September 1993, Volume 35 Issue 9


          Research Articles
Plant Regeneration from Cell Supension Derived Protoplasts of Heracleum moellendorffii
Author: Xia Guang-min, Li Zhong-yi and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    Heracleum moellendorffiz Hance is a herb belonging to Umbelliferae used in traditional medicine in China. The young stem-nodes were induced for callus formation on MS medium containing 1 mg/L 2,4-D. After subcultured for about five months, the embryogenic calli were used for cell suspension culture. The protoplasts were prepared from this suspension by digestion with enzyme mixture containing 1. 5% cellulase Onozuka R-10 +0. 3% macerozyme R-10 + 0. 5% snailase + 5 mmol CaCl2 + 0. 6 mol/L mannitol, at pH 5.8, and cultured in modified MS and modified N6 media with 0.3 % agarose. They divided after 3 days and developed into small cell colonies after about 2 weeks. From this time on, the glucose concentration in the culture media was decreased to 0. 2 mol/L,which led to futher growth of the colonies to small calf . After a period of proliferation on solid medium with 0. 5 mg/L 2,4-D, the calli were transferred to a medium with 0. 1 mg/L zeatin on which somatic embryos differentiated and developed to plantlets
Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gallus Regeneration from Protoplasts of Sugar Beet(Beta vulgaris)
Author: Shao Ming-wen and Ma Long-biao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    Conditions appropriate for isolation and culture of protoplasts from cell suspension cultures of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ) were investigated. Protoplasts with high yields and high quality were obtained by treating cells with a mixture of cellulase, macerozyme R-10 and driselase, or other enzyme combinations. Protoplasts were cultured in MS liquid medium or solid agar medium. Callus was obtained from the cultured protoplasts.
Abstract (Browse 1733)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two Unearthed Ancient Woods Excavated from Wuhan City
Author: Qi Guo-fan,Yang Jian-ju and Su Jing-zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    Two unearthed ancient woods were excavated from 45C47 m underground Wuhan city (Hubei Province) in 1990. One of the woods was identified to be a coniferous wood: and named as Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng, and the other as broadleaf wood: Bischofia polycarpa Airy-Shaw. The geologic age is considered to be in the late Pleistocene of Quaternary about 11280 190 years from present.
Abstract (Browse 1715)  |  Full Text PDF       
Soybean Seedling Extracts Inhibit Supernodulation
Author: Zhu Yu-xian,Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    When soybean (Glycine max ) nodulation mutant nts 382 was inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, these plants nodulated significantly more than the parental type Bragg. Nts 382 seedlings displayed wild-type nodulation pattern when aqueous extracts of young Bragg shoots were applied to the cultural medium together with nutrient solution. Application of young nts 382 shoot extracts to Bragg seedlings did not result in any apparent increase in nodule number. In graft experiments, young shoots from mutant nts 382 induced supernodulation on Bragg root stocks, while no supernodulation was observed when Bragg seedlings were used as scion and grafted onto nts 382 root stocks. Further, the effectiveness of Bragg plant extracts to suppress supernodulation on nts 382 seedlings was found to depend on the age of the plant material used, being very ineffective with extracts from 60-day-old plants. The age effect was not observed in graft experiments. These findings suggest that soybean supernodulation phenomenon may be controlled by one or a few unknown chemicals or plant hormones.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
Production and Preliminary Application of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Paulownia Witches' Broom MLO
Author: Lin Mu-lan,Yang Ji-hong,Chen Jie,Shi Xiao-yan,Zhang Chun-li and Chen Wei-lun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    Monoclonal antibodies against mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) associated with paulownia witchesbroom (PWB) were produced by using partially purified preparations from diseased paulownia. Splenic cells from immunized mice were fused with sp2/0murine myeloma cells. Screened by indirect ELISA using partially purified PWB-MLO and healthy paulownia extracts as detecting antigens, two hybridoma clones that stably secreted specific antibodies against PWB-MLO were obtained from 459 clones of four successful fusions. The monoclonal antibodies were isotyped and determined to be immunoglubin classes IgG2a and IgG3. Antibody titers of ascitic fluids were both over 1.6 104 assayed by indirect ELISA. Priliminary application on several specimens proved that they were the monoclonal antibodies against PWB-MLO.
Abstract (Browse 1705)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Accumulation and Biological Cycles of K,Ca and Mg in Rhizophora stylosa Mangrove Community in Guangxi
Author: Lin Peng,Yin Yi and Lu Chang-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    The present paper deals mainly with the absorption, distribution and biological cycles of K, Ca and Mg in Rhizophora stylosa mangrove community in Yingluo Bay of Guangxi, China. The results showed that: In standing crop of the community, the total amounts of K, Ca and Mg were 46.26 gm-2, 276. 33 gm-2 and 50. 43 gm-2, respectively. The Biological cycles of K, Ca and Mg in this stand were:annual uptake 4.46 g m-2 for K, 17.46 gm-2 for Ca and 4.81 gm-2 for Mg ;annual retention 1.67 gm-2 for K, 10.83 gm-2 for Ca and 1.39 gm-2 for Mg; annual return 2.79 gm-2 for K, 6.63 gm-2 for Ca an 3.42 gm-2 for Mg. The enrichment ratios of K, Ca and Mg in this community were 1. 81, 1.20 and 1.80, respectively. The speed of turnover period (yr) was 17, 42 and 15, respectively,in which the speed of Mg recycling was the fastest.
Abstract (Browse 1576)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Protective Effect of Phosphate Buffer on SO2 Harmed Wheat Seedling
Author: Liu Rong-kun,Han Yang, Li Zhen-zhen and Chen Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    When 1/15 mol/L of phosphate buffer at pH 6. 4, was used to spray wheat seedling three times, the plasmolemma structure become stabilized and k+ efflux was decreased. After fumigation with SO2 the K+ efflux of wheat seedling ,sprayed with phosphate buffer, decreased markedly. At SO2 dosage of 1.54 ppm 4h, the decreasing rate of K+ efflux was 54. 11%C81.29% and the decrease rate was in concert with the increase of SO2 dosage. Therefore, the authors consider that the phosphate buffer, at pH 6.4, has a good protective effect against SO2 insult.
Abstract (Browse 1640)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Water Stress on Energy Transduction in Chloroplasts
Author: Lu Cong-ming,Gao Yu-zhu,Zhang Qi-de and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    Water stress inhibited the photosynthetic O2 evolution rate of wheat leaves. It was shown that water stress decreased the electron transport rate, the activities of photophosphorylation and, coupling factor, and, the synthesis of ATP in chloroplasts. PS electron transport was more senstitive to water stress than PS . The reduction in photophosphorylation activity might be the results of reduction in electron transport rate and coupling factor activity, as well as the uncoupling effect of water stress on chloroplasts. The uncoupling effect could be due to the inhibition of light induced proton translocation in chloroplasts.
Abstract (Browse 1773)  |  Full Text PDF       
Benzofuranoid Neolignans from Piper kadsura
Author: Ma Ying and Gui qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    In a continuing research for neolignans from Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, six benzofuranoid neolignans were isolated from the aerial part of the plant. Their structure determination were based on the spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, MS, NMR and CD) and derivative synthesis. Three of the isolated compounds were identified as new structures: 7R, 8R, 1S-8-3, 4-methylenedioxy-5-methoxy-l, 4-dihydro-4-oxo-7, 0, 2, 8. l-neolignan ( ), 7 R, 8 R, 1 R- 8 - 3,4- methylenedioxy- 1 - methoxy - 1,6- dihydro- 6- oxo- 7.0.4,8. 3-neolignan () and 7R, 8R, 1S-8-3, 4-methylenedioxy-l-methoxy-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-7.0.4,8.3-neolignan (). Known compounds among them are 7R, 8S,1S-8-3, 4-methylenedioxy-5-methoxy-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxo-7. 0. 2, 8. 1-neolignan(), 7S, 8S, 1R-8-3, 4, 5-trimethoxy-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxo-7.0. 2, 8. 1-neolignan () and 75, 85, 1S-8-3, 4, l-trimethoxy-l, 6-dihydro-6-oxo-7. 0. 4, 8. 3-neolignans (). All of them were isolated from the plant for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 1853)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Cytochemical Study of ACPase and ALPase Activity in the Laminar Hair Cells of Bresenia shreberi
Author: Wang Wen,Shi Guo-xin,Du Kai-he and Xu Xiang-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    The ultrastructural distribution of acid phosphatase (ACPase) alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and the changes of their activities in the laminar hair cells of Bresenia shreberi Geml. were studied by means of lead phosphate preciptation method during their development. The ACPase activity became detactable at the stage of mucilage secretion of the head cell, which was located at endoplasmic reticulum (Er),cuticle (Cu) and tonoplast (Tp) of the head cell, and nuclear membrane (NM), plasmodesmata (P1) and wall ingrowths (WI) of the stalk cell, and WI and plasmolemma of basal cell. ALPase activity showed its first appearance at the mitochondria(Mi) of the basal cell at the stage of head cell formation. At the stage of head cell secretion, ALPase activity was located at Er, Cu, Mi of head cell, and NM, Go, Er, WI and P1 of stalk cell. ALPase activity at Mi of basal cell was most intensive. The results indicated that ACPase and ALPase possessed the function of promoting cell differentiation and material transfer in the process of hair cell development and that the material for synthesizing mucilage in head cell was provided by the basal cells and the parenchyma cells nearby.
Abstract (Browse 1930)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Growth,Developmment,and Physiological and Biochemical Activity of Asparagus Seedlings Grown from Space Flown Seeds
Author: Liu Cun-de,Shen Quan-guang,Du Xian-guang,Yan Tian and Ju Rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    Asparagus seeds were sent on board retrievable satellites and they were flown in space for 8 days. Experiments were conducted in fields and laboratory after the seeds returned to the earth. Comparative studies were made on the growth and development patterns of plants growing from space flown seeds and controls kept on the earth. Changes in physiological and biochemical characteristic of the seedlings were also studied. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) Space flight markedly raised the germination rate of seeds as compared with the controls kept on the earth. After 5 days of imbibition, 40% of the space flown seeds germinated while the germination rate for ground controls was only 22.5%. After 6 days of imbibition the germination rate of space flown seeds was 65 % and that of ground controls 40%. After 10 days of imbibition, the rates rose to 87. 5% and 72. 5% respectively. The seedlings from space flown seeds grew in fields much faster than ground controls. The yield of tender stems of the former was 34% higher than the latter. (2) An assay on respiration showed that the respiratory intensity of space seedlings was 61% higher than that of ground controls. This indicated that the vigor of seeds enhanced under space conditions, accelerating the germination of seeds and growth of seelings. (3) The proline content of space seedlings was 33% higher than that of the ground controls. At the same time, the permeability of the plasma membrane of the space seedlings was markedly lower than that of the ground controls. The content of aspartic acid in plants grown from space seeds was slightly higher than in ground controls while the content of asparagus was markedly lower.
Abstract (Browse 1695)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Ideas About the Development of the Plant Science in China- In Memory of the 60th Anniversary of Chinese Botanical Society
Author: Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
Abstract (Browse 1596)  |  Full Text PDF       
Investigation on Pollen Morphology of Aconitum L.
Author: Xi Yi-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    Pollen morphology of 62 species in Aconitum L. was investigated with light and scanning electron microscopies. The pollen grains in this genus are 3-colpate and exhibit spinulate surface pattern in all the species. According to the shape of pollen grains in equatorial view Aconiturn L. may be divided into three types. Type pollen grains are wide elliptic; Type are narrow-elliptic and type are rectangular or close to square in shape. The pollen characteristics among species are very similar. The morphological information of the pollen grains shows that species of Aconiturn L. are a natural taxon.
Abstract (Browse 1818)  |  Full Text PDF       
Light Energy Transfer Between Phycobiliproteins and Thylakoids of Higher Plants
Author: Wu Xiao-nan,Zhou Bai-cheng and Zeng Cheng-kui(C. K. Tseng)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(9)
    The excited energy transfer from phycobiliproteins to thylakoids of higher plants was investigated. When incubated with spinach thylakoids, phycobiliproteins isolated from red and blue-green algae have transferred the light energy which they absorbed to spinach PS . The efficiency of energy transfer dependent upon the kind of phycobiliproteins used. If spinach thylakoids were replaced by thylakoids of Brassica chinensis; R-phycoerythrin or C-phycocyanin could transfer the excited energy to PS of B. chinensis only in the presence of allophycocyanin.
Abstract (Browse 1693)  |  Full Text PDF       


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