October 1993, Volume 35 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
The Chemical Constituents of Astraglus Adsurgens
Author: Shen Xu-wei,Sun Li-ping,Song Zhan-wu,Wang Lai and Zheng Shang-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    Fifteen comounds have been isolated from Astragalus adsurgens Pall. Structures of eleven compounds were identified by means of spectral and chemical methods and compared with known compounds. Among all the compounds, 9 and l0 are new triterpene compounds, their structures have been elucidated as follows; (20R, 24S)-3, 16- dicorbonyl-6 汐, 25-dihydroxy-20, 24-epoxy-9, 19-cyclpadsurgenin, (20R, 24S)-3,16-dicorbonyl-6汐,25-dihydroxy-20, 24-epoxy-23-nitrogen-9, 19-cycloadsurgenin.
Abstract (Browse 1853)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristic Analysis of the Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest on the North Slope of Huangshan Mountain
Author: Cai Fei and Qian Xiao-hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    he evergreen broad-leaved forest is widely distributed on the north slope of Mt. Huangshan. Through extensive investigation and analysis of the characteristics,the following conclusions can be achieved. The floristic composition consists of 81 families, 150 genera and 204 species, in which the subtropical elements are of high percentage. The physiognomy of the communities was analyzed on the basis of life forms of plants and their leaf characteristics. In the community structure,there is a distinct stratification and a complex synusiae. For horizonal structure,the pattern of dominant populations follows contagious distribution. Species diversity indexes are about 1. 159每3. 680. Ecological dominance indexes are about 0. 140每0. 481 Community evenness indexes are about 0. 507每0. 920. There are eight formations and twelve associations. Castanopsis sclerophylla formation,C, eyrei formation ,Cyclobalanopsis glauca formation and C. gracilis formation are stable phytocoenosium types. C. rnyrsinaefolia formation: and Lithocarpus henryi formation are unstable phytocoenosium types. They will be replaced by C. glauca formaton.
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       
35-10-9.pdf
Author: Xu Shi-xiong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    The microtubule organizational changes in the isolated generative cells of Allemanda schottii were followed using immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Due to the improved resolution and the lack of out-of-focus flares, the microtubule cytoskeleton of the generative cells could be visualized more clearly than using conventional epifluorescence systems. Immediately after isolation the microtubule cytoskeleton of the generative cells was cage-like composed of longitudinally oriented microtubule bundles. Later, some bundles began to depolymerize and at the same time some smaller bundles appearred. The smaller bundles unlike the longitudinal bundles crisscrossed throughout the cell. Later still, the cells became spherical. Both the longitudinal and the smaller bundles disappearred. At the same time some of the microtubules began to aggregate around the nucleus. These perinuclear microtubules were apparently not very stable, because soon afterwards,they started to disintegrate. By the time the cells became completely spherical,the cytoplasm became filled with diffuse fluorescence indicating that the tubulin was no longer existing in a polymerized form but in a monomeric form inside the cell. After the fuberlin had completely depolymerized the microtubules started to reform. The sequence of events leading to the reformation of the microtubule cytoskeleton in the spherical cells was as follow: A few nucleating centres began to form first. Then the nucleating centres gave rise to microtubule bundles. The bundles extended and aggregated to form a reticulate network. This cytoskeletal network appearred stable and well organized. It also had a lot of microtubule-bundle junctions. The network persisted after Triton X-l00 extraction.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Morphological and Anatomical Characters of Bamboo Fruits with Relation to Systematics and Evolution
Author: Yu Fu-gen,Hu Chen-hua, Chen Ling and Chen Xiao-ya
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    The morphological and anatomical characteristics of bamboo fruits of 39 species in 21 genera have been surveyed. The results showed that characters as the shape, the middle cross section, the morphology of pericarp, rostrum and embryo, the presence or absence of ventral groove and embryotega, and the thickness of aleurone layer of fruits were the important features in identifying different genera, and also in studying systematics and evolution of the bamboos. All the bamboo fruits examined herewith could be considered as caryopses, and they could be subdivided into four types viz. typical, bacoid, nucoid and seminucoid type. Type A,typical,as most grass fruits, with thin pericarp throughout or thickened only at apex, ventral groove (hilum) and embryotega, was found in the majority of bamboos, such as Fargesia and Arundinaria. Type B, bacoid, with thick and fleshy pericarp, was found in nine genera: Melocanna, Dicochloa, Ochlandra,Olrneca, Melocalarnus, Chirnonobarnbusa ,Qiongzhuea, Ferrocalamus and Alvirnia. Type C, nucoid, with hard pericarp, was found so far only in Dendrocalamus and Cephalostachyurn. Type D,semi-nucoid, the intermediate type between type A and C, with pericarp, as in type A, in the dorsum and pericarp, as in type C in the ventrum was found in Sinocalarnus, PhyUostachys and Thyrsostachys. Bacoid may be the primitive type, from which nueoid may have evolved. Semi-nucoid may have evolved from nucoid. Typical type may be advanced and have evolved from bocoid or semi-nucoid. The primitive fruits of bamboos may have characteristics such as follows: globose or spheroidal in shape, round middle cross section; thick and fleshy pericarp throughout, less differentiated, presence of vascular bundle; absence of ventral groove (hilum) and embryotega; aleurone layer composed of a number of cell layers; large and curved'or folded embryo. Bamboos with such a fruit have iterauctant inflorescences except Ferrocalamus.
Abstract (Browse 2037)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Cytochenfical Study of Acid Phosphatas in the Mycorrhizal Cells of Gastrodia elata Seedling
Author: Wang He and Xu Jin-tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    A cytochemical study has been made to examine the activity of acid 汕-glycerophosphatase in the mycorrhizal cells of the seedling of Gastrodia elata BI. using thin sectioning technique in which sections were embedded in glycol mathacrylate (GMA). After the seedling was invaded by the hyphae of Mycena osmundicola Lange, two different kinds of infected cells were formed in its root cortex.the outer 1每2 cell layers namely the hyphae-containing cells (or host cells) contained many coiled hyphae pelotons˙ the inner comparativly large cell layer or fungus-digesting cells contained a few straight hyphae. Localization of acid phosphatase in hyphae-containing cells showed that only a few senescent hyphae retained the enzyme activity and the plant cells did not release hydrolytic enzyme. So it is considered that the hyphal lysis in hyphae-containing cell may be due to autolysis. In contrast, higher acid phosphatase activity was visualized in many vesicles and small vacuoles of the fungus-digesting cells. When a hypha entered a fungus-digesting cell through a hyphae-containing cell, a number of enzyme granules (i. e, enzymecontaining vesicles) gathered around it. Later on the enzyme granules expanded gradually and became small enzyme vacuoles of 1.6每2.0 米m in diameter. Still later the small enzyme vacuoles fused with each other to form a large vacuole in which a part of an invading hypha was enclosed and gradually digested by hydrolytic enzymes. Finally,the digesting vacuole changed into a residual body containing some metabolic waste. The above results suggest that fungus-digesting cells can actively release hydrolytic enzymes by lysosomal vesicles to digest the invading hyphae, but such function is not present in the hyphae-containing cells,the role of which may be attributed to attracting and controling the invading hyphae.
Abstract (Browse 1771)  |  Full Text PDF       
Polypeptide Changes in Cotyledons During Cucunlber Seedling Development and Chilling Acclimation
Author: Li Xiao-ping and Guo Jun-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    The changes of chilling resistance and polypeptide pattern during cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) seedling development and during chilling acclimation in light (CAL) and chilling acclimation in dark(CAD) have been studied. The results showed that the chilling resistance decreased gradually during seedling development ,CAL could enhance chilling resistance but CAD made the seedlings more sensitive to chilling temperature Two dimension PAGE study showed that during 6--12 days old seedling development some polypeptides disappeared and some appeared . CAL and CAD had different effects on those polypeptides. Both CAL and CAD induced a 58.0 kD polypeptide. There might be cooperation among several genes during chilling acclimation. Chilling endurance obtained from acclimation is based on the integration of metabolism correlated with development.
Abstract (Browse 1741)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on Relation of Photosynthesis to Water Status of Two Species of Haloxylon Under Controlled Environments
Author: Li Xiao-ming,Natoli Toshiki and Kenji Omasa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    The net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate and water content of assimilating shoots of Haloscyion ammodendron and H. persicum were measured under different radiation intensities, temperatures changes and different water status. Their water potential under different water status was also measured. The experimental results showed. (1) The dependence of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate on radiation intensit in the two species of Haloscylon. The increase of net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of H. arnrnodendron depending on radiation intensity was lower than that of H. persicurn. Two species of Haloxylon also maintained high transpiration rate under dark. (2) The average transpiration rate of H. persicurn was lower than H. arnrnodendron,showing that H. persicurn utilized water more efficiently than H. arnrnodendron. (3)The optimal temperature of photosynthesis of H. arnrnodendron was 24每32⊥ and the optimal temperature of water utilization of H. arnrnodendron was 23. 5每25⊥. (4) The water potential of H. amrnodendron was lower than 每3.5 MPa whereas that of H. persicum was lower than 每2.8MPa indicating that the two species of Haloscylon were under severe water stress ,and would lead to permanent wilting of their assimilating shoots.
Abstract (Browse 1950)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of Microgravity on Cellular Differentiation of Root Apical Meristematic Cap in Rice Seedling
Author: Wu Dun-su, Chen Yi-xin and Guo Yi-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    Three groups of experimental treatment of rice seeds were designed: (1) As control,the seeds were germinated(1每3 days after imbibition) and sprouted (4每7 days after imbibition) at static state, (2) Seeds were germinated under microgravity simulated by the horizontal clinostat,and (3) Seeds were germinated at the static state and sprouted under microgravity. The differentiation of the apical meristematic cap of the seedling was observed. 1. Germination and sprouting in the static state (CK), the root apical meristematic cap cells could differentiate into statocysts which could sense the least irritation of the gravity. The amyloplasts of statocysts deposited in the distal region,later changed into secretory cells ,and finally resulted in exocytosis which led the root tip cells to fall off during the cap growth. 2. The rice seedlings germinating and sprouting under microgravity,the apical meristematic cap cells differentiated into statocysts but the amyloplasts in the statocyst were distributed throughout the cell and a central vacuole was formed. The statocysts could form nonsecretory cells similar to the cells in the dividing and elongating area without exocytosis. The number of the root cap cell layers increased and root cap elongated. 3. The rice seedlings germinating in the static state and sprouting under micro-gravity,the amyloplasts of the statocyst were scattered in the cell. The statocysts became vacuolized quickly but remaind on the root cap.
Abstract (Browse 1957)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of a Rubisco Fusion Gene and Its Expression in E. coli
Author: Li Bing, Wu Guang-yao,Chen Zhang-liang and Wu Xiang-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    A fusion gene was constructed with the Signal sequence of Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) small subunit from tomato and the coding region of Rubisco large subunit from spinach. The fusion gene was confirmed with restriction endonucleases and DNA sequencing analysis for the open reading frame. The chimeric gene was transferred to E. coli and its expression was induced by addition of IPTG. Expression of the Rubisco fusion gene was detected by Western blotting.
Abstract (Browse 1912)  |  Full Text PDF       
Resolution of Fluorescence Emission Spectra with Various Lifetime Components of D1/D2/Cyt b-559
Author: Yu Zhen-bao,Kuang Ting-yun, Li Cheng yong, Tang Chong-qin, Peng De-chuan and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    PS j reaction center D1/D2/Cyt b-559 purified from chloroplasts of spinach has four components of fluorescence decaying with lifetimes of 1.0 ns, 5.9 ns,24 ns,and 73 ns whose fractions to total fluorescence yield are 0. 05,0.34,0. 35 and 0.26 respectively. The fluorescence emission spectra of these lifetime components are closely overlapping, and only one peak is shown in steady state emission spectrum. Based on the hardware analysis of phase fluorometry,by selection of the detector phase angle,the emission from various components could be individually suppressed. If the 5.9 ns component was suppressed, the emission spectrum was red-shifted. On the contrary, the emission spectrum was blue-shifted when 73 ns component was suppressed. Based on the software analysis, the individual emission spectra were resolved with three lifetime components by measuring phase and modulation data at various wavelength. Compared with steady state spectrum,the emission maximum wavelength of 5.9 ns component was blue-shifted from 68nm to 680 nm,but those of 24 ns and 73 ns components were red-shifted to 685 nm and 683 nm respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1857)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Cryopreservation and Pollen Protoplast Isolation in Brassica carnpestris var.purpurea
Author: Liang Li,Xu Bing-fang,Zheng Cong-yi and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(10)
      
    The authors have investigated the factors affecting pollen cryopreservation in Brassica campestris var. purpurea, such as pollen development stages cryoprotectant and the process of freezing. A suitable procedure was established as follows :Pollen grains suspended in B5 medium containing 10X DMSO and 1SM sucrose were frozen by a three- 每1⊥/min 每 1 ⊥/min step method(0⊥〞〞〞↙每10 ⊥ ,standing for 15 min〞〞〞↙每40 ⊥ , standing for 1 hr↙liquid nitrogen)and later thawed in 40⊥ water bath. During a period of 60, 90 days∩preservation, the relative survival percentage of mature (at the day of anthesis)and nearly mature(2 days before anthesis, trinucleate stage)pollens maintained at ca. 91% that of young pollens(7-8 days before anthesis, late uninucleate stage to early binucleate stage)slightly declined from the original 91.6% to 84. 3%. Culture. experiment showed that the cryopreserved young pollen could be induced to cell division just as well as the fresh pollen. The method of isolating protoplasts from fresh mature pollen developed previously was improved and simplified. As a result, protoplasts were isolated more conveniently from mature pollen and young pollen for the first time. The protoplasts from cryopreserved mature and young pollen could be obtained as well with an isolation rate of 77.4% and 35.9% respectively. However, for isolation of protoplasts from preserved young pollen, an incubation in NLN medium at 35⊥ after thawing was necessary.
Abstract (Browse 2113)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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