February 1993, Volume 35 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Chemical Compositions of Isodon nervosus
Author: Xu Mei-juan,Cheng Pei-yuan,Tang Mai,Wang Zhi-min,Xia Yue-jin and Ji Jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    Additional two compounds have been isolated from the stems and leaves of Isodon nervosus (Hemsl.) Kudo. On the basis of spectral analysis combined with preparation of derivative, compound 4 was identified as em-l汐, 6汕, 7汕, ll汐, 15汕-pentahydroxy-7汐, 20-epoxykaur-16- ene(nervosin D). It was a new diterpenoid derived from nature plant for the first time. Compound 8 was identified as 2汐-hydroxy ursolic acid. It was a known compound obtained for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 1796)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Humidity on Stomatal Behavior and Transplant Survival Rate of Grape and Cherry Cultured In Vitro
Author: Li Wei,Cao Zi-yi and Zhang Li-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    The changes of stomatal behaviors and functions of grape and cherry cultured in vitro and in nutrition bags were compared through observation of leaf imprints. The results showed that the leaves of grape and cherry grown in vitro in high humidity when treated with factors inducing stomatal closure, all stomata of grape leaf were open. but partly closed in cherry leaf. After acclimatization the stomata volumes of grape and cherry leaves in nutrition bags reduced in various degrees, the average diameter and open index decreased obviously. The surface structure of stomata observed under scanning electron microscope revealed that the stomata of grape and cherry cultured in vitro were roughly at the same level with leaf surface but the stomata of grape in nutrition bags sunk in a little from the leaf surface, while the stomata of cherry leaf obviously raised above the surface. As the stomatal behavior and function of the two crops in vitro were different, it seemed that different humidities were required in transplantation of grape and cherry.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Origin of Some Pteridophyta and Pteridospermae Plants of the Late Palaeozoic ERA
Author: Ma Jie Feng Shao-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    Some intercontinental period "standard fossils" were discovered in strata of Devonian and Carboniferous of South China, such as the important member Lepidodendropsis hirmeri of Early Carboniferous of North America and Europe, Carboniferous species of the genera Calamostachys Schimer, Palaeostachya Weiss etc.. They co-existing with Leptophloeum rhombicum, Cyclostigma kiltorkense, Drepanophycus spinaeformis, D. spinousus, Archaeosigillaria vanuxemi and Pseudobornia ursina, were living in Tizikou Formation of the Late Devonian. The standard fossils of western Europe and North America Westphalian, as Neuropteris gigantea, Sphenopteris obtusiloba, Potoniea Zeiller, Mariopteris acura f. obtusa, M. acuta, Linopteris Presl and Archaeopteridium Kidston, Cardiopteridium spetsbergense, Triphyllopteris collombiana, and Adiantites gothanii were discovered also in upper part of Ceshui Formation of Guangdong or middle part of Zhongxin Formation, lower and middle part of Zishan Formation in Jiangxi, Yejiatang Formation in wester Zhejiang and Lindi Formation in Fujian. Upper strata of Ceshui Formation in Guangdong and upper part of Zishan Formation contain Fusulinids and Brachiopods in Jiangxi. Therefore the authors consider that this Lepidodendropsis hirmeri, Calamostachys, Palaeostachya, Neuropteris gigantea, Sphenopteris obtusiloba, Potoniea, Mariopteris acura f. obtusa, M. acuta, Linopteris were originated in Later Devonian and Early Carboniferous Wisean Stage of South China. The article also discusses the origin and migration of plants during that era.
Abstract (Browse 2209)  |  Full Text PDF       
Difference Between Salt(NaCl)and Alkaline(Na2CO3)Stresses on Puccinellia tenuiflora(Griseb. )Scribn. et Merr. Plants
Author: Shi De-eheng and Yin Li-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    Eight-week-old plants of Puccinellia tenuiflora (Griseb.) Scribn. et Merr. growing in pots filled with vermiculite were stressed by treating with 12.5每800 mmol/L solutions of neutral satt(NaC1) or basic salt(Na2CO3). Strain indexes such as relative growth rate etc. were determined. There was a significant difference between the two kinds of stresses. Maximum stress value that P. tenuiflora plants can tolerate is 60 mmol/L for the neutral salt and 200 mmol/L for the basic salt Na2CO3. Under NaCl-stress, great amount of proline accumulated, and citric acid content gradually decreased. But under Na2CO3-stress, proline content did not raise too much and citric acid content obviously increased with the increasing stress value. Under both stress conditions, Na+ content increased and K+ content decreased with the increasing stress value, but the effect of NaCl-stress on K+ content in roots and shoots was much less than that of Na2CO3-stress. In both stresses, the elevation of electrolyte leakage rate of leaf orchestrated with the change of stress value. This finding represented the only similarity among the strain indexes determined in both stresses.
Abstract (Browse 3265)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Compositions of Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don
Author: Xu Li-zhen,Chen Zhen and Sun Nan-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    Eleven compositions isolated from Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don were identified as n-C34H69OH (1), 汕-sitosteryl stearate (2), 汕-sitosterol (3), sciadopitysin (8), podocarpusflavone B (12), robustaflavone-7"-methyl ether (13), podocarpusflavone A(14), robustaflavone (15), p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (16), 2"-O-rhamnosylscopariu (23), 2"-O-rhamnosyl vitexin (24) on the basis of physical constants and spectral data. Among them, compound 8, 13 and 15 were found from the species for the first time. Compound 113 and 24 were reported from Podocarpaceae for the first time. The ethanol extract of P.neriitolius showed obvious cytotoxicity against A-549 and HT-29.
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two New Diterpene Dilactones from Podocarpus nagi
Author: Xu Ya-ming and Fang Sheng-ding
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    Two new diterpene dilactones, episellowin C (1) and nagilactoside B (2), were isolated from the seeds of Podocarpus nagi (Thunb.) Zoll. et Mor. ex Zoll.. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectral analysis and chemical method. Compound 1 has strong cytotoxic activity, and compound 2 is inactive.
Abstract (Browse 1705)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Exogenous Cholesterol on the Fluidity of Mitochondrlal Membran from Rice Root Apex
Author: Guo Jin-quan,Chen Wen-tao and Yang Yun-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    The effect of exogenous cholesterol on the fluidity of mitochondrial membrane from riceroot apex was investigated using the DPH fluorescece probe (1,6-diphenyl-l, 3, 5,-hexatriene).Results showed that exogenous cholesterol, either being absorbed by root system during water culture of rice or being added directly to the prepared mitochondrial of control rice root apex, decreased the fluorescence intesity of probe in the mitochondrial membrane and reduced the fluorescence polarization as well as micro-viscosity, but increased the fluidity of the mitochondrial membrane in rice root apex.
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
Screening of Salt-Tolerant Wheat Variants Via Anther Culture in Salt Stress Media
Author: Zheng Qi-cheng,Chen Wen-hua, Zhu Yao-lan,Tang Xuan-ming,Fu Xiu-yun,Qi Hao-zhi and Zhang Gui-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    Anthers of "Jinghua No. 1" winter wheat were cultured on N6 basal medium supplemented with 2,4-D 2 mg/L, KT 0.5 mg/L and NaC1 of various concentrations for defining selection stress. Irradiated and non-irradiated anthers were cultured on the medium salinized with 0.3%, 0.4% or 0.5% NaC1 for callus induction. Then screened calli for differentiation were transferred to medium containing NaC1 with the same concentrations as that for callus induction. 6 pollen plants were selected in which 1 pollen plant was obtained from irradiated anthers on the medium containing 0.5% NaCl. Only one seed was collected from this pollen plant. Growth status in the 污H3 of the above-screened pollen plant was normal in the moderately salt-affected soil. It was demonstrated that salttolerance of 3 strains in the 污H4 upon further valuation of water culture, salt-soil tank and field plotting was significantly higher than that of parent.
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  Full Text PDF       
The cDNA Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the Gene Encoding Nonstrucure Protein of Rice Dwarf Virus Genome Segment 10
Author: Chu Rui-yin,Zhang Xu,Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    The results of cloning and sequencing the gene encoding nonstructure protein of the rice dwarf virus (RDV) gtnome segment 10 with polymerase chain reaction(PCR) technique were reported. The amplified PGR product was cloned into Hind j site of plasmid pGEM3zf(-) and analysed with restriction enzymes. The physical map of the cloned fragment has been constructed, the insert is 1150 bp in length with restriction enzyme sites of Sac i, Hind k, Ndei, BamH i, etc. Besides, two restriction enzyme sites Bgl j and EcoR i have been separetely added in the 5 and 3 end of the segment in order to be cloned into plant intermediate vector in a convenient way. The fragments cleaved by the above-mentioned restriction enzymes were subcloned and the DNA sequence of full length of segment 10 was determined. In comparison with the RDV epidemic in Japan, the nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of cloned segment 10 are 96.03% and 97.17% in homology respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Savoy Cabbage(Brassica oleracea L. var. subauda)
Author: Wang Xiao-jia,Chen Shi-ru and Song Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    Protoplasts of savoy cabbage (Brassica olleracea L. var. subauda), "SA61" (SV), were isolated from leaves and hypocotyls of seedlings grown in vitro, in enzyme mixture containing 2% cellulase (Onozuka R-10) and 0.8% macerozyme RI0. Good results of protoplast collection were obtained by using 18% and 17% sucrose solution floating leaf protoplasts and hypocotyl protoplasts respectively, and centrifugalizing with the rate of 500 r/min. All the collected protoplasts were cultured in 5 different liquid media from which the best results were observed on DPD1 medium for leaf protoplasts and on MS1 medium for hypocotyl protoplasts, with the highest cell division rate and planting efficiency. About 2 weeks of cultures, many cell clusters and a few embryo-like structures were visualized. The cell clusters developed into visible microcalli in 20-30 days and grew up to 1 mm or so in dimeter about 40 days of culture. For growth, the calli were transferred to 7 different agar media and from which two suitable media, MB2 and MB3, were selected. Cultured for 40-50 days, the calli grew up, and were transferred to 4 solid media for organ differentiation. Ideal results of shoot regeneration were obtained on MS, medium. About 2 weeks after rooted on the MS medium without any auxin, intact plants were regenerated.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chromosomal Locations of Wheatgrass Esterase Isozyme Genes in Set I Wheat-Wheatgrass Alien Additional Lines
Author: Gao Ming-jun,Hao Shui,He Meng-yuan and Bu Xiu-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    The leaf esterase(ESTL), endosperm esterase(ESTE) and coleoptile esterase(ESTC) zymogram phenotypes in Set I wheat-wheatgrass alien additional lines and their parents were analysed. The wheatgrass genes Este-Agi1 and Estc-Agil were located onto the wheatgrass chromosomes of line TAI-12, the gene Este-Agi3 onto TAI-14; and the gene Este-Agi4 onto TAI-15.On the basis of some plant morphologies as well as those gene locations it might be deduced that TAI-12, TAI-14 and TAI-15 carry the wheatgrass chromosomes homoelogous to the wheat chromosomes of homoeologous groups 3, 7 and 6, respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1698)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies of the Double Fertilization in Panicum miliaceum L.
Author: Cheng Fang-yun and Jin Zhi-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    etailed studies on the double fertilization process and its duration of different stages in Panicum miliaceum L. were conducted. The main results are summarized as follows: The whole process of fertilization completes in 3 h after anthesis. The pollen tube reaches the micropyle of ovule in 20 min and enters the embryo sac and releases sperms 30 min after anthesis. The fusion of female and male nuclei occurs in a period of 30 min to 3 h after anthesis. The process of syngamy is almost the same as that of triple fusion, however, triple fusion ends always earlier. Primary endosperm nucleus forms 2 h after anthesis, and then divides. Zygote forms 3 h after anthesis when endosperm contains two free nuclei. The first mitotic division of zygote takes place 8每10 h after anthesis. Zygote has a dormancy period of 5每7 h. The double fertilization is a type of premitotic syngamy.
Abstract (Browse 1906)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Pollen Morphology of the Genus Ulmus L. in China and Its Taxonomic Significance
Author: Xin Yi-qun,Zhang Yu-long and Xi Yi-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    The pollen morphology of 19 species belonging to 5 sections of Ulmus L. (Ulmaceae) was studied. All the species were observed under SEM and partly TEM, in which, 15 representative species of 4 sections were examined and measured under LM with statistical method. 1. The pollen grains of the genus are heteropolar, suboblate to oblate, polygonal to rounded or irregular-shaped in polar view; the pollen sizes are 20.8每30.9 米m ℅ 22.1每49.4 米m; there are 4每7 pores located in equator or subequator; the pores are circular, subcircular to shortly furrow-like or sometimes irregular in shape, averaged 1.8每6.01米m ℅ 1.4每3.5米m in size, with pore membrane and usually with pore annulus; the exine thickness averages 1每2.6 米m; the ornamentation is verrucate, striate-rugulate, cerebroid, coarse-ornate and fine-ornate; whole pollen grain is covered by a great number of very small processes(granules). In the structure of exine there is no typical columellae. 2. The various sections, even their species of Ulrnus L., may be distinguished to some extent by the characters of pollen morphology particularly based on the aspect of statistics. 3. The treatment of the Gen. Chaetoptelea Liebm. as a Sect. Chaetoptelea (Liebm). Schneider of Gen. Ulmus is supported by the pollen morphology of U. elongata L.K.Fu et C.S.Ding discovered in China. And Sect. Chaetoptelea is more primitive than Sect. Blepharocarpus. 4. About the systematic arrangement of the sections of Ulmus, the pollen information shows that the Sect. Microptelea is the most primitive one in Genus Ulmus.
Abstract (Browse 1988)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies on the Early Phase of Somatic Embryogenesis in Petiole Explants of Wild Celery
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng,Yan Wen-mei and Shan Shuang-jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(2)
      
    The wild celery (Angelica polymorpha Maxim.) was employed as the experimental material to study the initiation of the embryogemic cells and the ontogeny of the proembryoids in petiole explants examined with light and electron microscopy. Segments of petioles were cultured on the surface of MS medium (MS + 2,4-D 2mg/L + KT 0.25mg/L), and then the DNA synthetic activity and cell divisions were examined to confirm that in which cell departure from quiescent state and initiation of cell division occurred. Results show that the proembryoids originate from the innermost layer of cortex parenchyma cells which exhibit rapid periclinal and anticlinal divisions, then a pericyclic tissue composed of 2--3 layers of smaller but still vacuolate cells form and corrugately cover the vascular bundle. Soon after that, individual cell groups located in the inner region of this tissue undergo regressive change and asynchronously transform to embryogenic clusters, giving rise to nodule-like proembryoids by repeated cell divisions. Meanwhile, the phloem parenchyma cells also proliferate by mitosis. Accompanying with some original sieve tube degeneration, a number of new sieve elements differentiated from the newly formed parenchyma cells. Microscopic observations also reveal that a lot of new tracheary elements differentiated from the xylem parenchyma cells. Evidently, the re-differentiation of the vascular elements in the petiole explants reflects the intensification of nutrient translocation in these segments in close relation to the great demand for nutrients during the ontogeny of proembryoid.
Abstract (Browse 1851)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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