June 1993, Volume 35 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Structure and Development of Secretory Cavities in Poncirus Trifoliata
Author: Hu Zheng-hai and Yu Gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    Light microscopical observation of thin sections revealed that the initials of secretory cavities in Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. originated from parenchyma cells below the epidermis in early stages of development. The cavity lumen appeared in the center of the initials and gradually enlarged during subsequent development. Concurrently the ceils surrounding the central space differentiated into secretory cells and sheath cells. The developed cavities of fruit ,stem and leaf consisted of 2每5 layers of sheath cells and 2每3 layers of secretory cells surrounding a spherical space. The secretory cells lining the space were observed to remain intact throughout the plantt s life. On the basis of comparative studies with the aid of different kinds of fixatives, embedding media and sectionings,it was suggested that the ,manner of formation of the lacunao of secretory cavities in fruit peels of P. trifoliata, Citrus reticulata and C. sinensis were different. However,as seen in thin sections the secretory cavities of all the 3 species developed schizogenously. Our result with reference to views of other authers concluded the existance of a common schizogenous cavity formation in Rutaceae.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Photosynthetic Pathway of Cymbidium Sinense
Author: Ye Qing-sheng, Pan Rui-chi and Qui Cai-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    The activities of key enzymes in C4 plants,such as PEP carboxylase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase(PPDK) were very low in Cymbidium sinense, however, the activity of RuBP carboxylase was high. The activity of glycolate oxidase in the leaf was rather high. The glycolate content in the leaf increased when the leaf was treated with 汐-hydroxypyridyl methyl sulfonate(汐-HPMS) under light. The ratio of Chl. a/b was between 2.6-2.7. In CO2-free air, the CO2 evolution of the leaf under light was high. All the above mentioned results suggested that Cymbidium sinense is a C3 species.
Abstract (Browse 2059)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of the Rhizome of Acanthopanax Obovatus
Author: Si Jian-yong,Chen Di-hua,Chang Qi,Lian Wen-yan and Wang Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    From the stem of Acanthopanax obovatus Hoo., an endemic species collected from Huang-long county, Shaanxi Province, eight crystal constituents(i-p)have been isolated and the structure of the new natural compound p were determined as n-butyl-汐-D-mannopyranoside by spectroscopic data and chemical method. The known compounds i-o were identified as 汕-sitosterol, daucosterol, sesamine, dl-syrigaresinol, acanthoside D, stearic acid and laccerol on the basis of spectral evidence and comparison of authentic samples.
Abstract (Browse 2052)  |  Full Text PDF       
Change of Superoxide Dismutase Activities During Somatic Embryogenesis in Asparagus officinalis L.
Author: Yang He-ping,Cheng Jing-chen,Zhou Ji-yuan,Li Gen-chang and Zhou Zi-you
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    The superoxide dismutase activities in callus and somatic embryoids at different developmental stages of Asparagus officinalis L. were determined by means light of induced oxidation-reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium. It was shown that the superoxide dismutase activity was higher in callus than in somatic embryoids at different developmental stages. The activity increased with growth, differentiation and maturation of somatic embryoids during somatic embryogenesis. The relations between superoxide dismutade activity and somatic embryogenesis were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification and Some Properties of Chitinase from Momordica charantia
Author: Pei Yan,Zhang Zheng-sheng,Xia Yu-xian and Song Shui-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    Chitinase was purified from Momordica charantia L. by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme showed single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamicle gel electrophoresis and the molecular weight was estimated as 35 kD. The enzyme was stable at temperatures up to 50⊥ or less than 10 % loss of activity in 1 h. Its optimum temperature was about 45 ⊥. Its suitable pH had a rather wide range from pH 4.4 to pH 6.8 and the optimum pH was about 6.2. The activity of the enzyme was similar in root and stem. In the lower leaves,the activity was higher than that of the upper.
Abstract (Browse 1703)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship Between the Nariations of Fruit-Bearing Organic Characters in Natural Aneurolepidium chinense Population and the Climatic Factors in the Songnen Plain of China
Author: Yang Yun-fei and Zhu Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    Based on eight years continuous observation and measurement on the ways and intensity of utilization of three fixed plots of the meadow of natural Aneurolepidium chinense in the Songnen Plain of China at definite stage of annual growth season the quantitative analysis on the relationship between the variations of fruit-bearing organic characters of A. chinense population and the climatic factors was investigated. Change of climate was one of the comprehensive factors which led to the variations of fruit-bearing organic characters of the population in different plots, but variations on the characters of the population among the plots and on the degree of correlation or functional relationships between the character and the climatic factor in different stages were only caused by the ways and intensity utilization. The characters of the spike organ were more affected by climatic factors in the stage of growth and development of the winterness plants of the population. There were universal ecological effects of time lap in the climatic factors.
Abstract (Browse 1750)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Numerical Taxonomy of the Asexual Propagation of Scirpus planiculmis in Songliao Ecological Area
Author: Kang Xue-geng,Fu Li,Tang En-quan and Gao Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    With theoretical and method ecological approach of numerical taxonomy,by selecting 8 relatively stable numerical characters in asexual propagation of Scirpus planiculmis in Songliao ecological area we have carried out the maximum synchronous branch classification for the investigation of the regularity in asexual propagation. A dendrogram of asexual propagation potency was established with maximum synchronous branch coefficients as numerical parameters and a developing level graph of asexual propagation characters in the matural propagation generations was drawn up on the basis of the total value of evolutionary steps. Thus the relativity between the ontogenesis of natural reproduction and the community competitive potency was unveiled. Based on the numerical parameters of leaped values in the asexual propagation of S. planiculmis,the key period of weed eradication was determined.
Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gene Diversity and Genetic Differentiation in Natural Populations of Picea koraiensis
Author: Yang Yi-ping,Yin Rui-xue and Zhang Jun-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    Vertical slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to examine inheritance of four isoenzymes in megagametophytes of Picea koraiensis. Gene diversity and genetic differentiation in four natural populations of P. koraiensis in Northeastern China were analyzed at six loci coding for four enzyme systems. The proportion of loci polymorphism in population was 0.5. The average expected heterozygosity of all samples was 0. 314, and the average observed heterozygosity of all samples was 0. 316. The average number of alleles detected per locus was 2.50. The effective number of alleles per locus was 1. 71. Measurement of gene diversity for the six loci showed a 0. 0059 significance of interpopulation differentiation. More than ninety-nine percent of the total gene diversity resided within population. The mean genetic distance over all pairs of P. koraiensis was 0. 0110.
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical Studies on the Effects of Boron on the Development of Stamen and Pistil of Rape(Bassica napus)
Author: Xu Han-qing,Huang Qing-yuan,Shen Kang and Shen Zhen-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    The effect of boron deficiency (0. 02 ppm of hot water soluble boron soil)on the development of floral organs of NY-8 (Brassica nalrus L. )was obvious. Some abnormal features were observed: pollen sac shrinkage, abnormal development of tapetum, abortion occurred from the stage of PMC to the unicellular pollen ,stigma exposed,poor development of papillae, arrested differentiation of some ovules and embryo sacs etc. The results suggest that the abortion of stamen and pistil in rape may be one of the reasons for yield decrease
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Calcium on Absorption and Distribution of Ions and H+-ATPase Activity in Barley and Wheat Under Salt Stress
Author: Zhang Wen-hua and Liu You-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    Calcium decreased Na+ absorption and transportation to the shoots,increased K+ and Ca2+ absorption and transportation ,decreased the leakage of electrolyties,and increased the accumulation of dry matter in barley and wheat seedlings under NaC1 stress. Calcium ion promoted the H+-ATPase activities in plasma membrane and tonoplast vesicles isolated from the young roots of the two plants, and increased respiration of the roots. This is in consistent with the results that calcium regulates ion absorption and distribution via its enhancement of H+-ATPase activities in plasma membrane and tonoplast.
Abstract (Browse 1798)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fluorescence Microscopic Observations on the Distribution Patterns of Actin Filaments in Stigma Cells of Eichhornia crassipes
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng,Jin Shi-ping and Yan Wen-mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    The distribution patterns of actin filaments in the non-fixed stigma of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms were examined with fluorescence microscopy by using FITC-phalloidin as fluorescence probe. In the finger-like papillae the distribution patterns of actin filament varied greatly with actin localization. In the basal region fusiform bodies emitting intense fluorescence were scatteredly distributed. In the middle zone(often occupied by dense cytoplasm) a network composed of numerous actin filaments appeared. These filaments of various diameters lay more or less parallelly to the cell axis, extending upwards and gradually merging into some thick dense bundles . In the apical region a few actin filaments sparsely and longitudinally distrubuted in the subcortical cytoplasm,and diffuse fluorescence often appeared in the spheroidal protrusion. Furthermore,an actin network composed of very thin filaments in the periplasm of the cell was observed ;the constituent filaments were in helical arrangement and often branched and interconnected. Considering possible relationship between the actin configurations and the physiological activities and functions of the stigma cells, it is proposed that the active cytoplasmic streaming, the translocation of solutes towards the apical region ,the active secretion of exudate from the spheroidal protrusion and maintaining of the structural integrity and stability of periplasm, all these might be considered as certain physiological events being affected or regulated by the actin filament patterns described above.
Abstract (Browse 1916)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts Derived from Suspension Cultures in Leymus racemosus
Author: Zhang Gen-fa,Huang Bai-qu,Wang Li,Luo Xi-ming,Zheng Xiao-feng,He Meng-yuan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    Calli initiated from mature embryos of Leymus racemosus (Lam. Tzvel. =L. giganteus were transferred onto the AA and DM media to produce friable embryogenic callus,from which embryogenic suspension cultures were established. Protoplasts were isolated from the embryogenic suspension cultures and were cultured either in thin-layer liquid medium or in double-layer (agar/liquid) medium. When visible calli were formed they were transferred onto the NBI agar medium or into the MBL liquid medium for further proliferation. These calli were transferred onto differentiation media of NBII and NR, where green spots were developed. Plants with both shoots and roots can be recovered from these green spots on MS j medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA. The results showed that the Km8p basal medium was favourable to the culture of L. racemosus protoplasts during the early stages of culture. In addition, the composition of the media added to the cultures had a marked influence on the growth of protoplasts, indicating that the nutritional requirements in this plant were different at various stages of protoplast growth and differentiation.
Abstract (Browse 2010)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Sequencing of Coat Protein Gene of Papaya Ringspot Virus and Sequence Comparison of Strains of PRV-P and PRV-YS
Author: Gong Jie-min,Zheng Xue-qin,Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    Papaya rinspot virus (PRV) was isolated and purified from infected papaya (Carica papaya L. )leaves in Hainan Island. The first strand of cDNA was synthesized with Olig(dT)as a primer. The coat protein gene of PRV was obtained by PCR techniques with primers synthesized accoding to the DNA sequence of PRV-P. Full length of cDNA clone encoding coat protein of PRV was sequenced and analysed. The result shows that the strain of PRV we isolated contains 881 nucleotides with 287 amino acids. Sequences among several strains of PRV were compared and it indicates an over 90% homology in DNA sequence of PRV-G the strain we isolated with PRV-P and PRV-YS. Highly convered sequence was located in carboxyl end and interestingly highly variable region was in N-terminal.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Constituents of Stems and Leaves of Astragalus membranaceus
Author: Ma Ying-li,Tian Zhen-kun,Kuang Hai-xue,Yuan Chun-sheng and Liu Li-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    A new saponin was isolated from stems and leaves of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. On the basis of chemical reaction and spectroscopic (MS, NMR)analysis, it is identified as cycloastragenol 3-O-汕-D-glucoside.
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Observation on Microtubules of the Generative Cell in Amaryllis Germinated Pollens and Pollen Tubes
Author: Hu Shi-yi and Gao Ming-geng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(6)
      
    The organization of microtubules (MTs) in the generative cell (GC) of germinated pollen and pollen tube in Amaryllis vittata Ait. has been studied with electron microscopy. At the beginning of pollen germination, the GC is long elliptic in shape, and is surrounded by its own membrane and also by that of the vegetative cell (VC) ,both of which appear undulated. In cross section, the GC appears roundish and has many lobes. The MT system of GC is mainly organized in bundles, but single MTs can also be observed. The MT bundles are generally located in the lobes, directly beneath the plasma membrane of the cell. These MT bundles orientate along the longitudinal axis of the cell. They are formed by aggregation of 5每6 MTs at least,more often about 30 MTs. In the bundles the MTs are often linked to each other by "cross-bridge". The single tubules in the eytopiasm distribute randomly in different orientations. When the GC has migrated into the pollen tube after germination ,it becomes elongated and has cytoplasmic extensions both in the anterior and posterior end of the cell. The organization of MTs of the GC in pollen tube is similar to that in the germinated pollen grain,but the number of MTs in a bundle often increases to 50每60. In the bundle the "cross-bridges" between the MTs which always link 3每5 MTs, are still seen clearly. Positional shift between the GC and Vegetative nucleus (VN) may take place during the growth of pollen tube. The physical association between GC and VN may be demonstrated some ultrastructural figures. It may be seen that irregular cytoplasmic extensions in the anterior end of the GC is always enclosed by the VN and the projections of the cytoplasmic extensions lie within enclaves of the VN. There are many MTs sheets in the lobes or extensions in the cytoplasm of the GC. Thus the present study demonstrates that MTs have an important role in maintaining the peculiar shape of the GC and the close association between GC and VN. However, it seems that the MTs are probably also engaged in the movement of the GC during pollen growth.
Abstract (Browse 1812)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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