September 1992, Volume 34 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
Projects of Plant Science Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1991
Author: Zhu Da-bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
Palaeoclimate and Palaeoenvironment of the Last Glacial Stage in Salawusu Area of Nei Monggol, China
Author: Ke Man-hong,Sun Jian-zhong and Wei Ming-jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    Salawusu area of Nei Monggol, is the famous ruins of ¡°Hetao man¡± and their culture. It is also the native haunt of Salawusu Fauna and the typical site of the late Pleistocene in northern China. By densely sampling and carefully analysing, the authors worked out a beautiful and complete pollen-spore diagram of the Salawusu section, which records in detail the proccess of the vegetational development and the climatic changes of this region since Last Glacial periode, about 60 ka B.P. Accordingly, the last glacial period may be divided into three substages: Early, middle and late substage, corresponding to the pollen-spore zones: ¢ñ,¢ò, and ¢ó. Substages are divided into cold stadials and relative warmmer tnterstadials, corresponding to subzones of pollenspore zones. This scheme can be well correlated with that of other regions in China, in Europe, in America and the results of the oxygen isotopic research in deep sea, all over the world.
Abstract (Browse 1803)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phenotypic Variation and Changes of Chromosome Number in Plantlets Regenerated from Potato Protoplasts
Author: Li Geng-guang, Zhang Lan-ying and Chen Ru-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    Morphological variation and change of chromosome number in the plantlets of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Xiao Yie Zi ¡Á Duo Zi Bai) regenerated from mesophyll protoplasts have been studied. The normal plantlets from protoplasts were similar to parent plants. Their chromosome numbers were 2n = 48¡Àor 2n= 72 of euploid. The plantlets with distinctive phenotypic variation were likely to be aneuploid with increased chromosome numbers.
Abstract (Browse 1748)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Elsholtzia eriostachya Benth.
Author: Zheng Shang-zhen, Li Xiu-rong, Shen Xu-wei and Pan Xin-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    Sixteen constituents were isolated from the hot alcohoic extract of the whole plant of a Chinese medicinal herb Elsholtzia eriostachya Benth.. Twelve of them were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical evidences as follows: dotriacontanoic acid £¨l£©, ¦Â-sitosterol£¨2£©, succinic acid £¨3£©, aretigenin (5), 3-hydroxyarctiin £¨7£©, luteolin-5-O-¦Â-D-glucoside £¨8£©, luteolin-7-O-¦Â-D-glucoside (9), gentisic acid -5-O-¦Â-D-glucopranoside (10), hyperoside (11), morin-7-O-¦Â-D-glucopranoside £¨12£©, isoskuranetin-7-O-¦Â-D-neohesperidoside £¨14£©, acacetin-7-O-¦Â-D-rutinoside £¨15£© 7 is a new compound, and eight compounds (3, 5, 8, 10,11,12,14 and 15) were isolated from Elsholtzia for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analyses of Soluble Protein, Total and Free Amino Acids in Leaves of Different Ecotypes of Phragmites communis Growing in the Hexi Corridor
Author: Ren Dong-tao and Zhang Cheng-lie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    The difference of total and free amino acids and protein extracted from the leaves of four different reed ecotypes growing in Hexi corridor of Gansu Province were investigated. In all of the different reed ecotypes, the content of Asp, Glu, Gly, Leu and Ala in total amino acids were high, while the contents of Ala, Phe, Met and Thr, Pro in total amino acids varied among different reed ecotypes. Albeit Ala, Glu, Asp, Gly and Ser were the chief composition of free amino acids in leaves of all reed ecotypes, but temarkble difference was found in the content of each free amino acid from different reed ecotypes. The content of free Pro in leaves of salt meadow and salt meadow-sand dune transitional zone reed were 3.5 and 1.6 times respectively as much as in leaves of swamp reed. Swamp reed had 11 soluble proteins whereas other three reed ecotypes show that each has 13 soluble proteins. Three ¡°salt adaptation proteins¡± (66 kD, 40.3 kD, 16.5 kD) were found in leaves of three reed ecotypes with varying degree of salt stress, however, the contents of 3 ¡°salt adaptation protens¡± showed a negative correlation with the degree of salt stress. There was a large amount of ¡°special protein¡± (11.7 kD) in leaves of sand dune reeds. These results suggest that the difference in cytogene expression takes a priority basis of adaptation of reed plants to different habitats, while a closer relationship of reeds tolerance to salt or drought stress with Pro accumulation in cells is seen than with the of accumulation stress adaptation protein.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Fusion of Sperm Cells in Several Bicellular Pollen Species
Author: Mo Yong-sheng and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    Living sperm cells were isolated in large quantities from the pollen tubes, grown by the in vivo-in vitro technique in 8 bicellular pollen species belonging to 5 families. An ¡°osmotic shook weak enzyme treatment¡± method could effectively release sperms from pollen tubes and favor sub sequent purification. The viable sperm yields were up to 82.9% in Zephyranthes candida and 78.2% in Hemerocallis minor. Fusions were successfully induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) according to the "small-scale fusion" procedure in various combinations, viz., between the same sperm cells in 5 species, between sperm cells of Gladiolus gandavensis and Hippeastrum vitta turn, between sperm cells and microspore protoplasts in Hemerocallis minor, and between sperm cells of H. vittatum and microspore protoplasts of Hemerocallis fulva. Test with fluorochrome reaction, more than 85% of the fusion products of sperm cells in Z. candida were viable. The yieid of viable fusion products between sperm cells and microspore protoplasts in Hemerocallis minor was about 75% and half of them could survive after culture for 24h. The induction of fusion between sperm cells and petal protoplasts in G. gandavensis by a combined PEG-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment was investigated in detail. About 90% of the fusion products thus obtamed were viable. Several critical factors affecting the fusion efficiency were studied. These included the ratio of sperm cell number to petal protoplast number in the mixture, concentrations of PEG and DMSO, and duration of incubation in the inducing solution. It appeared that addition of DMSO could significantly increase the fusion frequency, and that there may be a synergistic effect between PEG and DMSO. This is the first attempt to use isolated sperm cells for fusion studies in bicellular pollen species.
Abstract (Browse 2128)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seasonal Variations of Secondary Phloem Development in Pterocarya Stenoptera and Its Relation to Feeding of Kerria yunnanensis
Author: Zhang Zhen-jue, Chen Zhong-ren, Lin Jin-yi and Zhang Yong-tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    Early in April of 1987, cells in an undifferentiated state which overwintered on the phloem side of the cambial zone in the branch of Pterocarya stenoptera began to differentiate into merebets of phloem. Cambium divided actively in mid-April and ceased to decide by early-Novembet. Five to eleven bands of fibers alternating with the bands of sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma cells produced every year. By mid to late April, new xylem differentiation began. Phloem and xylem differentiation ceased almost simultaneously. Functional sieve tube elements were present all the year round in the phloem. During winter, most sieve tubes produced in the current year ceased functioning, leaving only the zone of functional sieve tube of several rows of cells in width with open pores in the sieve plates. These sieve tubes did not collapse until mid-May. In October, several rows of partially differentiated sieve elements appeared near the cambial zone. They still possessed nuclei. The companion cells had produced but no P-protein. They matured during April of the following year and collapsed by July to September. The life span of sieve elements extended for 8 months at the most. In winter, there were less functional sieve tubes in the branch. This may be one of the reasons that only few Kerria yunnanensis survive on the branch of Pterocarya stenoptera.
Abstract (Browse 1795)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Studies in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.
Author: Cai Xue and Shen Jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    This paper reports the studies of overall embryology of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Development of the anther wall follows the dicotyledonous type. The cytokinesis of the microspore mother cell in meiosis is of simultaneous type. The arrangement of microspores in tetrad is tetrahedral, isobilateral and decussate. Microspores have various types of abortive to development. Mature pollen grain is of the 2-celled type. The ovule is bitegminous, crassinucellate and campylotropous. The megaspore mother cell gives rise to unequal dyad and then linear tetrad. The chalazal megaspore, the second or the third megaspore towards the micropylar end are functional megaspore. The development of the embryo sac conforms to the Polygonum type. Mature embryo sac has various types of variation. The fertilization belongs to the premitotic type of syngamy. The development of most embryoes belongs to the Onagrad type. The development of the endosperm belongs to the nuclear type and the endosperm near the chalazal end develops into haustorium.
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship Between Temperature Stress Resistance and Changes of the Endogenous Scavengers of Activated Oxygen in Hybrid Rice
Author: Fan Shu-yang and Guo Shao-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    The seedlings of hybrid rice were exposed to low(l¡æ) and high (40¡æ) temperatures and the permeability of plasma membrane, the activities of SOD, catalase, and peroxidase were assayed and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid and glutathione were estimated. The ability of the seedlings to scavenge activated oxygen progresively decreased with the time of exposure to low temperature, concurrently MDA gradually accumulated and the permeability of the plasma membrane decreased. The amounts of MDA increased were different in the two hybrid combinations and were not in accordance with the ability of cold resistance. Comparing the more resistant variety ¡°Wei-you 287¡± with the less resistant variety ¡°Wei-you 49¡±, it was found that the leakage of electrolytes, the activities of SOD, peroxidase and catalase and the content of glutathione were all higher in the more resistant variety, but the accumulation of MDA was more in the less resistant variety. Higher temperature was less harmful than lower one to the seedlings of hybrid rice. Both enzymic and non-enzymic systems scavenging activated oxygen were similarly important in protecting the seedlings from damage by such oxygen.
Abstract (Browse 1818)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preparation and Identification of Antidecapeptides of Subunit IV of Cytochrome b6-f Complex from Chloroplasts
Author: Zou Yu-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    Three synthetic decapeptides of subunit ¢ô of cytochrome b6-f complex were coulpled respectively with ovalumine and purified using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. They were served as antigens and injected into rabbits. Five weeks later, three kinds of monoclonal antibodies were obtained. Western blotting showed that there were immunoaffinity reactions between anti 17 kD-1, anti 17 kD-2, anti 17 kD-3 and 17kD band of cytochrome b6-f complex from spinach chloroplasts. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that there were immunoaffinity reactions between anti 17 kD-1, anti 17 kD-2, anti 17 kD-3 and thylakoid membranes from spinach chloroplasts. Therefore, these antibodies can be used as probes to survey the location and orientation of 17 kD on the two sides of thylakoid membranes.
Abstract (Browse 1756)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Armillaria mellea Elicitor on Alkaloid Production in Tissue Cultures of Corydalis yanhusuo
Author: Zhang Yin-lin, Zhu Min and Zhao Bao-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    It has shown that alkaloid accumulation in tissue cultures of Corydalis yanhusuo orchestrated to some extent the growth in cultures. Some alkaloids, such as tetrahyclropalmatine continued to increase in the static phase of culture growth. The culture solution of Armillaria mellea as an elicitor was able to promote alkaloids accumulation in cultures, as, for example, protopine was increased up to 0.114% DW. by the eliciting but remained at trace level in cultures without elicitor.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Wheat High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Gene Fragment Using Polymerase Chain Reaction
Author: Li Yu-qing, Gao Kai-ming, Xin Hua, Gu Qi-min and Sun Chong-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    The gene fragments of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yang Mai No.4) high-molecularweight (HMW) glutenin subunit were amplified in vitro using two chemically synthetic oligonucleotide primers and Taq DNA polymerase after 35 cycles of polyrnerase chain reaction. The amplified fragments were cloned into plasmid Bluescript SK+ and the sequence of 608 bp inserted fragment was obtained in two directions. The sequence information has shown that the 608 bp fragment included downstream region of CAAT box and coding region for 166 N-terminal AA of wheat HMW glutenin subunit. As compared with HMW glutenin subunit genes from other species of wheat, it shows that the fragment amplified is a new HMW glutenin gene fragment.
Abstract (Browse 1950)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Thylakoid Membrane Stacks and Chl a/b Ratio of Chloroplast from Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Seeds During Their Germination Under Light
Author: Zuo Bao-yu, Li Guo-qing,Tang Chong-qin, Jiang Gui-zhen and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1992 34(9)
      
    Changes of chloroplast thylakoid membrane stacks and Chl a/b ratio in the plumule of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) seeds during their germination under light were as follows: Before germination there were giant grana and very low Chi a/b ratio (0.9) in the chloroplasts. Two days after germination, the thylakoid membranes of the giant grana gradually loosened and even destacked (disintegrated), the Chl a/b ratio was 1.06. Four clays after germination, the newly formed grana thylakoid membranes were 3¨C5 times shorter than those of the supergrana thylakoid membranes before germination and less grana stacks were seen; the Chl a/b ratio was 1.42. Six days after germination, the stacked thylakoi membranes became more orderly arranged. In addition the grana increased in number, the stroma thylakoid membranes were scarce, the Chl a/b ratio was 2.16. Eiglt days after germination, the thylakoid membranes in each granum decreased, but the total number of grana increased only slightly. In the meantime, some large starch grains and more stroma thylakoid membranes appeared; the Chl a/b ratio was 2.77. Ten days after germination normal thylakoid membrane structure was formed both in grana and stroma lamellae. They were arranged orderly as in the chloroplasts of other higher plants; the Chl a/b ratio was 2.80. The following conclusions could be drawn from the above mentioned results: 1) There was a negative correlation between the degree of stacking of the grana thylakoid membranes and the Chl a/b ratio. This statement further proved that the membranes stacking might mainly be induced by LHCII. 2) Development of the grana thylakoid membranes within chloroplasts from sacred lotus plumule followed that of the stroma thylakoid membranes, and the tendency of changes of their Chl 2/b ratio being from the lowest to the highest and then to normal were quite different from those of other higher plants. The chloroplasts iri the latter plants contain long parallel stacks of nonappressed primary thylakoids at second step, and the changes of their ratio of Chl a/b tend to be from the highest to the lowest and then to normal. There are indications that sacred lotus plumule might employ a distinctive developing pathway. This provides an important basis for Nelumbo to possess an unique position in phylogeny of Angiospermae.
Abstract (Browse 2238)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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