April 1956, Volume 5 Issue 4


          Research Articles
The Morphological Variations of the Flower and Inflorescence in Brassica L.
Author: Tsai I-shun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(4)
    1. The morphological variations of the flower and inflorescence of the following four categories of plants were observed: (1) plants grown from the seeds,which were collected from the scion of Brassica pekinensis grafted on B. oleracea; (2) plants grown from the seeds of B. pekinensis resulted from supplementary pollination with the pollens of Cheiranthus cheiri; (3) untreated plants of B. oleracea in their later growing stage (from May onward) and (4) the natural hybrids between B. oleracea and B. oler var. acephala f. tricolor. 2. Different forms of internal proliferation were found among the flowers of the plants of the first category. The single flower of an ordinary raceme may vary throngh various intermediate forms to a small raceme. It is suggested that this might be a kind of recapitulation of the phylogenetical development of the inflorescence. 3. The variations of the flowers of the plants of the three other categories are great: the petals bearing small spinous pieces along vascular bundles;the occurrence of supernumerary petals and/or stamens; the stamens being foliage-like; the noncruciform corolla and the non-tetradynamus androecium; the petals and stamens long persisting after fertilization; the pistils being fasciated, inflated, or being ellipsoidal; the ovary being apocarpous; the ovary-stalk elongated, sometimes branching and bearing under-developed pistils; a minute pistil occurring within an ovary; the ovules beingfoliaceous; and the flower reduced to a single pistil and subtended by a bract, while the former being apocarpous and foliage-like, bearing abnormal ovules. 4. The appearance of the variations of the floral organs described above were suspected to be due to the unusually prolonged vegetative period interacted with the effect of different kinds of treatment, such as: wounding, grafting, hybridization, and supplementary pollination with foreign pollens.
Abstract (Browse 2368)  |  Full Text PDF       
֧էӧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧ ӧݧڧߧڧ ާڧܧݧ֧ާ֧ߧ ߧ اѧ ڧܧѧ֧ӧ ֧ӧ ҧҧ
Author: ا
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(4)
Abstract (Browse 1948)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Report on the Morphological Studies of the Vegetative Body and the Organization of the Bud of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn
Author: Wang His-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(4)
    This paper describes the results of a study of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. It is composed of two parts, the external morphology of the vegetative body and the organization of the buds. . The morphology of vegetative body From germination to sexual maturity the vegetative body passes through 3 distinct developmental phases: (1) the seedling period, (2) the juvenile shoot period, and (3) the annual shoot period. The seedling is erect and with short zigzag axis. It possesses floating leaves arranged alternately and its internodes are very short. The radicle is quite undeveloped, and there are many adventitious roots growing on the nodes. The transition from the seedling period to the juvenile period is sudden.. The internodes bearing the bud which develops into the juvenile shoot elongate remarkably, and the succeeding internodes are also long. The erect seedling becomes a horizontal juvenile shoot. Every leaf grows out from the dorsal side of each node on the rhizome. Their leaves except the first two which are floating become emergent. Around the nodes are produced numerous adventitous. roots. When the cold season comes, the last two or three internodes of the juvenile shoot become the swollen parts of the rhizome. This specialized parts serve as an organ of vegetative propagation. The swollen internodes store food material, and bear a terminal bud which expands in the next spring. The morphological structure of the annual shoot is quite similar to the juvenile shoot, except that its vegetative organs show marked increase in size and length and it bears sexual reproductive organsCflower or flower primordium, Thus the juvenile shoot there bears only vegetative buds, while on the annual' shoot there are mixed buds. The rhizome of the annual shoot is composed of distinct joints or rhizome units. In- one growing season about 17 of these rhizome units may be formed. That makes the main axis and whole ramification of the vegetative body becomes the shoot system The total length of the main axis is about 10 meters. The length of the internodes and the area of the leaf laminae are very closely correlated, there is also a correlation between the diameter of the internodes and the area of the leaf laminae. Moreover, there exists a close relationship betwee nsexual reproductive organ development and vegetative propagation. Only those last joints where flowers no longer develop become greatly thickened and form organs of vegetative propagation. . The organization of the bud The organization of the bud of N. nucifera is complex and peculiar. Complete. elucidation must await detailed developmental studies. According to the observation and anatomy of buds, a series of problems should be studied before we can find the answer. In this paper it suffices to points out salient features of the bud organization. 1. There is extensive teloscoping of bud within bud. In the hud that is to-develop into the juvenile shoo b three buds of different developmental orders are teloscoped one into another . In the terminal buds of the annual shoot, as many as 5 buds of different developing orders are thus telescoped . In addition, there are included in these buds axillary buds and also flower buds. 2. The scale in N. nucifera is greatly developed, not only the bud possesses the scale, but also the young foliage leaf is enclosed in a scale; not only the vegetative bud and mixed bud are covered with scales but even the terminal bud of plumule is thus protected. In the vegetative terminal bud or mixed bud there are 3 kinds of scales. An outer scale wraps around the whole bud, in which there are 2 other types of scales, one encloses the young foliage leaf , and the other contains the other parts of the bud. In axial of scale c is the axillary bud d. This pattern is repeated again and again. 3. The young foliage leaf is wrapped in its scale and both are turned in the same direction. The morphological nature of this scale awaits further investigation. 4. One very peculiar feature is that the flower bud appears to be formed not in the axil but on the dorsal side of the leaf base. The bud of the lotus plant appears atypical and bizarre.
Abstract (Browse 2224)  |  Full Text PDF       
The R?le of Wood Anatomy in Plant Taxonomy
Author: C.H.Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(4)
    In the present paper, the author has endeavoured to give an account to the role of wood anatomy in the realm of plant taxonomy. Through the study and careful analysis of the literatures in this field, it has been proved that the wood anatomy is a useful adjunct to systematic botany. Although the variation in the anatomical structure of secondary xylem may be considerable, there are still to be found many characteristics conservative enough to be helpful in determining the systematic position of woody plants. Methodically, the study of wood anatomy from the taxonomic viewpoint has scarcely been begun in China, and there is certainly much awaiting to be worked out. It will indeed be a subject of both importance and interest. In view of the fact that substantial support for scientific works is forthcoming from the state, there is good reason to hope that it will receive its due share of attention in the near future.
Abstract (Browse 2196)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intercellular Movement of Protoplasm as a Means of Translocation of Organic Material in Garlic
Author: C. H. Lou, S. H. Wu, W. C. Chang and L. M. Shao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(4)
    In this paper, a brief historical review has been given to the records of the occurrence of protoplasmic movement via intercellular connections in the reproductive and vegetative organs of higher plants, to the proposals of interpretating such a phenomenon, and to the suggestions of its connection with the transport mechanism of organic material in plants. Healthy garlic plants grown under normal conditions has been chosen as the main experimental material in the present investigation, for its simple gross and cellular structures greatly facilitate sampling and microscopic examination. Various methods of microscopic observation and physiological experimentation have been employed and the results have shown that, contrary to the opinion prevailing in the literature, nuclear extrusion in higher plants is neither an artefact nor merely an abnormal pathological phenomenon. Intercellular migration of chromatic material in allium is an innate process and normal phenomenon which makes its appearance whenever the physiological activity of the tissue concerned calls for. It is intimately connected with the short-distance cell-to-cell transport of organic material in the parenchyma. The mechanism of translocation may vary with the tissues concerned at different developmental stages. Diffusion may still play an important role in the material transport in adult stable parenchyma. Some more efficient and rapid means of translocation is probably in operation in the vascular bundle. Our conviction is not in conformity with the conventional views mainly in two aspects: 1. Translocated materials in plants should not be confined to highly decomposed products, such as sugars, amino acids, inorganic salts, etc., but should also include the partially disorganized protoplasm which still retains some of the complicated structures of a biocolloid; 2. The driving force of material transport in plants not only depends upon osmotic concentration differences, but can also be due to protoplasmic movement itself and intimately related to its metabolic activity. In garlic doves, it has been found that, among young and tender tissues in the growing zone, intercellular movement of protoplasm takes place profusely to facilitate the transfer of materials needed for growth; among grown-up and stable tissues, the gross structure of protoplasm remains relatively stationary; while among old withering tissues, intercellular movement of protoplasm again becomes active, and through the recurrent processes of disintegration and reorganization, hands over its content to the newly grown. The modes of evacuation of protoplasm vary with the tissues in deterioration. For instance, the outer epidermis of the clove sheath, in its short course of rapid deterioration, thickens its walls tremendously, and intercellular migration of chromatic material through the thickened walls can become so prominant and distinct as to serve an excellent demonstration of sucu a phenomenon. Among the senescent tissues of garlic leaf and scale, the protoplasm in partial disintegration tends to traverse through the parenchyma and concentrate itself in the vascular bundle . In the young vascular tissues, nuclear extrusion through the walls has also been observed. Based upon these facts, the possibility that protoplasmic movement could also have something to do with food transport in the vascular bundle has been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2189)  |  Full Text PDF       
ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ٧ѧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ ӧѧ٧ߧ ѧ٧ѧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ
Author: -ߧ ڧ ٧-
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(4)
Abstract (Browse 1956)  |  Full Text PDF       
Respiratory Pathways in Rice Seedlings and Respiration as an Adaptive Physiological Function of the Living Plant
Author: P.S. Tang, Y. L. Tai and C. IC Lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(4)
    Respiratory activities of 5-day old rice seedlings which had been detached from their endosperms 24 hours prior to experimentation are studied. The seedlings were germinated and kept in darkness at 30. Respiration of these seedlings were measured manometrically with Warburg micro-respirometers, in air or under a nitrogen atmosphere. By feeding with substrates and by the use of respiratory inhibitors the pathways of carbohydrate metabolism were followed in the intact living plant. The multi-lineal nature of respiratory pathways in the seedlings is stressed, and variations in respiratory behaviour or metabolic pattern are considered as an adaptive physiological function of the intact seedlings. The main results and conclusions are summarized as follows: 1. As respiratory substrates, sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and possibly arabinose are used. Ribose is very little used if at all. Of the amino acids, alanine is used rapidly followed by aspartic acid, while glutamic acid is consumed most rapidly. Acetic acid is oxidized readily at 0.01 M concentration, but it inhibits respiration at higher concentrations. While butyric acid is very readily used, propionic acid causes a marked inhibition of respiration. All acids are added in the form of their Na-salts suspended in phosphate buffer pH 6.2. Respiration rate of the seedlings is only slightly depressed with 5% ethyl alcohol, while at 2.5% concentration, there is some oxidation of this compound by the seedlings. Pyruvate is readily used aerobically or anaerobically, and lactate is oxidized at 0.1 M. 2. Anaerobic production of' CO2 by intact seedlings with or without added glucose is inhibited by fluoride and by iodoacetate, and these inhibitions are reversed with pyruvate anaerobically. These evidences together with the occurrence of ethyl alcohol in the germination and respiration media indicate that the metabolism of carbohydrates by the serice seedlings anaerobically follow the Meyerhof-Embden-Parnas scheme of alcoholic fermentation. However it is pointed out that this may not be the only path, and other paths may be followed aerobically and anaerobically. 3. The presence and operation of cytochrome oxidase and ascorbic acid oxidase ara clearly demonstrated in the intact seedlings; the presence of polyphenol oxidase activity has also been demonstrated together with the other two terminal oxidases in tissue extracts. Terminal oxidase activity is inhibited by CO2 and light reversal of this inhibition is observed with older seedlings of which the first true leaves had just emerged out of the coleoptiles. With younger seedlings, light apparently does not reverse this inhibition. The chemical nature of the cytochrome oxidase found in rice seedlings appears to differ from that found in other plants Where its activity is lowered in presence of p-phenylene diamine. Likewise the chemical nature of the polyphenol oxidase or of the ascorbic acid oxidase or both are different from those occuring in other plants in which oxygen-consumption by the enzyme preparations are lowered in presence of both ascorbic acid and pyrocatechol as compared with the rates in either substrate when used alone. It is our opinion that all three terminal oxidases may function in the respiration of the intact plant. 4. Of the organic acids of the di- and the tri-carboxylic acid cycles which have been tested, succinate, malate, isocitrate and a-ketoglutarate accelerate the respiration of starved seedlings, but not their pyruvate respiration. Fumarate accelerates the respiration rate of the starved seedlings, but inhibits their pyruvate oxidation. Citrate is but slightly used, if at all, and only after prolonged contact. Among the acids oxidized, succinate is used very readily similar to pyruvate. In all cases, with the possible exception of succinate and pyruvate the accelerating action of the acids does not occur at once, but is low at first, increasing more or less rapidly with time. In other words it appears that with these acids induction periods are needed for acceleration. This is also true when glucose is used as substrate, and the slight accelerating effects of Arabinose may also be interpreted in this way. The occurence of induction periods for the accelerating effects of added substrates is considered as evident, for the possible formation of adaptive enzymes. Aerobic respiration of the rice seedlings is inhibited by fluoride and iodoacatate, and these inhibitions are not reversed by pyruvate nor by succinate indicating activity of succinoxidase and cytochrome oxidase systems in these seedlings. Malonate showed decided inhibitory action on seedling respiration and these inhibition is easily reversed with succinate or fumarate. Arsenite markedly inhibits rice seedling respiration in presence or absence of pyruvate and this inhibition is easily reversed by the addition of succinate or malate, indicating occurence of oxidative decarboxylation in the process. The conclusion is drawn that pyruvate oxidation in rice seedlings proceeds through succinate. Due to the fact.that none of the acids of the di- and tri-carboxylic acid cycles gave any evidence of accelerating pyruvate oxidation, the operation of the two cycles in these rice seedlings can not be considered established. At least they can not be the chief routes of pyruvate oxidation in these seedlings. It is believed that pyruvate as well as the other organic acids may be oxidized directly without going through the customary cyclic processes. 5. The variation of respiratory intensity and the response to the actions of inhibitors and added metabolites as well as the response to different experimental conditions by the rice seedlings are treated in the light of ontogenetic and phylogenetic adaptation of the rice plant. Experimental evidence are also presented which indicate that the intact seedlings differ from their ground tissues in respect to the nature and intensity of the respiratory process. 6. The practical implication of the experimental results when considered in the light of the proposed multi-lineal concept of respiration is discussed. The conclusion is reached that while the possession of a strong fermentation system enables rice seedlings to withstand anaerobic conditions, it is the aerobic respiratory system upon which the seedlings rely for good germination and healthy growth. For this reason flooding and draining of rice fields should be practiced with the aim of attaining ample aeration to insure healthy growth of the seedlings. An English version of this communication appears in Scientia Sinica, 5, 509--533, 1956.
Abstract (Browse 2501)  |  Full Text PDF       
The General Occurence and Regularity of the Intercellular Migrating Chromatin Substance in the Pollen Mother Cells of Certain Angiosperms
Author: K. C. Cheng, Y- C. Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(4)
    1. A study has been made of the intercellular migrating chromatin substance in the cells of various stages in the developmental pollen mother cells of the anthers of 6 families 10 genera of Angiosperms. 2. According to our observations and experiments it has been shown that this process is neither induced by the fixation, treatment, mechanical injury, nor is it due to a virus or other infections. This phenomenon is considered to be normal and inherent cell activity because of their wide distribution and frequent occurence under many environments. 3. In our preparations the migration of the chromatin substance occurs most frequently at the time of premeiotic stage or early prophase. 4. It seems to us that the phenomenon of this process is quite the same as in Lilium sutchunense Franch published in 1955. 5. Such phenomenon is not only limited to the sporogeneous tissue but also in the somatic tissues and seems to show one of the physiological characters of cell reproduction. 6. It is suggested that the migrating chromatin substance may be correlated with cell growth and cell reproduction.
Abstract (Browse 2100)  |  Full Text PDF       
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