
Author: Xiong Fu-sheng, Gao Yu-zhu and Song Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    Isolated spinach (spinacia oleracea L.) mesophyll cells, after being preilluminated for 40 min for storage photosynthates loading (14C), were shifted into CO2-free mixture for investigation of storage photosynthates degradation and its regulatory factors. The loss of fixed carbon (14C) after 30 min incubation in CO2-free mixture in light was about 20%, which was much higher than that in dark (about 4.5%). The loss of fixed carbon was apparently stimulated by the increase of light intensity or O2 concentration and depressed by DCMU or NH4C1. Moreover, the loss of fixed carbon, especially the soluble fraction, was reduced by the addition of glycolate in light but not in dark. The obvious degradation of starch in spinach mesophyll cells in CO2-free system was monitored both in light and in dark. Unlike in dark, starch degradation in light was not associated with a detectable accumulation of the soluble products (PGA, Ribulose5-phosphate, sucrose etc.). Based on the above results, the different metabolic patterns for the products of starch degradation in light and in dark were discussed and the possible physiological roles were also proposed.
Abstract (Browse 1742)  |  Full Text PDF       
Contrast Study About Litter Dynamics of Main Communities in Aneurolepidium chinense Grassland Region in Northeast of China
Author: Guo Ji-xun and Zhu Ting-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    The standing death rate of main communities in Aneurolepidium chinense (Trin.) Kitag. grassland increased slowly in 5每8 months. After August, the standing death rate greatly quickened because the changes of ecological environment limited the growth of plants. The maximum standing death rate of A. chinense and Calamagrostis epigejos(L.) Roth-weed communities was in October and that of Puccinella tenuiflora (Griseb). Scrihn. et Merr. and Suaeda glauca (Bunge) Bunge communities was in September. The seasonal changes of litter weight followed the index law. The communities in the order of litter weight were: C. epigejos-weed community. A. chinense community>P. tenuiflora community>S. glauca community. There was a positive relationship between aboveground standing crop and litter before August, and a negative relationship after August.
Abstract (Browse 1758)  |  Full Text PDF       
Amplification of Soybean Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Its Sequence Analysis
Author: Chu Rui-yin, Leng Xiao-hong, Bao Yi-ming, Pu Zu-qin,Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    The results of cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding coat protein (CP) of soybean mosaic virus with PCR technique are reported. The virus RNA was extracted from purified viral particles. The first strand of cDNA was synthesized from viral RNA template primed with synthetic 3∩polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer using AMV reverse transcriptase. A DNA fragment with 0.8 kb was obtained after 30 PCR amplification cycles. The restriction map of the DNA fragment has been analyzed and its whole DNA sequence has been determined. The results show that the entire gene encoding the coat protein of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) has been cloned. The homologies of the DNA sequences and the deduced amino acid sequence between the SMV Sa strain shown here and the N strain of SMV published abroad are 96% and 96.6% respectively. The work of tranferring the CP gene into soybean to obtain transgenic soybean plants that resist to SMV infection is in progress.
Abstract (Browse 1885)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cambial Activity and on Which the Effects of Exogenous IAA in the Stem of Pinus sylvestris L.
Author: Cui Ke-ming, C. H. A. Little and B. Sundberg
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    The dormant cambial zone consisted of 5每6 cell layers in the main stem of Pinus sylvestris L. trees that were ca. I00 years old. Time of cambial reactivation was comparable at one (bottom) and 8 (top) meters above the ground. In spring, when the cambium reactivated, the number of cambial cells slightly increased and phloem cells were formed. The production of xylem cells followed 3每4 weeks later. The formation of xylem cells decreased, whereas that of phloem cells increased between late June and early July. Cambial reaction in 1-year-old cuttings that were debudded and treated apically with IAA in lanolin was similar to that in the ca. 100-year-old main stem. However, in debudded cuttings treated with plain lanolin, the number of cells in the carnbial zone decreased during the first week of culture, and only a few phloem cells were formed. Later, the fusiform cambial cells of the cambial zone were divided transversely and lost their typical morphology. It is proposed that some factor(s) from roots may stimulate the initiation of cambial cell division, because when the cambium reactivated, the number of cambial cells slightly increased in the ca. 100-year-old main stem, but decreased in the 1-year-old cuttings.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Photosynthesis, Respiration and Morphology of Nostoc flagelliforme
Author: Shi Ding-ji, Zhou Guo-fei, Fang Zhao-xi, Qiu Yuan-yuan, Zhong Ze-pu and Cui Zhi-you
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    Nostoc flagelliforme Born. et Flah. is one of the terrestrial cyanobacteria naturally distributed in arid and semi-arid areas in the Northern and the North-western parts of China. The cyanobacterium is an edible delicacy with special medical value. However, commercial N. flagelliforme has nov been collected from the field only. For cultivation of this valuable cyanobacterium, it is necessary to understand how it grows and how it adapts to the environment.The experimental material was collected in Siziwangqi of Nei Monggol. The effects of light intensity, temperature, pH, salinity, length of thallus and rewetting on photosynthesis and respiration of N. fiagelli[orme were measured using an oxygen electrode. The results were as follows: The photosynthetic light compensation point was around 40每90米mol photons﹞m-2﹞s-1, the light saturation point was 1200米mol photons﹞m-2﹞s-1, and no photoinhibition appeared when the light intensity was increased to 1800米mol photons﹞ m-2﹞s-1. N. fiagelliforme exhibited its photosynthetic and respiratory activities in the temperature range of 5每45⊥. The optimum temperature for its photosynthesis was 25⊥ and that for respiration was 35--40⊥. Between pH range of 4.5每9.5 N. flagelliforme had photosynthetic activity and respiratory activity at pH range of 4-10, with optimum pH for photosynthesis at 7.5 and for respiration at 7.5每8.0. N. flagelliforme exhibited maximum net photosynthesis in 0.15mol/L of NaC1 in BG-11 medium. When the salinity was increased to 0.9 mol/L the net photosynthesis dropped down to zero. Respiration decreased concordantly with the increasing salinity as well. Maxima photosynthesis and respiration was also detected when the thallus of N. flagelliforme reached a length of 0.5cm and aftewords the more the length the less the activities. The recovery time attaining to the maximum photosynthesis and respiration activities after rewetting was dependent on storage time in dryness. The cyanobacterial mats after being reserved for 3 months, attained its maximum photosynthesis by 0.5h after rewetting, and that being reserved for 18 months needed 3.5h after rewetting. For respiration, the mats reserved for 3 months and 18 months required 5 minutes and lh after rewetting, respectively to attain its maximum. Under scanning electron microscope, cells of N. flagelliforme were wrapped up within a gluey sheath, and usually attached closely to each other in pairs and the filaments were uni-trichome with branches in some cases. The surface of thallus tip was rougher than other parts which meant that the tip portion had greater surface area beneficial to water absorption and cell growth.
Abstract (Browse 2687)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protoplast Culture and Plant Regeneration of Angelica dahurica
Author: Xia Guang-min, Li Zhong-yi, Guo Guang-qin and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    White and soft calli were induced from the stemnodes of Angelica dahurica on MS medium containing lmg/L 2,4-D, and subcultured on the same medium with decreased concentration of the hormone for about half a year, until quite a number of embryogenic cell clusters were produced in calli. Protoplasts prepared only from this kind of callus were regenerable. The protoplasts-derived colonies were able to develop into embryos directly or to grow continously into calli as affected by the hormone and, in particular, by osmotic pressure in the culture medium. The embryos either formed directly or via callus stage were all capable of regenerating complete plants under proper culture conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure of Embryo Sac Before and After Fertilization and Distribution of Transfer Cells in Ovules of Green Gram
Author: Wang Chun-gang and Xi Xiang-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    The structure of embryo sac before and after fertilization, embryo and endosperm development and transfer cell distribution in Phaseolus radiatus were investigated using light and transmission electron microscopy. The synergids with distinct filiform apparatus have a chalazal vacuole, numerous mitochondria and ribosomes. A cell wall exists only around the micropylar half of the synergids. The egg cell has a chalazally located nucleus, a large micropylar vacuole and several small vacuoles. Mitochondria and plasrids with starch grains are abundant. No cell wall is present at its chalazal end. There are no plasma membranes between the egg and central cell in several places. The zygote has a complete cell wall, abundant mitochondria and plastids containing starch grains. Both degenerated and persistent synergids migh.t serve as a nutrient supplement to proembryo. The wall ingrowths occur in the central cell, basal cell, inner integumentary cells, suspensor cells and endosperm cells. These transfer cells may contribute to embryo nutrition at different developmental stages of embryo.
Abstract (Browse 4193)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mitosis and Amitosis of Generative Cell Nuclei in Artificially Germinated Pollen Tubes in Zephyranthes candida(Lindl.)Herb.
Author: Mo Yong-sheng and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    This paper deals with the comportmem of the vegetative nucleus and its spatial association with the generative cell and sperm cells in the artificially germinated pollen tubes of Zephyranthes candida (Lindl.) Herb. before and after generative cell mitosis with the use of DNA-specific fluochrome 4∩,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The induction of amitosis and abnormal mitosis of generative cell nuclei by cold-pretreatment of the pollen prior to germination was studied in particular. In normal case, the generative cell, after appressing to the vegetative nucleus for certain time, underwent mitosis to form two sperms, while the vegetative nucleus became markedly elongated, diffused, and exhibited blurring of its fluorescence. After division, a pair of sperms remained shortly in close connexion with the vegetative nucleus. Then the vegetative nucleus returned to its original state. In the pollen tubes germinated from cold-pretreated pollen, amitosis of some generative cell nuclei were frequently observed. Amitosis took place via either equal or unequal division with a mode of constriction. During amitosis, the dynamic change of vegetative nucleus and its intimate association with generative cell afore described did not occur. Sperm nuclei produced from amitosis could farther undergo amitisis resulting in micronnclei. Factors affecting the amitosic rate of generative cells, such as pollen developmental stage, temperature and duration of cold-pretreatment, were studied. Besides amitosis, cold-pretreatment also induced some abnormal mitotic behavior leading to the formation of micronuclei. Based on our observations and previously reported facts in other plant materials, it is inferred that the vegetative nucleus plays an important role in normal mitosis of generative cell and development of sperms.
Abstract (Browse 2104)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytohistological Study on Somatic Embryogenesis in Asparagus officinalis L.
Author: Zhao Jie and Cheng Jing-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(7)
      
    The single cell was the first cell of somatic embryoid in Asparagus officinalis L.. Electron microscopic observations revealed that early embryogenic cells and meristematic cells had the same characteristics in cell shape and structure. The embryogenic cell was small in size, with large nucleus, dense cytoplasm, thin wall, lots of small vacuoles, and rich in organelles. At later stage, the polarity of embryogenic cell appeared, i.e. nucleus situated at one end of the cell, while the other end was occupied by a large vacuole. The polar type of the embryc)genic cell was similar to that of a zygote. Light microscopic observations revealed :hat ihe embryoids were sequentially differentiated through 2-cells, 4-cells, 8-cells, multicellular proembryo, globularshaped, pear-shaped, rod-shaped, cotyledonary-differentiated and mature embryo stages. The heart-shaped and torpedo-shaped stages were observed during the early stage of embryogenesis. In addition, a typical embryoids were also found in vitro.
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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