August 1993, Volume 35 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Somatic Embryogenesis of Peucedanum terebinthaccum
Author: Xia Guang-min and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    The influence of different plant growth regulators including 2,4-D,ZT, 6-BA and ABA on somatic embryogenesis and the amount of endogenous ABA at different stages of embryogenesis was investigated. The effect of each plant growth regulator changed according to the stage of embryogenesis. The amount of endogenous ABA was rather high in single cell stage, decreased at cell clump and embryogenic cell clump stages and dramatically increased at globular embryo stage. It decreased again as the embryo developed. This change in amount of the endogenous ABA explained very well the difference in the effect of exogenous ABA when applied at different stages of embryogenesis.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Study of 12-epitriptriolide Isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii
Author: Ma Peng-Cheng and Yang Chang-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    A new diterpene bisepoxide, 12-epitriptriolide (L1) was isolated from the leaves and roots of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. and from the marketed drug "Total Glycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii". This compound was crystallized from CHC13 as colorless needles,mp 267.5-269.5 C. Its molecular formula is C20H26O7. The structure was identified on the basis of spectral data (IR, MS, UV,1H-NMR,13C NMR, 2D-NMR,13C-NOE, NOE difference spectroscopy and selective long-range DEPT NMR) analyses. 12-epitriptriolide was shown to have a potent anti-inflammatory action. Its effective dose was 40 mg/kg with the murine model of ear swelling induced by croton oil while that of triptriolide was 70 mg/kg . The results showed that the action of the structure in connection with 12-汐OH was about 2 times stronger than that of 12-汕OH. 12-epitriptriolide showed no immunosuppressive and antifertility (male) actions in mice and had low toxicity (LD50>250 mg/kg ) in experimental animals. The preliminary assay for the structure-activity relationship revealed that the epoxide group on C12.13 of diterpene from T. wilfordii was one of the key positions associated with immunosuppressive and antifertility actions and toxicioty.
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis)
Author: Li Xue-bao,Xu Zhi-hong,Wei Zhi-ming and Bai Yong-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    Immature cotyledons of cowpea (Vigna sinensis Endlo) were used for protoplast isolation. Enzyme solution for protoplast isolation contained 40% cellulase Onozuka R-10,0.30% Macerozyme R-10 and 2% hemicellulase. The purified protoplasts were cultured in Bs,MS or KM8p liquid medium in dark (25⊥) at a density of 1 ℅ 105每5 ℅ 105/ml. The protoplasts started cell division in 3每5 days . Sustained cell divisions resulted ill formation of cell clusters and small calli,with cell division frequency reaching 23%每28% in MS medium . Calli of 2 mm in size were transferred onto MSB (MS salts+B5 vitamins) medium with 2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0. 5mg /L BA forfurther growth. Embryogenic calli appeared on this medium. After passage to fresh medium with the same composition, the embryogenic calli were transferred into MSB liquid medium to establish suspension culture. When the suspended calli were transferred back onto MSB agar medium with 0. 1 mg /L IAA, 0.5mg/L KT, 5% mannitol (cultured in light,2000 lx,12h/d), a lot of adventitious roots formed in 7每10 days, and then somatic embryos formed from the protoplast derived calli. But only a few embryoids developed further into the cotyledonary stage ,and the others died at globular, heart-shaped, or torpeto stage . Finally, some cotyledonary embryoids germinated and developed into plantlets or shoots with leaves.
Abstract (Browse 1841)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transformation of Gynostermma pentaphyllum by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Saponin Production in Hairy Root Cultures
Author: Fei Hou-man, Mei Kang-feng, Shen Xin, Ye Yi-min. Lin Zhong-ping and Peng Li-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    Authors report here the establishment of an efficient transformation system for Gynosternrna pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino using Agrobacteriurn rhizogenes R1600. Hairy roots appeared on leaf explants 10 days after inoculation with the bacteria . Frequency of the explants transformed by R1600 was up to 94%. Transformation was confirmed by Southern analysis. Biomass of hairy root cultures suspended in hormone-free MS medium increased 9 times after 20 days of incubation. There was no callus formation on the hairy roots during suspension culture. Saponin content in the hairy root cultures was about 2 times as much as in the natural roots, saponins of the hairy root cultures were also released into growth medium as well.
Abstract (Browse 1968)  |  Full Text PDF       
Growth Adaptability and Salt Tolerance Osmoregulation of Aneurolepidium chinense Grown on Saline Grassland
Author: Yin Li-juan,Shi De-cheng and Wang Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    The growth of Aneurolepidium chinense Kitag. grown on different saline soil of a Northeast grassland of China was studied and the K+,Na+proline and citric acid accumulated in plants or their organs were determined . The results showed that A. chinense had a strong adaptability to saline habitat and could grow on soil with a salt content of 0. 088%--1.63%,and pH ranging from 8.3 to 9.8. Sodium,proline and citric acid were accumulated by plants for osmotic adjustment when the salinity and Na+content of the soil increased. A. chinense absorbed Na+ rapidly from the soil and excluded K+ when the soil Na+ concentration was less than 20 米mol/g. Sodium was adsorbed slowly and K+ remained constant in plants when Na+ concentrations of soil were 20每80 米mol/g,and proline and citric acid contents were markedly increased. Sodium and K+ decreased slightly in plant tissue and organic solutes increased when Na+ concentrations exceeded 80 米mol/g in soil. Most K+ was distributed in young leaves which were metabolically active. The major sites of Na+ accumulation were in the roots and older mature leaves;whereas proline and citric acid accumulation occurred primarily in young leaves,mature leaves and stems. Tillering buds had strong ability to absord and accumulate K+,Na+ and Proline.
Abstract (Browse 1980)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Relationship Between the Net Photosynthetic Rate of Young European Beech and Main Climatic Factors Under Natural Conditions
Author: Zhang Xi-ming. W., Stickan and M. Runge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    Young European beech lives under the blank of European beech mature forest. Its photosynthetic rate was significantly affected by climatic factors. This paper deals with the effect of climatic factors on diurnal variations of the net photosynthetic rate,photosynthetic capacity,lightphocosynthesis curve and temperature effect of net photosynthetic rate under different radiations. The results are as follows:the climatic factors have greater influence on diurnal variations of the net photosynthetic rate. The influence coefficient of radiation,temperature and relative humidity on photosynthetic capacity are 0. 51, 0. 22. and 0. 17,respectively. The light-photosynthesis curve is Y= 1. 49273每1. 58993 ℅ 0. 09328(0.01x). The optimum combination of environmental conditions of photosynthetic rate under natural conditions is:the radiation is more than 45 米E ﹞ m-2 ﹞ s-1 and meantime the temperature is between 10⊥ and 20⊥.
Abstract (Browse 1661)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Improvement of Salt Tolerance of Black Locust Seedlings After Seed Soaked in Multi-Effect Triazole
Author: Shen Hui-juan,Liang Cheng-xi and Li Mei-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    An improved salt tolerance black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. ) seedlings can be obtained after seed soakes in 250 ppm multi-effect triazole(MET),through which plant growth is inhibited, relative water content(RWC) of plants is increased , and permeability of plasmic membrane is reduced. The contents of the free prolines in the seedlings under the saline stress of the black locust through the treatment either the seeds being soaked in MET or in water may be increased . However, the content of putrescine of black locust seedlings after seed soaked in MET was reduced under stress,showing the accumulation of putrescine was related to water state of plants.
Abstract (Browse 2030)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Role of Methyl Jamonate(JA-Me)on Its Regulation of the photosynthetic Rate and the Translocation of Assimilates in Rice
Author: Chen Ru-min,Li Niang-hui, Pan Rui-chi and Liu Zhen-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    The photosynthetic rate and the uptake of 32p and 15N were promoted,and the degradation of chlorophyll was delayed when rice was treated with JA-Me. Meanwhile,JA-Me increased the activity of amylase and promoted the transport of assimilates from flag leaf to ear. The accumulation of assimilates in ear in rice treated with JA-Me,increased by 8% as compared with that of control.
Abstract (Browse 1788)  |  Full Text PDF       
Detection and Immunofiuorescence Localization of Antifungal Protein of Gastrodiaelata
Author: Jiang Liu, Xu Jin-tang,Wang He,Liu Hong-xiang and Sun Yong-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    Gastrodia data B1. antifungal protein (GAFP) was purified by DEAE-Cellulase column chromatography and Sephadex G-50 column chromatography, and the polyclonal antibody against GAFP (GAFP-PcAbs) was also produced. Using Western blot and Dot blot it was demonstrated that GAFP-PcAbs is specific for GAFP. For further study, immunofluorescence localization of GAFP in secondry corms of G. data has been conducted with fluorescence microscopy. The result showed that GAFP was localized at epidermal and cortical tissues in secondary corm of G. elata,and the content of GAFP was higher in epidermis.
Abstract (Browse 1762)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Different Light Qualities on Structure of Chloroplasts and Photosynthetic Physiological Properties in Panax ginseng
Author: Liu Li-xia,Tang Shu-yan,Xu Shou-min,Sun Fei and Cao Yue-qun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    The ultrastructure of chloroplasts and the photosynthetic physiological properties of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. grown under different light qualities with same light transmission rate (25 % of sun light) were investigated. The results showed that the thylakoid membranes of Panax ginseng chloroplasts are well deve lopted, and the number of grana and granal lame llae under green and violet film are more than that under red and blue film. The content of chlorophyll in the same area of leaves and the absorption spectra area of chlorophylls and leaves under violet and green film are higher than those under other films. All the photosynthetic rates are very low, and their sequence from high to low are violet, green, red and blue . Green film is advantageous to the accumulation of chlorophylls and the development of thylakoid membranes and red film is advantageous to the accumulation of chlorophyll b. Blue film reduced granal thylakoid staking and decreased the photosynthetic rate. A superior trend of the photosynthetic physiologic properties as well as the structure of chloropiasts of Panasc ginseng leaves under violet film,being composed with red and blue film is significant.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Resumption of Cambial Activity and the Change of Peroxidase Isozymes in Broussonetia papyrifera
Author: Cui Ke-ming,Luo Hai-long Li Ju-huai,Li Shao-wen,Wei Ling-bo and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    Five Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. trees were selected in a natural stand located on the campus of Peking University, Beijing, China. The trees were ca. 5-6 years old, 3-4 m tall,and had diameters of about 3 cm measured 1.2 m above ground level. They were samplied at monthly intervals between January 28 and March 25, then at ten-day intervals between March 25 and May 20,1991. On each occasion, one 3-year-old shoot was cut from the tree. Two blocks (about 1 cm ℅1 cm) contained peridern,phloem,cambium and wood with more than one annual ring were cut from every shoot,fixed in FAA,and then were prepared for anatomical studies. And on each occasion,7 layers of tissues (from periderm to mature xylem)were scraped off from the shoots and 100 mg of separate tissues were randomly extracted in 0.1 ml of 20% sucrose. The extracts were used for isoelectric-focusing in polyacrylamide gel slabs (85 mm ℅ 60 mm ℅ 1 mm). Benziding and odianisidine was used as substrate. After electrophoresis the gel slabs were placed in the substrate buffer until the isozyme bands were visible. Owing to the ring-porous structure of the wood of Broussonetia papyrifera, the cambial activity was comparable with that in the most ring-porous dicots. The cambium activity started about ten days before bud sprouting. On April 4,the dormant cambial zone consisted of ca. 4 cell layers. The trees did not sprout until April 16,but ca. 2 cell layers of immature xylem and phloem were formed concomitantly. Ten days later, 8-9 cell layers of xylem and ca. 5 cell layers of phloem were formed. The formation of immature phloem cells continued to increase slowly between April 4 and May 20, whereas that of immature xylem cells increased rapidly between April 4 and April 26,and then decreased between April 26 and May 20. It was suggested that differentiation of immature xylem into mature xylem lasted ca. 10 days,whereas that of immature phloem into mature one lasted ca. 20 days. There were totally 6 peroxidase isozyme bands in dormant cambial region and functional phloem. Variation of zymogram in cambial region occurred before cambial activity activated which is followed by more or less minor changes of bands in all other tissues. These indicated that several significant changes were related to the level of endogenous IAA and differentiation of vascular tissues.
Abstract (Browse 2034)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plantlet Regeneration from Leaf Protoplast cultures of Japanese Butterbur
Author: Hou Xi-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    Protoplasts were isolated by enzyme digestion from leaf of Japanese butterbur (Petasites japonicus). The enzyme incubation mixture consisted of 4% (W/V)cellulase RS, 2% (W/V) hemicellulase, 1% (W/V) pectinase-dissolved Y-23 and polygalacturonase in a solution of 0. 5 mol/L mannitol at pH 5.7 . In the basic medium of 1/4 MS inorganic salts and 1/2 MS vitamins supplemented with 2 mg/L NAA, 0. 2每0. 5 mg/L BA, 0. 5 mol/L mannitol and 10 g/L sucrose, the cells divided luxuriantly. Regenerated plantlets were formed from callus after bud induction and root initiation.
Abstract (Browse 1817)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Giant Stacked Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and Its Activity During Cotton Microspore Development
Author: Hu Shi-yi,Yuan Zong-fei and Xu Li-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(8)
      
    The giant stacked rough endoplasmic reticulum(S-RER)is discovered in the study of cotton microsporogenesis. These giant S-RER are randomly dispersed in the outerpart of the microspore cytoplasm and are easily visualized ,because they have sufficient number and are large enough for examination under light microscope. The diameters of those stacks attain to a range of 2.0〞4.5米m. Specific characteristics of S-RER vary with the developmental stage and metabolic state, but they may be included into two main types :one is small and simple, the other is large and complex. The giant stacks may be composed of more than 50 parallel cisternae. Of course, between the main types there are many transitional forms. In addition, a few special configurations of S-RER was observed which the cisternae always become vesicularized at the peripheral portion of the stacks occurring near the plasma membrane (PM). In this case,the S-RER itself may be further lost its own structural property,instead of substituted a lot of small vesicles at its original site. It may also be called vesicular RER. Those vesicles derived from RER cisternae bear ribosomes on the outer surface. On the other hand,vesicles as a major vesicle may be directly formed at the ends of RER cisternae, which, in fact, serve as transition elements. The dynamic activities of those vesicles during the spore metabolic processes are conducted via two pathways operative:(1)the vesicles detach from the RER end and migrate towarss PM,then the vesicle membrane fuses with PM and the contents of the vesicles are discharged, (2) vesicles fuse together among themselves to form provacuolar bodies in the outer part of the spore cytoplasm. Several provacuolar bodies may further converge more and more to form small vacuoles. From the data studied the following conclusions may be drawn: (1)although the S-RER presented during cotton microsporogenesis is much the same as that in mature pollen grains of some plants,yet in this study S-RER always shows functional activities. So that S-RER is not limitted to represent an inactive RER configuration. (2)During the development of cotton microspore,the enlargement of the cell size is bound to follow a rapid increase and great extension of the vacuoles. It indicates that a rapid synthesis of endomembrane materials must be involved in the growth of microspore. The supply of membrane materials is one of the important functions of S-RER.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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