July 1993, Volume 35 Issue 7

 

          Research Articles
A Study on the Structural Dynamics and Spacial Pattern of Vatica xishuangbannaensis Population
Author: Zhao Xue-nong,Liu Lun-hui,Gao Sheng-yi and He Al-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    The contiguous grid quadrats were applied to sampling for field data and the static life table of Vatica Xishuangbannaensis population, which is one of main dominant and rare species of tropical seasonal rain forest was set up, in Bubeng region situated in the south of Yunnan province (about N 2030,E 10135 ). The population was an unstable intermittent population. The spatial pattern of the population was of the contagious distribution-random distribution-uniform distribution from sapling to adult tree. The type of the population regeneration obeys the mosaic or cyclical theory of regeneration. According to population dynamics and spacial pattern the authors have proposed advancal method of managenment and administration, and ways of protection and utilization of V. xishuangbannaensis population.
Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  Full Text PDF       
Absorption,Distribution and Transformation of Selenium in the Tomato plants
Author: Shi He-ping,Zhang Ying-ju and Liu Zhen-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    Low concentration of selenium enhanced, but high concentration inhibited the growth of tomato seedlings, the higher the concentration of selenium, the more the inhibition of the growth was. Selenium was absorbed quickly by roots, and conveyed to the other organs. With prolonged time, the degree of increase in the distribution of total selenium content in the plants was in the orders of roots>leaves>stems. From lower to upper the distribution of selenium in the leaves increased progressively. At the flowering and bearing stage, the orders of selenium distribution were roots>fruits>stems>leaves. Only a part of selenium in the plants existed at the state of inorganic selenium, and most changed into organic selenium, and the majority of it was in the form of selenoproteins. 90.89% of its selenoproteins was found in the fruits which was more than that of the other organs of plants. Sulfur starvation enhenced the absorption and transportation of selenium from roots,accelerated the distribution of selenium in the leaves ,and increased the organic selenium content in the roots ,stems and fruits.
Abstract (Browse 1873)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Investigation on Plasmolemma Properties of Different Reed Ecotypes in Hexi Corridor
Author: Wang Hong-liang and Zhang Cheng-lie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    Lipid phospholipid and fatty acid compositions, fluidity, phase transition temperatures and membrane-bound Ca2+ ,Mn2+ ,Mg2+-ATPase activities of plasmolemmas extracted from four reed Phragmites communis Trin. ecotypes in Hexi Corridor of Gansu province were investigated. The results showed that all plasmolemmas of the four reed ecotypes consisted of the same six phospholipid and seven fatty acid components, but their proportions in the plasmolemma lipids of various reed ecotypes were markedly different. Index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA)and fluidity of plasmolemmas increased in the sequence of swamp-,dune-, meadow-dune transitional zone, salt meadow reeds. The plasmolemmas of all reed ecotypes showed phase transition in the two ranges of low-, high temperatures (4C6, 20C28 ), their phase transition temperatures in the latter were markedly different, Plasmolemma-bound Ca2+ ,Mn2+ ,Mg2+-ATPase activity positively related to IUFA and fluidity. Combining the membrane properties with environments,in comparison with swamp reeds, the increases of phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin and the significant rising of IUFA in plasmolemma lipids are closely responsible for reed saR-tolerance, whereas the increase of phosphatidylglycerol and the suitable rising of IUFA make a contribution to reed drought-tolerance.
Abstract (Browse 1830)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chilling-Induced Ethylene Production in the Peel and Pulp of Banana
Author: Xie Hai-hui,Wang Yi-rou and Liu Hong-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    Ethylene production rates and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthetase activities were 0. 78,0.91 nl g-l h-land 0.02,0.05 nmolg-1h-1 respectively in the peel and pulp of newly harvested banana fruits(Musa acuminata Colla warf cavendish),their ethylene-forming enzyme(EFE)activities were yet as high as 10.5 and 5.1 nlg-1h-1. When the fruits were chilled at 1.5 ,the ethylene production and EFE activities of the peel and pulp kept decreasing with the time course of chilling treatment. However, after these chilled fruits were transferred to 20 for 24 h,their ACC synthetase activities increased markedly,and ethylene production had separate peaks(1.75 and 2.45 nlg-1 h-1) in the peel and pulp. In this case,the endogenous low content of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)in vivo was insufficient for its ACC synthesis, The inhibitory effect of cycloheximide on ACC synthesis showed that chilling-induced ethylene production was mainly the result of activity of the resynthesized ACC synthetase induced by chilling treatment. The production of chilling-induced ethylene could be good indicator of chilling injury, but it is unlikely an indicator of chilling damage during ripening process in banana. In the severly chilling-injured fruits, both the peel and pulp still had the capability of converting ACC to ethylene.
Abstract (Browse 1906)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Sequencing of the Gene Encoding 10 kD Zein of Maize
Author: Wang Guang-li,Qian Zhong-xing and Lin Zhong-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    The results of cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding 10 kD zein of maize (Zea mays L. ) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique are here with presented. The genomic DNA template was extracted from sterilized seedlings of maize. Primered with a pair of synthetic 5and 3 PCR primers, a 0.57 kb DNA fragment was obtained after 30 PCR amplification cycles. The restriction map of the DNA fragment has been determined. The result indicated that the entire coding sequence of 10 kD zein gene has been cloned. The homologies of the DNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequences between our result and those published abroad are 96% and 90% respectively. As l0 kD zein is rich in sulphur, this gene might be used to improve the quality of crops, especially, the forage legumes by genetic engineering.
Abstract (Browse 1759)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Salt and Water Stress on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in leaf Cells of Halophyte and Non-halophyte
Author: Zhao Ke-fu,Zou Qi,Li De-quan and P. J. C. Harris
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    Different concentrations of NaC1 and isoosmotic polyethylene glycol(PEG)were used to treat the seedlings of halophyte Suaede salsa and non-halophyte Prosopis chilensis. Membrane lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde(MDA)content,SOD activity and plasmalemma permeability were determined at different time of treatment. The seedlings of Suaeda salsa showed no or a little response to 0--1. 488 MPa NaCl,but marked response to 1. 984 MPa NaC1. However,there was a greater response to isoosmotic PEG in plasmalemma permeability, SOD activity and MDA content. Prosopis chilensis showed an contrary trend to Suaeda salsa. The MDA content decreased unanimously as three kinds of free-radical scavengers were sprayed on the seedlings of the above plants before NaCl or PEG treatment, but increased with pretreatment of SOD inhibitor. Obviously, the decrease of SOD activity and the increase of MDA content were related to plasma injury, and free-radical did participate the course of salt and/or water stress injury. Their effects of both salt and water stress shared common features in response to the integrity of the cell membrane.
Abstract (Browse 2296)  |  Full Text PDF       
Confocal Microscopy of Microtubule Cytoskeleton in the Pollen Protoplast of Narcissus
Author: Xu Shi-xiong(S. Y. Zee), Li Chun-gui and Zhu Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    Pollen protoplasts were isolated from the mature pollen grains of Narcissus cyclamineus using cellulase Onozuka'R-10 and pectinase in Bs medium. The microtubule cytoskeleton in the pollen protoplasts was studied using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. In the cortical region there was a very complex microtubule network. The network contained numerous whirl-like arrays. The microtubule bundles in the whirl-like arrays were connected with each other by smaller bundles indicating that the arrangement of the whirl-like bundles were quite well organized and not at random. From the cortex to the centre of the protoplast another microtubule network having a structure different from the one in the cortical region was present. This network was much loosely packed than the cortical network. The arrangement of the microtubule bundles near the vegetative nucleus was again different. Numerous granules appeared outside the nuclear membrane. From these granules microtubule bundles radiated towards the cytoplasm. The arrangement of the microtubule network around the generative cell showed no specialized features. But inside the cell three types of microtubule arrays were present. 1. parallel arrays, 2. network, and 3. a mixture of the two. In the bursted pollen protoplast (as a result of osmotic shock treatment )some microtubule bundles could still be found attached to the ghost. The microtubule bundles associated with the ghost were much fragmented. But some still retained their branches and junctions. In the dry cleaved samples,a number of organelles still remained attached to the membrane and they included : microtubules, microfilaments, coated vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum and numerous honey-comb-like apparatus. The honey-comb-like apparatus was named as coated pits by Traas (1984). But we feel that it is more appropriate to call this organelle the honey-comb apparatus and we also believe that this organelle may be involved in microtubule and/or microfilament organization.
Abstract (Browse 2197)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study of Mesophyll Cells During Their Dediff erentiation in Stevia rebaudiana
Author: Yu Di-qiu,Hong Wei-lian,Chen Mu-chuan and Wang De-yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    Authors deal with the changs of cell ultrastructure ,nucleic acid and soluble protein contents as well as peroxidase activity during mesophyll cell dedifferentiation of leaf explant of stevia rebaudiaha Bertoni. Electron microscopic observations indicated that the mature mesophyll cells had returning to meristematic cells had to go through three main phases: (1)Initiation phase :The main characteristics of cells in this phase were cytoplasmic expansion, stretching out of cytoplasmic filaments to cell centre and appearance of the protein bodies in vacuoles. (2)Medial evolving phase :The main characteristics of cells in this phase were formation of cytoplasmic bridges ;the chloroplasts were dedifferentiated to proplastids and the nuclei started to move toward centre . (3)Finishing and dividing phase :During this phase cell dedifferentiation had finished and cell division was about to start. The main characteristics of cells in this phase were the appearance of meristematic state ; the nuclei, sometimes irregularly shaped, occupied a major proportion of the cell ; the nucleoli were vaculated and the nucleopores increased in number and size. Biochemic analyses showed that the contents of the total nucleic acids , RNA and the soluble proteins as well as the peroxidase activity gradully increased during formation of meristematic cell aggregates and then reduced. However, the change of DNA contents was not obvious.
Abstract (Browse 1814)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical Studies on Secondary Phloem of Euonymus bungeanus
Author: Lin Jin-an and Gao Xin-zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    The anatomical structures, especially the type, distribution and arrangement of the constituent elements in the secondary phloem of Euonymus bungeanus Maxim. have been studied. The results showed that the secondary phloem was thicker, consisted of sieve-tube elements, companion ceils ,phloem parenchyma cells ,secretory ceils and rays. Sieve-tube elements, phloem parenchyma cells and secretory cells were alternately arranged in tangential bands, forming a conspicuous zone-like constitution. There was no obvious boundary between the functional phloem and the non-functional phloem. Sieve-tube elements were long, slender cells with very oblique end walls and compound sieve plates. Sieve areas on lateral wall were highly differentiated. Companion cells were triangular in transection and slender in radial section. Mostly,two or three companion cells stayed along with one sieve-tube element. In the functional phloem, phloem parenchyma cells were also slender, containing a few starch grains;but in the nonfunctional phloem they enlarged and contained abundant starch grains. Secretory cells were longer than sieve-tube elements, consisting of rubber-like material. Rays were uniseriate. Finally, the authors also discussed the phylogenetic position of E. bungeanus, which may provide some references for further study of the classification of different genera of Celastraceae.
Abstract (Browse 1842)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Observation on Megasporogenesis and Embryo Sac Development of Regenerated Ovule in Hyacinth
Author: Lu Wen-liang,Qian Nan-fen,K. Enomoto and Y. Fukunaga
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    The morphogenesis of regenerated ovule and cytological changes of its megasporogenesis and embryo sac development were studied. Results showed as follows: 1. the differentiation of the regenerated ovule had followed a normal process in the order of inner integument , outer integument and then funiculus. But the form of the regenerated ovules in vitro was quite different from that of ovule in vivo. Most of the regenerated ovules were orthotropous and hemianatropous , only a few were anatropous which are the same with that in vivo. 2. the megasporogenesis and the embryo sac development also had normal cytological process ,and the Polygonum type-embryo sac consisted of one egg, two synergids , one central cell and three antipodals could be seen in mature regenerated ovule. These ex-perimental results make clear that the regenerated ovule differentiated directly from explant could accomplish the complex processes of megasporogenesis and embryo sac development. By this fact ,authors infer that once the differentiation of ovule primordium, the complex biochemical programs for the megasorogenesis and embryo sac development can be controlled by the ovule itself and need no more information from flower bud and /or plant.
Abstract (Browse 2002)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two New Species of the Early Cretaceous Filicinae and Their Taxonomical Study
Author: Chen Fen,Deng Sheng-hui and Ren Shou-qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    Mainly based on the characters of the fertile segments, two new species of the Early Cretaceous ferns:Athyrium hulunianurn Chen, Ren et Deng (sp. nov. )and A. hailaerianurn Deng et Chen (sp. nov. ) have been nominated from the Yimin Formation, Zhalainuoer, Nei Monggol.
Abstract (Browse 1749)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Echinatin from Cultured Cells of Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Author: Hou Song-sheng,Chen Shi-yun,Yang Mao-zhong,Li Xin-ming,Lu Da-yan,Zhang Jian and Chen Lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(7)
      
    Callus was induced from seedlings of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Glycyrrhetic acid, the major constitution of the original plant, was not detected in the ceils cultured in flasks and in 5 L and 2 5 L draught-tube air-lift bioreactors. But a yellow compound was isolated, and identified as 4, 4-dihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone (echinatin) by means of TLC, UV, IR, MS and 1H-NMR spectra. The cultured cells failed to produce detectable amount of glycyrrhetic acid. The biosynthesis of echinatin was also discussed in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 1969)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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