December 1993, Volume 35 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Studies on Chemical Constituents of Fritillaria yuminensis
Author: Zhang Jian-xing,Lao Ai-na and Xu Ren-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    Six compounds were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria yuminensis X. Z. Duan. They were elucidated as 5汐, 14汐-cevanine-3汐-hydroxy-6-one ( i ), 5汐, 14汐-cevanine-3-one-6汕-O-汕-D-glucoside ( j ), imperialine ( k ), delavinone ( l ), tortifolisine ( m ) and adenosine( n ) by means of spectral analysis and chemical reaction. They all were firstly isolated from this plant. Among them, compound i and j, named yubeinine and yubeiside respectively, were new compounds.
Abstract (Browse 1986)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Experimental Study on the Revegetation of Colliery Spoils of Bold Moss Tip,St. Helens, England
Author: Jiang Gao-ming,P. D. Putwain and A. D. Bradshaw
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    Three spoils from Bold Moss Tip, St. Helens, and one from Neston, England were collected for experiment to find the problems and solutions to reclaim the coal-mine lands of Bold Moss Tip, from seeds and tillers of Agrostis stolonifera, A. capillaris and Hocus lanatus. Low pH (3.0 to 6.8), deficient in nutrient, especially N (0. 24 to 0. 28 ppm), P(0. 016 to 6.1 ppm). and excess of Mg(>1000ppm), Na(84 to 325ppm), and Fe (>20 000ppm)were found in the spoils of Bold Moss Tip, which was supposed to be the most difficult problems of restoration. Tillers of A. stolonifera and A. capillaris could not be planted directly to the bare spoils of Bold Moss Tip, but those of vegetated spoils (Site 2 and Site 3) could support the growth of tillers. The pH value was found to be the key factor to control seed germinations of the three species, below pH 3, there were no germination. A. stolonifera and A. capillaris germinated with the highest rates (97% and 96%) at pH 5 and pH7(p<0. 01)respectively. The application of lime stone could increase spoil pH significantly (p<0. 001), from 2.2 to 7. 3, when 40 t﹞ha-1 lime stone was added. Lime stone had the best effect to the four spoils. Lime stone +NP significantly increased the yield of dry matters of Site 2 (p<0. 001); The highest yield, 735.6 g ﹞ m-1, was gained from the treatment of spoils of Neston with lime stone + N; Lime could also increase the yield of Site 1 from 0 to 125. l g﹞m-1(p<0. 05). Gypsum had some effect to spoils of Site 2 and Neston, compared with the bland treatment, but did no influence to the spoils of Site 1. Washing had minimum effect toward the spoils of Site 2, and showed no effect to Site 1 and Neston; Throughout the 8-weed% experiment there was little change in the pH of Site 1, even though the spoils were washed everyday. Fertilisers alone had no effect to the bare spoils of Bold Moss Tip, and Neston, but they could enhance the growth of seedling of Site 2, however together with lime stone, the role of fertilisers were significant (p<0. 001). Both nitrogen and phosphorus were essential to the spoils of Bold Moss Tip . Without top-soils, the bare of Bold Moss Tip can be revegetated only by application of lime stone, but better effect coult be obtained by addition of nitrogen and phosphorus. The rates of 20 to 60 t﹞ha-1, 75 kg N ha-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 of lime stone, nitrogen, phosphorus respectively, are suggested for application.
Abstract (Browse 2108)  |  Full Text PDF       
Holocene Palynological Records in Lake Selincuo,Northern Xizang
Author: Sun Xiang jun, Du Nai-qiu,Chen Yin-shuo,Cu Zhao-yian,Liu Jia-qi and Yuan Bao-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    Selincuo (31∼34∩每31∼57∩N, 88∼31∩每89∼21∩E)is one of the great lakes in northern Xizang surrounded by alpine grassland, composed mainly of Stipa purpurea, S, subssessifolia var. bassipulomosa. A 3.08 m long core has been taken from a water depth of 27 m, 3 km to the north from the lake. Palynological records of the core combined with surface sample results have revealed from the regional as well as local vegetational and environmental history since the last 12 000 a BP, a very low pollen concentration (19每209 grains/g), mainly of airborne pollen, which indicated a treeless alpine sparse vegetation. A great vegetation change took place at Ca. 9 600 a BP when alpine sparse vegetation was replaced by alpine grassland lasting until Ca. 6 000 a BP. Quite a number of tree pollen grains found in this time interval might be explained as a result of expansion of forests somewhere around the Xizang Plateau. These changes must have caused by climatic warming during the Early Holocene. During the last 6 000 years the vegetation had remained as the alpine grassland, although probably more luxurouste than before, but their was an obvious increase of arboreal pollen, such as the increase of Abies during Ca. 6 000每4 000 a BP, Picea 4 000每2 200 a BP, Pinus 2 200每1 000 a BP which indicated continuous expansion of forests growing around the plateaus. During the last 1 000 years both the concentration and proportion of the arboreal pollen decreased and those of Cypraceae pollen increased sharply. This might mean a reduction of the forests around the plateau and an expansion of swamps around the lake.
Abstract (Browse 1826)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seasonal Changes of Polyamine Concentrations and Arginine Decarboxylase Activities in Leaves of 4 Ecotyes of Reeds
Author: Wang Hong-liang,Zhang Cheng-lie and Chen Guo-cang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    The seasonal changes of polyamine concentrations and arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1. 1. 9)activities were investigated in the leaves of 4 ecotypes of reeds (Phragamites comrnunis Trinius)distributed over Hexi Corridor of Gansu province. The leaves of all ecotypes of reeds contained the same kind of polyamines and showed the same trend of decrement in total amuonts of potyamines with change of seasons. From May to September, the reeds which grow in arid and saline habitat maintained higher level of spermidine (Spd)and spermine (Spm)with no accumulation of putrescine (Put), resulting in low ratios of Put to other polyamine (Spd and Spm), whereas opposite results were observed in swamp reeds. These results indicate that the adaption of reeds to drought and salt stresses may correlate with Put synthesis via ADC pathway and the quick transformation of Put into Spd and Spm.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ecological Secondary Xylem Anatomy of 7 Desert Species of Leguminosae
Author: Zhang Xin-ying and Cao Wan-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    The wood anatomy of 7 species (Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, Amorpha fruticosa, Halimodendron halodendron, Hedysarum mongolicum. Hedysarum scoparium, Lespedeza bicolor and Robinia pseudoacacia)of Leguminosae, which grow in desert regions of Northern China, is described in details. A comparative study on the quantitative wood anatomical characters among the species is made. Except some anatomical characters in A. fruticosa were larger in vessel diameter, thin walled in vessels and libriform fibres, all the rest six species showed a general similarities:vessel frequency/sq, mm very numerous and percentage of multiple vessels high; vessel elements very short, perforations simple and in almost horizontal end walls, intervessel bordered pits alternate and vestured; libriform fibres very short, and usually with thickened walls, and with simple pits; average ray height very low, and with multiseriate as well as uniseriate. However, there are differences in other characters, e. g. vessel distribution, percentage of solitary vessels; spiral thickenings present or absent; amount of axial parenchyma and distribution; ray frequency and type; crystals present or absent, and crystal distribution, if present. According to these anatomical diversities, a key to the identification of the 7 species is given. In this article, the relation between the structure of wood and the environmental influences has been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2034)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Awns of Wheat and Barley
Author: Wang Zhong,Gu Yun-jie and Gao Yu-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    The surface and the cross section of awns of wheat and barley were examined by scanning electron microscopy,ultrastructure of cells were observed under a transmisson electron microscope and the photosynthetic rates were measured with an oxygen, electrode and infra-red CO2 analyser. The main results were as follows :The cross section of wheat awn appeared to be acutely trianglular whereas that of barley awn was obtusely triangular. There were rows of stomota on either side of epidermis in both wheat and barley awns. Under the stomatic band there were green tissues. The green cells in the awn were differentiated from the parenchyma cells . The mature green cells possessed papillae which were rich in chloroplasts and mitochondria. The tamella system in chloroplasts was well developed and contained many starch grains. There were three vascular bundles in each awn. The sheath cells near the green tissues contained chloroplasts. The photosynthate in the green cells might pass through the sheath cells and companion cells to sieve elements. The highest photosynthetic rate of the awn was seen at the flowering stage ,reaching about 20 米mol CO2﹞m-2﹞s-1. The light compensation point was 70〞80 米E﹞m-2﹞ s-1. The light saturation point was about 1500 米E﹞m-2﹞s-1. The CO2 compensation point was 50〞60 ppm and the CO2 saturation point was about 900ppm . The photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were easily effected by CO2 concentration, light intensity and the duration of illumination . There was a positive correlation between the photosynthetic rate and the chloro-phyll content in the awns. The CO2-releasing rate in photorespiration of awn was about 4每5 米mol CO2﹞m-2﹞s-1.
Abstract (Browse 2234)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Image Automated Analysis and Recognition of Plant Chromosome
Author: Hu Kuang-hu,Su Wan-fang,Li Zi-xiao,Yao Shan-lin and Li Pan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    A plant chromosome image analysis CHROM. HUK software system has been developed in the light of the theory of image analysis and recognition and applied in karyotype automated analysis of Xizang wild barley (Hordeum agriocrithon Aberg var. nigrum) and Cupressus gigantea Cheng et L. K. Fu. The main features of automated analysis include the pre-processing of chromosome image, determinating peak-valley threshold of chromosome, separation of overlapping chromosome, evaluation of centre line of chromosome,limit erotion recognition of position of centromere and second constric, extraction of characterictic parameters of chromosome and karyotype analysis. The vast amount of data obtained could be stored, operated and used for further statistical analysis. According to the estimation in the 95% confidence interval and the tree type sort, the chromosome were paired and sorted. In the meantime, a karyogram and an idiogram of karyotype were generated automatically through computerization.
Abstract (Browse 2028)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Sun Light Intensity on the Change of Contents in the Chloroplasts of Tillandsia usneciaes
Author: Wu Dun-su,Chen Yi xin,Li Rui-qiu,Gao Xiao-yan and Guo Yi-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    After the leaves of Tillandsia usneciaes were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde under strong sun light ,some globular objects were found in the chloroplast. These globular objects did not take the ordinary U-Pb double stain but they showed a cyclic change in amount following the change of sum light intensity. At 8 O∩clock in the morning,only a few globular objects appeared in the chloroplast, At 10: 00 a. m.,there were several globular objects and they greatly increased at noon and gradually reduced in the afternoon,and finally disappearred at 4: 00 p. m. For detection of periodie acid-reactive complex carbohydrates with silver methenamine staining technique , the globular objects stained black. This result demonstrated that the globular objects may be polymers of intermediat products of the carbon cycle in photosynthesis and C3 compounds in malate decarboxylation.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Tryptophane Residues in CF1-ATPase and the Enzymatic Property of CF1-ATPase Modified by NBS and Photooxidation
Author: Wang Guo-qiang,Qian Yue-qin,Peng Jian-xin and Zhang Yin ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    The numbers of tryptophane residues in spinach CF1-ATPase were measured by means of chemical modification with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and photooxidation. There are 3.5 tryptophane residues in CF1-ATPase, among which two are essential for the enzyme activity. Photooxidation of CF1-ATPase led to increased O2 uptake of the reaction system and loss in activity of CF1-ATPase . Immunological property of CF1-ATPase has been altered by chemical modification with NBS and photooxidation. The resuits show that tryptophane residues seen to be essential for activity and antigenic properties of CF1-ATPase.
Abstract (Browse 1666)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Method for Embryo Sac Isolation and In Situ Fusion of Egg and Synergid Protoplasts in Nicotiana tabacurn
Author: Sun Meng-xiang,Yang Hong-yuan and Zhuu Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(12)
      
    A new method combining enzymatic maceration with osmotic shock was developed for isolation of living embryo sac and its protoplasts in Nicotiana tabacum L. The principle of this method was that the ovules submitted to enzymatic treatment and osmotic shock could release embryo sacs along with some internal ovular cells through either the funicle cut end or the micropyle. Factors affecting embryo sac isolation were investigated, including concentration of mannitol as a shock osmoticum and in enzymesolution ,duration of enzymatic maceration,and duration of osmotic shock. As a result a procedure was established: Ovules at mature embryo sac stage were macerated for 2. S h in 1 %每1.5% cellulase R-10 and 0. 5% macerozyme R-10 (or 1% Pectinase,Serva) dissolved in 13% mannitol solution using microshaker,followed by osmotic shock for 15每30 min with enzyme free 8% mannitol solution and gentle agitation using a pipette. Using a capillary,50每70 embryo sacs could be collected manually in one hour. The embryo sacs thus isolated could be kept viable from which protoplasts of egg cell and other componcnt cells could be further isolated. An additional interesting phenomenon was that osmotic shock often caused in situ fusion the protoplasts of egg cell and synergids. The rate of fusion ranging 9%〞71.9% could be controlled by modification of the procedure. This phenomenon merits further attention both from basic and practical point of view. The present method gives the advantages of faciliting isolation and promoting good harvest of viable embryo sacs/female protoplasts within a relative short time.
Abstract (Browse 1949)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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