January 1993, Volume 35 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Cytological Studies on the Process of Armillaria Mellea Infection Through the Sclerotia of Grifola Umbellata
Author: Guo Shun-xing and Xu Jin-tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    Adhering to the sclerotium of Grifola umbellata, Armillaria mellea could invade the sclerotium in a manner of rhizomorph without capsule, after which the sclerotium formed a deep coloured stereoscopic septate cavity outside of the rhizomorph. At the early stage of infection, segmentation was visualized either in the cortex or the apex of A. mellea rhizomorph to form a new rhizomorph which penetrated another parts of G. umbellata sclerotium. At the late stage of infection, the cortical hyphae of A. mellea rhizomorph produced a branch to invade the wall of the septate cavity of G. umbellata sclerotium and, in a manner of hyphae, it could further form new rhizomorph after its penetration through that wall. An alternate way of expanding A. mellea infection in sclerotium was to form a invading band which was composed of a few rolls of round ceils derived from cortical hyphae of A. mellea rhizomorph. The band could invade sclerotia to a farther distance and then could connect with each other.
Abstract (Browse 1889)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryo and Endosperm Development in Isatis Tinctoria L. and the Histochemical Study of Its Storage Reserve
Author: Xi Xiang-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    The ovule is anatropous and bitegmic. The nuceIlar cells have disorganized except the chalazal proliferating tissue. The curved embryo sac comprises an egg apparatus and a central cell with two palar nuclei and wall ingrowths on its micropylar lateral wall. The antipodal cells disappear. Embryo development is of the Onagrad type. The filament suspensor grows to a length of 785 米m and degenerats at tarpedo embryo stage. The basal cell produces wall ingrowths on the micropylar end wall and lateral wall. The cells of mature embryo contain many globular protein bodies, 2.5每7.5 米m in diameter, composed of high concentration of protein and phytin, insoluble polysaccharide and lipid. The cells, except procambium, also contain many small starch grains. Some secretory cavities scattered in the ground tissue have liquidlike granules composed of protein, ploysacchaide and lipid. Endosperm development follows the nuclear pattern. At the late heart embryo stage, the endosperm around the embryo and the upper suspensor and the peripheral endosperm of the basal region of the U-shaped embryo sac becomes cellular. The endosperm at micropylar and chalazal ends remains free nuclear phase until the late bended cotyledon stage. Wall ingrowths at both micropylar and chalazal end wall and lateral wall of the embryo sac become more massive during endosperm development. Wall ingrowths also occur on the outer walls of the outer layer endosperm cells at both ends and lateral region of the embryo sac. When the embryo matures, many layers of chalazal endosperm ceils including 2每4 layers of transfer cells, a few of micropylar endosperm cells and 1每5 layers of peripheral endosperm cells are present. The nutrients of the embryo and endosperm at different stages of development are also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Anatomical Studies on Root Structure of Ranunculaceae
Author: Chen Yong-zhe and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    This paper deals with comparative studies of the root structure in 65 species of 36 genera of Ranunculaceae. Five types of the root structure were recognized in these species. A. The roots, in which the primary xylem was surrounded by the tracheary elements of the secondary xylem and the ray was absent, were always diarchy, as seen in Coptis. B. The rays were narrow and the tracheary elements of the secondary xylem were semicircle in shape, and the roots were diarchy, as seen in Leptopyrum. C. The rays and tracheary elements of the secondary xylem were sector in shape, and the roots were di-, tri-, and tetrarchy, as seen in Cimicifuga, etc. D. There was a few secondary xylem in the roots. D1. Primary structure was diarchy, in Kingdonia. D2. The roots were di-, tri-, tetra- and pentarchy, in Ranunculus etc. E. The secondary structure was absent. El. The roots were diarchy, in Asteropyrum. E2. They were di-, tri-, tetra- and pentarch, as seen in Caltha. According to comparative anatomical studies on the characteristics of the vessel elements and other parts of plant (carpel, petiole and vena- tion), the roots which were always diarcby whether in older or young, and whether the tra- .cheary elements of the secondary xylem well orless developed, could be considered as the most primitive type, for example: type A (Coptis) and type El (Asteropyrum). It would be con- cluded that the evolution of the root structure from primitive to specialized type was in the order from type A↙B↙C↙D2↙E2 and E1↙D1 in Ranunculaceae.
Abstract (Browse 2379)  |  Full Text PDF       
Numerical Characteristics of Pollen Assemblages of Surface Samples from the West Kunlun Mountains
Author: Weng Cheng-yu,Sun Xiang-jun and Chen Yin-shuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    A total of 31 suface sediment samples were collected from West Kunlun Mountain in south Xinjiang Autonomous Region in northwest China. These samples are from seven types of vegetation: Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey. forest, Sabina Spach. woodland, sub-alpine steppe, alpine meadow, desert vegetion, cushion-vegetation and vegetation adjancent to glaciers. Pollen percentages and pollen concentrations were calculated in all samples. The dominant pollen types in the region are Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia, Picea, Ephedra, Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Compositae etc. In order to reveal the relationship between pollen composition and the vegetation type from which the soil sample was collected, principal component analysis and group average cluster analysis were employed on the pollen data. The results revealed that the major vegetation types in this region could be distinguished by pollen composition: a. Samples from desert vegetation were dominated by pollen of Chenopodiaceae (about 60195%). The percentages of all other pollen types were low. b. Picea forest samples were rich in Picea pollen (about 20%) Sabina forest had more Sabina pollen grains than other vegetation types (about 5%, others <1%). Pollen percentages of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra were comparatively higher (each about 20%) in these samples from the two types of vegetations. C. Pollen percentages of Artemisia, Cyperaceae, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae were high in both sub-alpine steppe and alpine meadow. But steppe containal more Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (steppe 33.75% and 32.30%, meadow 15.57% and 19.48% in average), less Cyperaceae and Gramineae (steppe 2.58% and 7.60%, meadow 22.35% and 12.93% in average) than meadow. d. Samples from cushion-vegetation and vegetation adjacent to glaciers were mainly composed of pollen grains transported from other sites. It was not easy to distinguish them from other vegetation types. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis distinguish samples from Picea forest, Sabina woodland, sub-alpine steppe, alpine meadow and desert vegetation. Therefore we think it will be possible to apply the module to reconstruct past vegetation in this region and other similar regions. Regression analysis was also applied to reveal the relationships between pollen and plant percentages of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae and Gramineae. The results indicated that a linear relationship existed between pollen and plant percentages for Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaeeae.
Abstract (Browse 1984)  |  Full Text PDF       
Screening of Lysine-rich Plant Species and Identification of the Purified Proteins
Author: Liu Bo-lin,Jing Yu-xiang and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    The nutritional quality of seed proteins from cereals, such as wheat and rice, is comparatively low due to its deficency in lysine and some essential amino acids. In this research extensive varieties of plant seed samples were collected and screened by analysis of amino acid composition. Three lysing-rich species which contain more than 6.7% of lysine in total seed proteins were found. 31 kinds of proteins were purified from a species which contains 7.9% of lysine using the modified methods of IEF and SDS electrophoresis. One protein with PI 6.1 and 18 kD was identified which contains 11.4% of lysine and was rich in threonine, valine and isoleucine. This is the first example of the protein which could complement several limiting amino acids of wheat or rice. Further research on the structural gene encoding this protein would have great potential value for improvement of protein quality of these cereals.
Abstract (Browse 1783)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Cell Suspension Culture and Fermentation Culture in Arnebia euchroma
Author: Dong Jiao-wang,Ye He-chun,Wu Xin,Li Guo-feng,Wu Zheng-rong, Gu Li-min and Chen Jian-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    This paper reports some characteristics of cell suspension and fermentation culture in Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst. The yield of suspension culture reached 22.0g dry wt/L per month when inoculum quantity was 2.50 g dry wt/L. Time-course study showed that cell growith lagged in 0每3 days and enhanced greatly in 3每12 days, and almost ceased after 12 days of culture, pH value changed during the culture period and peaked on the 12th day after inoculation. When cells were cultured in liquid production medium, the contents of shikonin derivatives increased quickly and reached to the maximum about the 25th day. The cell yield of 9.47 and 9.34 g dry wt/L per month was obtained in fermentation culture. Timecourse of cell growth in fermentation culture was similar to that in suspension culture. The total content of shikonin derivatives in fermentation culture was 14.26% dry weight from 10 L bioreactor. The yield of shikonin derivatives was 1.93 g/L.
Abstract (Browse 2004)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of Calcium on Alleviating NaCl-Induced Injury Effects in Wheat Seedlings
Author: Zhao Ke-fu,Lu Yuan-fang,Zhang Bao-ze and Yi Jian-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    Wheat seedlings (Tritium aestivum "No. 1 Yuyuan") with 3 leaves were transplanted to 1/2 strangth Hoagland nutrient solution containing 100 mmol/L NaCl and supplemented with different concentrations of CaCI2, which were mode isosmotic by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) and aerated by pump. Results showed that the Na+ content of shoots and roots, relative leaf expansion rate, plasma membrane permeability, the levels of membrane lipid superoxidation and the molar percentage of monogalacrosyl diglyceride(MGDG), digalactosyl diglyceride(DGDG) phosphatidyl choline(PC) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine(PE) in membrane lipids of roots increased, the plant dry weight, K+ content, SOD activity and the molar percentage of phosphatidic acid(PA), phospatidyl inositol (PI), phosphatidyl glycerol(PG) and polyphosphoglyceric acid(PPG) decreased in roots. There was no change in sulfolipid(SL). However, the above mentioned salt injury effects were all alleviated by the different Na+/Ca2+ ratios. The maximum alleviation of salt injury effect was at Na+/Ca2+ ratio of I0. As three kinds of free radical scavengers were used to pretreat wheat seedlings prior to NaC1 treatment the malondialdehyde(MDA) content decreased unanimously, but increased with SOD inhibitor sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) pretreatment to wheat seedlings. Obviously, the salt injury effects induced by NaC1 was relatied to the extent of superoxidation of membrane [ipids and also to the composkion of membrane of Ca2+ on lipids including their fatty acids as well. On the other hand, the alleviating effect of Ca2+ on NaC1 induced injury in wheat seedlings was also in relation to them.
Abstract (Browse 1760)  |  Full Text PDF       
Confocal Microscopy Observations on Actin Cytoskeleton in the Pollen and Pollen Protoplast of Narcissus
Author: Xu Shi-xiong(S. Y. Zee),Li Chun-gui and Zhu cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    Actin cytoskeleton was localized in the pollen and pollen protoplast of Narcissus cyclamineus using fluorescence labelled phalloidin andconfocal microscopy. In the hydrated pollen (before germination) actin filamem bundles were arranged in a parallel array and at right angles to the long axis of the pollen grain in the cortex. But at the germination pore region(or fur row) the actin filament bundles formed a reticulate network. In the centre of the grain there was also an actin filament network which was more open and had less bundles associated with it than the network underneath the furrow. When the pollen grain started to produce pollen tube, most(if not all) of the actin filament bundles in the pollen grain rearranged into a parallel array pointing towards the tube. The bundles in the array later elongated and extended into the pollen tube. In the pollen protoplast a very tightly-packed actin bundle network was present. Numerous branches and jonts of actin filament bundles could be seen in the network. If the protoplasts were fixed before staining, the bundles aggregated and the branches and joints became less obvious indicating that fixation had affected the nature and arrangement of the actin filament bundles. If the pollen protoplasts were bursted (using the osmotic shock technique) or extracted (using Triton X-100), fragments of actin filament bundles could still be found associated with the membrane ghost indicating that some of the actin filament bundles in the cortex were tightly attached to the membrane. Using a double staining technique, actin filaments and microtubules were co-localized in the pollen protoplast. The co-alignment of some of the actin filament bundles with the microtubule bundles suggested that the actin cytoskeleton and the microtubule cytoskeleton were not distributed at random but in a well organized and orchestrated manner [possibly under the control of a yet undiscovered structure(s). The actin filament cytoskeleton in the generative cells failed to stain either in pollen or pollen tube, but they became stained in the pollen protoplast. The actin cytoskeleton in the generative cell appeared as a loosely organized network made up of short and long actin filament bundles.
Abstract (Browse 2126)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Water Movement Into and Out of Grapevine Fruits During the Ripening
Author: Zhang Da-peng and Luo Guo-guang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    The experiment was carried out during the ripening of grape (Vitis vinifera L. and V. vinifera ℅ V. labrusca) fruits using the technique of dye tracing and measurement of water potential. Under the natural conditions of sufficient soil water supply and those of a high evapotranspiration potentiality on clear days, the water in fruits was transfered, during the morning and afternoon, out of the clusters and into the xylem of shoots; but the fruits capture water in the late afternoon and evening from the xylem of shoots. The diurnal variations of the water exchange between fruits and the xylem of shoots have been described and these variations seemed to be relevant not only to the differences of water potential between leaves and fruits but also to the hydraulic status of fruits. Under the mild water stress, the variations of the diurnal "fruits-shoots" water exchange were similar to those under the conditions of ample water supply, but the rate of "fruits-shoots" water exchange in the lightly stressed vine was decreased as compared with the fully watered vines. After a certain period of severe water stress, the fruits possessed a great capacity of conserving their water and an equilibrium in water potential was set up between leaves and fruits so that the fruits did not lose any more water. Under a sudden severe water stress, the fruits lost water at a higher outflux rate than when the water supply was sufficient. However, this water loss ceased rapidly. The water flowing out from the fruits was privileged to pass in the lateral shoots located above and on the same side of the fruits, and then the water might enter the primary shoot leaves situated above and on the same side of the fruits. Water captured by the fruits of the well watered vines in the evening came from the roots while under severe stress water might be obtained from the roots and also from the leaves as well. The fruit cell water potential, solute potential and pressure potential were different from those of leaves, mainly in the more important differences of water potential necessitated for the volume changes of fruit cell after incipient plasmolysis in com parison with leaves. Finally the relationships between water exchange and water potential dif ferences between "fruits-shoots", associated with the fruits hydraulic status, have been discussed. The possible relationships between water "sink-source" of fruits and the fruit development have been analysed.
Abstract (Browse 1856)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Free Radicals and Temperature on Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Hordeum vulgare L.
Author: Yuan Hong-yu and Zhang Zi-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    The clastogenic (chromosome-damaging) effect of many chemical and physical agents is believed to be mediated by reactive oxygen-detived radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with DNA and the significance of the radical-induced DNA lesions in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis have been the subjects of increasing interest during recent years. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) reflects an interchange between DNA molecules at homologous loci within a replicating chromosome. SCE analysis was found to have increased use for monitoring the exposure of cell to mutagenic carcinogens. The authors found that the induction of SCEs in cells of Hordeum vulgare L. by ascorbic acid, mitomycin C, adriamycin and maleic hydrazid was through the action of free radicals. They also studied the influence of growth temperature on average generation time(AGT) and SCEs. and disclosed a close correlation between AGT and SCEs. The Brdu-Giemsa techniques were used for the detection of SCEs and AGT in cytological preparations of metaphase chromosomes.
Abstract (Browse 1934)  |  Full Text PDF       
Alkaloidal Constituents from Aerial Parts of Delphinium grandiflorum L.
Author: Li Cong-jun and Chen Di-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(1)
      
    Seven diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated from the aerial parts of Delphinium grandiflorum L., including six known ones as anhweidelphinine (i), 14-dehydrodelcosine (j), delsoline (k), methyllycaconitine (l), lycoctonine (m) and delphatine (n). The compound o, which is now referred to as grandiflorine, is a new alkaloid and its structure was determined by means of spectral analysis and chemical transformation as well.
Abstract (Browse 1871)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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