November 1993, Volume 35 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
Grazing Dynamics of the Species Diversity in Aneurolepidium Chinese Steppe and Stipa Grandis Steppe
Author: Li Yong-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    Aneurolepidium chinense and Stipa grandis steppes are the two main community-types in the temperate,typical steppe zone of Eastern Mongolian plateau. The changes of their species diversity under grazing influence were studied on two representative grazing gradients, situated in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia. The results showed: The species richness of the two communities is reduced with the increase of grazing intensity,while their in dices of evenness and diversity on moderately grazed sites were higher than those on both ungrazed and heavily grazed sites. The diversity changes of the steppe community on grazing gradient depended mainly on the competitive exclusion of the species and the different effects of grazing on different species. These two functions could be integratively reflected by the synusia structure in communities. So the diversity of the synusia structure in a community was a measure of the degrees of differentiation of the ecological niches in it,and could be effectively used to interprete the species diversity changes. A moderate grazing intensity prevented the competitive exclusion of the dominant synusia,and at the same time,had no restrictions to the development of other synusia, which led to a diversified synusia structure with a high species diversity. Based on the species-area curve analysis, the measurement of large nested quadrats on homogeneous habitat was suggested as a suitable method for inventory and monitoring species diversity in the steppe area.
Abstract (Browse 2202)  |  Full Text PDF       
Projects and Their Analysis of Plants Science Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1992
Author: Zhu Da-bao and Qi Shu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
Abstract (Browse 1564)  |  Full Text PDF       
Steroidal Alkaloids from Sarcococca vagans
Author: Qiu Ming-hua,Li Zhong-rong,Cao De-yong and Nie Rui-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    Sarcococca vagans Stapf (Buxaceae) was distributed in Southern Yunnan, China. From the plant collected in Xishuangbanna,three new steroidal alkaloids named vaganines A,B and C( C )together with three known compounds were isolated and on the basis of spectral analyses and chemical evidence, the chemical structures of three new compounds were determined as 20-dimethylamino-4-acetoxyl-3-senecioylamino-5-pregnane (), 20-dimethylamino-4 hydroxyl- 3-senecioylamino-2(3)-pregnaene (), acetate of (); respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
On General Aspects of the Antartica Plants and Vegetation and Them Propects in Botanical Research
Author: Hu Shun-shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    The flora of the Antarctic mainly consists of lichens , bryophytes and algae. The author analysed the distribution of plants in relation to their environments , floristic compositions, and types and structures of plant communities in both Antarctic and Subantarctic. A common property was recognized in both Antarctic and Subantarctic vegetation,i. e. ,mixed growth, epiphytic growth and replacement in succession were often found among the lichens, bryophytes and algae. Based on the characteristics of plant and vegetation and research condition, the botanical research of Chinese group may focus on the following subjects: (1)The origin of the Antarctica plants . The relationship between Plant and vegetation on the Antarctic and on other continents; (2)The mechanism of plant resistance to cold and to drought; (3) Antarctica terrestrial ecosystem research; (4) Biological diversity and its conservation; (5)Indication of the effects of Antarctic plants in environmental pollution ,climatic changes, chronology of glacier and mineral resources ; (6)Comparative study of alpine, Arctic and Antarctic plant.
Abstract (Browse 1944)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Callus Protoplasts of Codonopsis pilosula
Author: Li Ji-sheng,Jia Jing-fen and Qi Fang-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    Embryogenic cell line was established from hypocotyl segments of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.)Nannf. 4--8 day old embryogenic callus was used to isolate protoplasts in an enzyme solution containing 1.5 % cellulase Onozuka R-10 and 3 % pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured in MS,C81V,DPD and KMSp basal medium supplemented with 1.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.2 mg/L NAA, 0. 2 mg/L BAP, 0. 1 mg/L ZT,and different combinations of glucose and mannitol . Protoplast-derived cells underwent sustained divisions in KM8p medium. As an osmoticum, glucose was more beneficial to protoplast division. A combination of 0. 30 mol/L glucose with 0.10 mol/L mannitol gave the best result. Under proper conditions , protoplasts underwent the first division on the 3rd day of culture,formed colonies within 30 days , and developed into microcalli in 6 weeks. Plantlets were regenerated from protoplast-derived calli through somatic embryogenesis. 0.2 % activated charcoal promoted embryoid formation and root development.
Abstract (Browse 1955)  |  Full Text PDF       
Organelle Movement in the Germinated Plooen Grains and Pollen Tubes of Oenothera odorata
Author: Liu Xiong and Yan Lung-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    The movement of organelles in the germinated pollen of Oenothera odorata was studied in detail by video microscopy. The image of the organelle movement was processed by computergation. The pollen grain of Oenothera odorata is large and easy to germinate in vitro and is suitable for the study of organelle movement . The motion of organelles in the germinated pollen grains and pollen tubes is very vigorous. But the movement of organelles in the pollen tubes is more vigorous than that in the germinating pollen grains. Some of their motion is saltatory. A kind of fibrils was observed in the germinated pollen grains. They are supposed to be made up of actin filaments. Some of the fibrils have one end connected to the plasma membrane and others have both ends linked to the plasma membrane , forming a network. Organelles move along the fibrils continuosely and the speed changes constantly . The speed of movement of organelles is not related to their dimensions. Cytochalasin B can inhibit the movement of organelles. Our results suggest that the movement of organelles is independent of the cytoplasmic streaming in the germinated pollen grains and pollen tubes.
Abstract (Browse 2232)  |  Full Text PDF       
Compaitive Study on Liposoluble Compoands in Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides
Author: Wu Qing-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    Both autotrophically and heterotrophically grown Chlorella protothecoides cells have been obtained in cell cultures. The content of liposoluble compounds in the cells of heterotrophic algae occupied 72% of the total cells in dry weight, which was more than 4 times as high as that in the autotrophic algal cells. There existed remarkbly different distribution patterns of the hydrocarbons in thesetwo kinds of cells. The hydrocarbons in autotrophic cells were characterised by the predominance of C17 normal alkanes, wheraes the heterotrophic cells were rich in normal alkanes of higher molecular weight or longer carbon chain with C25 as the dominant carbon. The structure of the compounds in benzene fraction is not quite clear, but the compounds in autotrophis sample may be related to the degeneration of the pigments. The compounds in heterotrophic sample probably come from lipid acids. The visible--ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the pigment compounds demonstrated the absorption peaks of the acetone extract from the autotrophic cells at 432.5, 451.5, 472.5 and 661.5 nm, reflecting the existence of chlorophyll and carotenoid, both with a rather high concentration. However, the acetone extract from the hetertrophic algal cells only showed absorption peaks at 427.4, 450.8 and 477.5 nm. The absorption peaks of the original green cells completely disappeared at 432.5 and 661.5 nm, reflecting the disappearance of chlorophyll in cells on the whole; the remaining absorption peaks only reflected the existence of carotenoid, but its concentration had already been greatly reduced. The resuls from comparative experiments were of essential significance on the study of physiological metabolism in heterotrophically grown C. protothecoides and on the exploration and application of the lipid compounds in this kind of algae.
Abstract (Browse 2924)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Polymorphisms of G-banded Karyotypes in Oryza rufipogon
Author: Chen Jin-hua,Song Yun-chun,Wang Ming-quan and Song Wen-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    The karyotypes and G-banding patterns of four kinds of experimental materials collected from different geographic regions were compared in Oryza rufilpogon Griff. There were obvious polymorphisms in chromosome arm length,arm ratio, G-band number of each arm as well as the size and degree of G-bands staining among the experimental materials. The single band of some chromosomes is heteromorphic in the size and staining intensity. The mechanisms of karyotype polymorphism formation is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1785)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Assembly of Vanadium-iron Protein in Vitro
Author: Huang Ju-fu,Wang Zi-ping,Luo Ai-ling,Zhong Ze-pu and Li Jia-ge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    By treating the reduced MoFe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii with ophenanthroline under anaerobic or aerobic condition,inactive MoFe protein which was partialy deficient in both P-cluster and FeMoco could be obtained. After incubating the inactive MoFe protein with a reconstituent solution containing NaVO3,ferric homocitrate, Na2S and dithiothreitol, a reconstituted protein could be obtained. The proton reduction activity and absorption spectrum of the reconstituted protein could be well restored, but its C2H2-reduction activity could not be recovered. Its CD spectrum could be recovered except for the 550nm to 650nm region which differed from that of the reduced MoFe protein. The results showed that the reconstituted protein was different from MoFe protein,but was similar to vanadium-iron protein.
Abstract (Browse 1658)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Crosslinking Agent-DFDNB on Energy-transducing Reactions of Chloroplast Thylakoid Membrane Proteins
Author: Wang Guo-qiang,Zhang Yin-ping,Qian Yue-qin and Peng Jian-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    The effects of crosslinking agent-DFDNB (difluoro dinitro benzene) on functions of chloroplast thylakoid membrane proteins were investigated. DFDNB inhibited activities of PSP and membrane-bound ATPase in chloroplasts. It decreased proton uptake of light-inducted chloroplast thylakoids and the relative value of fluorescence quenching of 9-aminoacridine, and inhibited the rate of fast electrogenic phase of absorption change at 515 nm in chloroplasts. In addition, the isolated CF1-ATPase was crosslinked with DFDNB. The pattern of polymers of crosslinked CF1-ATPase was observed on SDS-PAGE.
Abstract (Browse 1825)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stability Expression of Herbicide Resistant Gene and Luciferase Gene in Calli Derived from Wheat Protoplasts
Author: Yang Shu-li, Zeng Jun-zhi,Wu You-qiang,Zhu Xiao-ping,Wang Dong-jiang and Zhang Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    Plasmid pJIT101 containing bar gene and luc gene was transferred into wheat protoplasts mediated with PEG 1450. Transformants were then selected out in medium containing 50 mg/L Basta, a phosphinothricin (PPT)containing chemical product. The results of DNA hybridizaion indicated that both bar gene and luc gene had integerated into transformant genome. The luciferase activity has also been detected in those transformants.
Abstract (Browse 1823)  |  Full Text PDF       
Resistance to Potato Virus X Infection in Transgenic Tobacco Plants with Coat Protein Gene of Virus
Author: Wang Chun-xiang, Yang Mei-zhu,Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    A major commercial cultivar of tobacco was transformed via Agrobacterium mediated procedure. Tobacco leaves started to form shoots on shoot inducing medium containing kanamycin after infected by Agrobacterium containing the plasmid with PVX CP gene. Regenerated plants were obtained in two weeks on hormone-free MS medium containing kanamycin. The transgenic tobacco plants were identified with nopaline detection,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis, symptom appearance was significantly delayed and virus accumulation was either absent or reduced in PVX CP gene transformed plants. Progenies of transgenic tobacco plants also gained resistance to PVX infection to a certain degree. These experiments demonstrate that CP protection is effective against PVX.
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
Confocal Microscopic Observations of Microfilaments in germinating Pollen of Hedychium coronarium
Author: Xu Shi-xiong(S. Y. Zee)and Ye Xiu-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(11)
      
    Changes in the microfilament (actin)organization in the germinating pollen of Hedychium coronarium Koenig were followed after TRITC-phalloidin staining without fixation. Changes in the pattern of organization of the microfilaments were visualized using eonfocal microscopy. In the hydrated pollen a reticulate network of microfilament can be observed. Before the pollen tube protrudes out from the germination pore numerous microfilaments begin to converge towards the aperture. After 10C30 mins of germination,pollen tube appears. In the pollen tube a new network of microfilament forms near the tip region. Between the pollen and the pollen tube tip region there are numerous linearly arranged microfilaments. About 1 hour after germination,the pollen tube has reached a length of about 300m Inside the pollen, tube there are numerous longitudinally oriented microfilaments. The microfilament network in the pollen tube tip region does not change much. About 2 hours after germination,the pollen tube reaches about 1000m in length. At this stage,the pattern of distribution of microfilament in the pollen tube is very similar to that seen at the earlier stages of development ,whereas the pattern is somewhat different in the pollen. Microfilaments in the central region of the pollen grain disappear but still a parietal network in the peripheral region. About 5 hours after germination,the microfilaments in the pollen tube become abnormally variable and produce branches. Some even change into spicules, sheets and thick bundles.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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