December 1993, Volume 35 Issue Suppl.


          Research Articles
Morphogenesis of Style-Stigma-Like Structures from Floral Explants of Crocus sativum and Indentification of the Pigments
Author: Han Li-ling and Zhang Xin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Calli could be induced from various parts of flowers of Crocus sativus cultured in vitro. The appropriate media for steady induction of style-stigma-like structures were MS or N6+NAA 5 mg/L. +6-BA 5 mg/L. The style-stigma-likestructures resemble the natural ones in both appearance and inner structures. Both pigments of picrocrocin and safranal, which are known to accumulate only in the stigmas and styles under natural condition and are important for the high quality of saffron, were extracted and identified from the style-stigma-like structures and calli from explants of flowers.
Abstract (Browse 1721)  |  Full Text PDF       
Numeral and Structural Changes of Chromosomes in Hybrid Callus Ceils Between Triticum aestivum and Leymus paboanus
Author: Zhang Xue-yong and Dong Yi-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Cytogenetic research on calli and regenerated plants of hybrid between Triticum aestivum L. cv. Fuhuho and Leymus paboanus(Claus) Pilger (2n=84) indicated that striking variation in karyotype occurred in the callus cells. Most of the callus cells were aneuploid and the dominant changes of chromosome structure were telocentric chromosomes, dicentric chromosomes and cyclic chromosomes. Such changes made chromosome and gene recombination possible because of their unstabilities and also increased resistance to leaf disease in the regenerated plants. The authors further discussed the causes of these variations and the application of in vitro technique in transfer of benificial genes from polyploid alien species to wheat.
Abstract (Browse 1670)  |  Full Text PDF       
Canonical Analysis and the Principal Components Analysis of Plant Community with Its Environmental Factors in the Yellow River Delta
Author: Li Xing-dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    The communities distributed in concert with the gradient of from high to low soil moisture content are listed in the following order, viz. :Phragmites communis, Typha orientalis, Phragmites communis- Miscanthus sacchari florus, Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis, Suaeda salsa, Tamarix chinensis, Imperata cylindrica var. major-Artemisia capillaris, Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis-Artemisia capillaris, Imperata cylindrica var. major and Artemisia capillaris. The communities distributed along with the gradient from high to low soil salt content are in the following order :Suaeda salsa, Tamarix chinensis, Typha orientalis, Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis, Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis-Artemisia capillaris, Artemisia capiUaris, Phragmites communis, Phragmites communis-Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Imperata cylindrica var. major-Artemisia capillaris and the Imperata cylindrica var. major distribute successively.
Abstract (Browse 1988)  |  Full Text PDF       
Quaternary Sporo-pollen Flora and Palcoclimate of the Tianyang Volcanic Lake Basin,Leizhou Peninsula
Author: Lei Zuo-qi and Zheng Zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    The lacustrine spore and pollen record from the Tianyang volcanic basin of Leizhou Peninsula, Guangdong Province, indicates a series of complex vegetation changes during the last 350 ka B. P. The Pleistocene vegetation is very different from the present and its changes could be associated with the global climate fluctuations. From 240 ka to 130 ka B. P., there was a increase in tropical montane rain forest elements such as Tsuga, Keteleeria, Dacrydium, Pinus, Juglans, Carpinus that indicates a cool and moist environment which became warmer (humid rain forest) until 80000 yrs. B. P. The interval between 80000 and 45000 yrs. B.P. was characterized by the invasion of many deciduous trees (Fagus, Carpinus, Alnus, Carya, Pterocarya) and the augmentation of some conifer components, whereas, many tropical taxa remained. This assemblage suggests cooler but very moist condition. Comparison with modern vegetation in south-eastern China makes it possible to estimate that the annual mean temperature might be 5 lower than today. Coldest and driest condition occurred between 22000 and 12000 yrs. B.P. The grassland (Gramineae, Artemisia and many ferns)became more extensive and the montane rain forest began to degrade, leading to the disapearance of many taxa which were used to humid environment. The monsoon circulation seemed to be more and more pronounced from this time. By 10000 yrs. B.P. the climate rhythm comparable to today (distinct arid and humid season) was established.
Abstract (Browse 1766)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Immobilization of Suspension Cultured Cells of Berberis julianae
Author: Li Xin-ming,Hou Song-sheng,Chen Shi-yun,Liu Jia-xin,Lu Da-yan and Wu Yu-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Suspension cultured cells of Berberis julianae Schneid. were immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate gel and reticulate polyurethane. It was found that cells immobilized in lag phase secreted more jatrorrhizine into medium than in exponential phase. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the cells were entraped in the centre of the foam block, and bad grown out through its surface by 20 days. The viability of the immobilized cells was confirmed by measuring the respiratory capacity after transferring the blocks at 20 days intervals for about 140 days.
Abstract (Browse 1612)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis and Desiccation Someatic Embryos in Celery
Author: Cui Hong,Guo Zhong-chen and Gui Yao-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Large and healthy cotyleden-stage embryoids were obtained on MS medium supplemented with KT 0. 5 mg/L, ABA 0.25 mg/L, prolin 500 mg/L and CH 500 mg/L by alternative culturing of seedling of celery (Apium graveolens) on solid and in liquid media. Desiccation of embryoids before storage increased the convertion rate of the somatic embryos, especially when they were pretreated with ABA and were dried under the condition of high RH, low temperature. Scanning electron miccroscopic observation and the comparisons of electro-conductivities and dehydrogenase activities between desiccated embryoids and nondesiccated embryoids demonstrated that desiccation embryoids have better storage ability as the former favors the retaining of the cell structure, membrane system and enzyme activity of embryoids during storage.
Abstract (Browse 1755)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Transformation and Plant Regeneration in Pepper
Author: Ye Zhi-biao, Li Han-xia, Zhang Jian and Jing Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    An effective genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which harbours a cointegrate plasmid pTiB6S3SE:: pMON200, has been developed in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. ). The intermediate vecter pMON200 contains a NPT gene under the nos promoter, which confers a transformed cell resistance to kanamycin. The cotyledons of aseptic pepper seedlings (12 d) were excised and pre-cultured on the regeneration medium (RM :MS+ 3 mg/L BA). After 2 days of pre-culture the explants were infected with a suspension of A. tumefaciens (10 8 cell/mL) and then cocultivated on the same medium for 2 days. The cultures were transferred onto the selection regeneration medium (SRM: RM + 100 g/ml Km+ 500 g/ml Cx). The multiple shoot buds were formmed in 2C3 weeks. For the elongation of the shoots the buds were transferred onto the selection elongation medium (SEM:MS basal nutrients +B5 vitamins+75 g/ ml Km+300 g/ml Cx). The shoots (2C3 cm)were excised and rooted in selection root medium (MS+0.1 mg/L IAA+50g/ml Km). Rooted shoots were then potted. Total DNA was extracted from the putative transformed and control young leaves for Southern blot analysis. After digestion, electrophoresis and transfer, the membrance was hybridized with the probe of 1 kb Bam HI fragment of pCaMVNeo? All of 8 regenerants tested were transgenic with single or several copies of NPT gene.
Abstract (Browse 1830)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation on Morphogenesis in the Ovule Culture of Citrus
Author: Gao Feng,Zhang Ju-ying,Zhang Jin-ren and Chen Shan-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Globular-shaped embryoids and embryonic Callus were simultaneously derived from the 7 to 8-week-old ovules of ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), cultured on MT medium supplemented with 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate. During subculturing, callus morphogenesis can be carried out via somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis simultaneously. The processes and morphological characters of normal, abnormal and secondary somatic embryogenesis as well as organogenesis were systematically observed under SEM. The morphological basis of distinguishing between embryoid and adventitious bud in dicotyledons under SEM. was also produced.
Abstract (Browse 2000)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Abscisic Acid on Somatic Embryogenesis in Coptis chinensis
Author: Peng Yan-hua,Liu Cheng-yun,Ke Shan-qiang and Ye Wan-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    The endogenous ABA levels of various developmental stages of somatic embryos in Coptis chinensis F. were examined with HPLC method. ABA contents in embryogenic cell aggregates, globular somatic embryos, torpedo-shaped somatic embryos and cotyledon stage embryoids were 0. 452, 0. 461, 0. 831 and 2. 50 g/g fr. wt respectively. Exogenous application of 4 mol/L ABA enhanced the frequency of forming normal cotyledon stage embryos and promoted secondary embryo productivity most efficiently. Cycloheximide was found to inhibit protein synthesis of somatic embryos in medium with ABA more than in ABA-free medium. The results suggest that ABA regulate somatic embryogenesis of C. chinensis through induction of protein synthesis.
Abstract (Browse 1651)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Stimulation with Weak Electric Currents on in Vitro Culture of Cabbage
Author: Wang Xiao-jia, Wang Qiang,Song Ming and Zheng Er-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Some effects of weak electric current stimulation on in vitro shoot culture of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata) were studied by using a new type of pusle-current-stimulator. Stainless steel was used probes and cabbage shoots in vitro culture was being tested to fined out the relationship between pulse current intensity and time of stimulation to the stimulating effects. Five current intensities as 0.43 A, 0. 67 A, 1.30 A, 2.60 A and 4.00 A, three stimulation time as 5 days, 10 days and 20 days. Four kinds of media as MS +BA 5.0+NAA 0.1, MS+BA 3.0+NAA 0.1, MS+BA 1.0+NAA 0. 1 and MS+NAA 0. 1 (mg/L) were adopted as for different treatment. Each treatment includes two groups of different electric polarities or orientations. The number and fresh weights of shoots were measured after 20 days of culture for each treatment. The results howed that micro-current intensities within the range of 0.62.60A had promoting effect on shoot differentiation and weight gain, Pulse-current could eliminate the unfavorable influence of electric polarization. Treatmint of 10 daysstimulation with 1.3 A current gave the optimal effect. The effect was insignificant when the current was less than 0. 67A, and was inhibitive when exceeded 2.60A. The presence of BA in MS medium was essential for current stimulation the optimal concentration being 13.0 mg/L. As the applied current couldprovide a common polarity for ling tissues and a similar axis orientation for provide a common polarity for living tissues and a similar axis orientation for shoot growth it could promote the absorption of BA and some other important supplements with favor the differentiation and growth of the shoots in in vitroculture.
Abstract (Browse 1722)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Red light on Root Generation and Level of Endogenous ABA in Coleus Cutting
Author: Zhao Shu-ying,Li Guo-lan,Zheng Gui Ping and Yin Kui-de
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Cuttings of Coleus scutellarioides were separately exposed to red light (660 nm) and far-red light (780 nm) in order to examine root initiation and level of endogenous ABA in the cutting with immuno-assay. The results showed that red light but not far-red light could promote root initiatian from the cuttings. Level of endogenous ABA in whole and especially in the lower half of the cutting under red light was lower than that under far-red light. This change and redistribution of endogenous ABA may be related to root initiation. The effect of red light on promoting root initiation was confirmed by root/ shoot ratio enhancement of cucumber seedling exposed to red light.
Abstract (Browse 1714)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies of Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot Haploid Mutam Cell Line Ts-59
Author: You Rui-lin, Wang Jun-fang, Li Zheng-li and Sung Zinmy Renee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Temperature-sensitive mutant cell line ts-59 of carrot (Daucus carota L. ) was selected in one of the authors, Dr. Zinmy Renee Sungs lab from a haploid line HA which was derived from a domesticated carrot variety Juwarot. Callus clumps of cell line ts-59 are composed of embryonic and vacuolated parenchymatous cells. The former shows vigorous cell division activities and appears typical characteristics of meristematic cellsthe latter possesses a central vacuole with cytoplasm appressed against the cell wall. The disintegration of the cytoplasm and cell wall of vacuolated cells causes a callus clump fragmenting into several small ones. At normal room temperature (24), the calli of ts-59 incubated in liquid Bs medium without 2, 4-D differtentiate into various stages of somatic embryoids. At higher temperature (32), the calli can only differentiate into globular stage embryoids. Their component cells appear highly vacuolated. Prolongation of culture period at 32 causes disappearance of tonoplast and the limiting membranes of plastids and mitochondria, autolysis of cytoplasm and disintegration of cell wall. Results show that the destruction of membranous systems of cells causes necrosis of the component cells, leading to the abortion of globular embryoids.
Abstract (Browse 1668)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Translation and Gene Expression During the Cold Storage of American Avocado Fruits
Author: Ye Zhi-biao and D. Grierson
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
Abstract (Browse 1663)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Kinetin and Ascorbic Acid on Protection on Cell Membrane and Promotion of SOD Biosynthesis in Rice Seedling after chilling Injury
Author: Tang Xue-jun and Wand Kang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    After chilling injury at 4 for 36 hours, the rice (Oryza sativa L. )seedlings were sprayed with 1.0 ppm kinetin(KT) or 100 ppm ascorbic acid((Vc). The SOD activity was increased from 101 to 151 enzyme unitsg-1 fr. wt with KT treatment, it reached the level as in normal seedlings. With Vc treatment, the SOD activity was 92% of control. The DMA contents and ther rate of cell membrane electrolyte leakage were decreased in seedlings with either. The incorporation of 3H-L-Leucine in to the SOD protein suggested that the rate of SOD biosynthesis was enhanced with KT treatment, which might be the main cause of increased SOD activity with KT treatment. However, no promotion of SOD biosynthesis was observed in the seedlings treated with Vc. With KT or Vc treatment, there was a negative correlation between the SOD activities and the MDA contents, and a positive correlation between the MDA contents and the rates of membrane leakage.
Abstract (Browse 1666)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Light and Antioxidants on Fluoreseence Qucnching of Chlorophyll in Maize Leaves under Water Stress
Author: Chen Yi-zhu,Li Shuang-sun and Lin Zhi-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    hlorophyll fluorescence in PS II of the leaves of maize (Zea mays L. ) seedlings under stress was measured with a newly developed pulse modulation fluorometer. Water stress had no effect on the initial fluorescence (Fo) but slightly inhibited the maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence(Fv), Photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the effective activity of PS (Fv/Fo). In the first minute of saturated flash, some changes in photochemical quenching (qp) occurred. However, when leaves that had been subjected to water stress were illuminated again with intense light (1100 mol m-2 s-1) for 30 min, fluorescence yield, fluorescence kinetics, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching(qE) all changed significantly. Pretreatment of the leaves with scavengers of activated oxygen butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid(ASA) and 6-BA could change to a certain extent the effect of water stress on Q-quenching and E-quenching. It might be concluded that: (1) light enhanced the damage of water stress on photosynthetic apparatus; and (2) such damage could be relieved by ASA and 6-BA.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Drought on Lipoxygenase Activity,Ethylene and Ethane Production in Leaves of Soybean Plants
Author: Xu Chang-cheng and Zou Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    In slow soil-drought treatment (T1) lipoxygenase (LOX) activity increased, whereas ethylene, ethane and 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid(ACC) levels revealed little change. In leaves of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. ) plants in pots. In rapid soildrought treatment (T2), ethylene and ACC levels and LOX activity increased rapidly at first and then declined later. Ethane production increased markedly when the leaf membrane damage was more than 60% when the detached leaves were exposed to dry air (T3), changes of ethylene, ethane and ACC levels and LOX activity followed the same patterns as those in rapid soil-drought treatment. There was a positive correlation between LOX activity and ethylene production in both T2 and T3. Increased free fatty acids were observed in all treatments. In addition, pretreatment of detached leaves with free redical scavengers before desiccation resulted in the inhibition of LOX activity and ethylene formation to the same extent, but enhancement of ethane production. The results suggested that the stimulation of LOX-catalysed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids leads to an increased stress of ethylene production from ACC. In leaves with high membrane damage, there were loss of LOX activity and accumulation of unsaturated fatty acid which lead to ethane synthesis.
Abstract (Browse 2127)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Magnetic Treatment on Chilling Resistance of Tomoato Seedlings
Author: Cai Su-wen,Li Jian,Xue Yu-hua and Zhang Jun-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) seedlings were treated in magnetic field and with magnetized water at cotyledon stage and euphylla stage and exposed under different lower temperature condition of certain duration. The results showed that the SOD isoenzyme activity ratio of A-band (Mn-SOD), being more sensitive to lower temperature, to the summation of A-band, B-band (Cu-Zn-SOD)and C-band (Cu-Zn-SOD) was higher than controls. As a result of magnetic treatments the decrease extend of SOD specific activity and the increase extend of conductivity, induced by lower temperature stress, were less than controls. The chilling injury symptoms of treated seedlings were alleviated. The experimental results illustrated that the magnetic treatments brought out certain benefits in raising chilling resistance of tomato seedlings.
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Aleurone Ceils and Storage Reserves of the Ungerminated Caryopsis in Coix lacryma-jobi
Author: Dong Jian-hua,Cui De-cai,Xi Xiang-yuan,Shao Zong Ze,Qin Li-quan, Guo Yan-kui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    The structure of aleurone cells and storage reserves in the ungerminated mature jobstears (Coix lacryma-jobi L. ) caryopsis were observed with both light microscopy and electron microscopy. The cell of aleurone layer has a nucleus, numerous lipid bodies, aleurone grains, starch grains, and ER fragments. The lipid body is enclosed by an electron-dense line. The aleurone grain with a globular inclusion is composed of protein, polysaccharide, and niacytin. The globular inclusion contains lipid and phosphate. The protein bodies in the starchy endosperm reveal concentric rings in ultrastructure.
Abstract (Browse 1559)  |  Full Text PDF       
Feeding Position of Wax Insect (Ericerus pela) on Ligustrum lucidum and the Influence of Parasitism on Host Tissue
Author: Zhang Zhen-jue,Lin Jin-yi and Zhang Yong-tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    When wax insect (Ericerus pela) in its first instar fed in the leaf of Ligustrum lucidum, the tip of stylet reached the phloem of vascular bundle. The portion of the stylet in the leaf was 0. 100. 31 mm in length. The stylet might penetrate through living cells. The cells penetrated by styler exhibited no apparent reaction of injury. When wax insect in the second instar fed in branch, the tip of stylet fed in the functional sieve tube element. The fed sieve tube element also exhibited no reaction of serious injury. The length of the stylet portion in the bark was 0. 320. 75 mm. The penetration in the bark by a stylet was mainly intracellular, seldom intercellular. The stylet that pierced through the bark was encircled by a styler sheath of protein in nature. Branched stylet sheath was observed. At the position where the stylet sheath converged, the parenchyma cells exhibited apparent reaction of injury. The stytet might penetrate through many sieve tube elements, finally reached the newly-differentiated sieve tube elements. The results suggested that feeding of wax insect was a process of initiative choice. One year after collecting white wax by means of skinning instead of cutting the branch, the stylets and stylet sheaths still remained in the bark. Several layers of cells around them usually became necrotic. Stylets and styler sheaths in the outer cortex were surrounded by bending phellogen which separated them from the living cells. Many cyst-like structures were formed in the periderm. Such bark was no longer available for feeding.
Abstract (Browse 1886)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Root-Stem Transition Zone in Panicum miliaceum
Author: Ma Rui-jun and Jin Zhi-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    The root-stem transition zone in Panicum miliaceum L. is from the base of hypocotyl to coleoptilar node. The general trend of transformation of vascular tissue in the transition zone is the same in Zea mays L. Triticum vulgate Viii., and Avena sativa L.. The first step in the transition is from the exarch to the endarch; and the first leaf above the coleoptile come from branches of cotyledon trace; and midrib of the first leaf come from vascular bundle in axis. But cotyledon trace branches at cotyledon node in Panicum miliaceum L. which is the same in Zea mays L. but differs from Triticum vulgare L. and Avena sativa L. There are inversion, splitting and mergence in the course of transformation. But splitting and mergence are different from traditional patterns. There were anticlinal and periclinal splitting of xylem bundles in transformation of xylem. The two neighbour xylem bundles are linked by vessel elements from new differentiation. The transformation of phloemis completed by mergence and resplitting. Adventitious roots develop after transition is completed.
Abstract (Browse 3414)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes of Chinese Cabbage Infected with Peronospora parsitica
Author: Qu Xin-shun,Li Rong-qian and Wang Jian-bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Ultrastructural changes in leaves from a resistant and a susceptible Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson )cultivar inoculated with Peronospora parasitica (Pers.) Fr. were studied with transmission electron microscopy. After the entry of the pathogen, the infected cells of resistant cultivar showed hypersensitive death. Necrotic cells with fibrillar material were observed. This Suggested that the resistance to P. parasitica was mainly expressed by the rapid necrosis of infected cells. Extensive phagosomes and plasmalemmasomes, swollen endoplasmic reticula, elongated mitochondria, increase in the number of ribosomes and Golgi vesicles were observed in uninfected cells of the resistant cultivar inoculated with P. parasitica. These ultrastructural changes appeared to be closely related to the resistance response to the incompatible pathogen . In contrast, convoluted membrance rings and a number of crystal-containing microbodies demonstrated in susceptible cultivar in the early stage of infection, also seem to be closely related to disease resistance.
Abstract (Browse 1640)  |  Full Text PDF       
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD)--A New Molecular Marker
Author: Lu Jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    One of the primary needs of a plant breeder is to be able to identify individual plants with the appropriate combination of desired characters in a segregating progeny. Traditional selection is made by distinguishing morphological characters and their combinations, and this process mainly depends on the experience of plant breeders. However, selection of some characters by conventional method is rather difficult, or at least time and labour consuming and expensive. If a trait is controlled by more than one gene, identification and selection will become more difficult since there are many intermediate phenotypes in the progenies. Therefore, obtaining genetic markers for tagging desired gene(s) is necessary for more rigorous and efficient selection. Such markers are not the genes themselves but are genes or DNA fragments tightly linked to the gene of interest. Isozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA (RFLP) have been used as molecular markers in genetic research and breeding practice in many crops. However, the application of these markers in crop breeding is still restricted because there are limited isozyme loci and the RFLP technique is complicated and expensive. Recently, a new molecular marker (Ramdon Amplified Polymorphic DNA-RAPD) has been used in plant genetics and breeding. This paper describes the RAPD technique in detail and discusses its advantages and disadvantages in plant genetics and breeding by comparing it with isozyme and RFLP techniques.
Abstract (Browse 1726)  |  Full Text PDF       
Quantitative Microcomputorization on Grading of Rare and Endangered Plants in China
Author: Wei Hong-tu, Deng Mao-bin and Fu Li-kuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Grading the degrees of plant risk is a very important base of assessment for preference conservation of rare and endangered plants. A microcomputer quantitative system for grading the risk index of the 100 species in China was established . After the calculation of'fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCES) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation values (FCEV), the "grading of risk size" was calculated by the fuzzy system type distinguishing (FSTD). The result shows that the system is highly accurate and its manipulation is comparable to the current qualitative assessment in reflecting the actual endangered situation of the 100 plant species in China.
Abstract (Browse 1621)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Leaf Cuticle of Three Chinese Endemic Genera in Magnoliaceae
Author: Wang Yu-fei and Tao Jun-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    The outer and inner layers of leaf cuticle of all Chinese endemic genera in Magnoliaceae. Tsoongiodendron Chun. (monotypic genus), Manglietiastrum Law. (monotypic genus) and Parakmeria Hu et Cheng. were investigated under light and scanning electron microscopy. The cells of upper epidermis had irregular forms with curved walls. The characters of lower epidemal cells were similar to those of upper ones but possessed lots of stomatal apparatus scattered among them. Stomatal apparatus were paracytic and irregularly orientated. The slightly elevated guard cells situated at an angle a little above the subsidiary cells on the lower epidermal surface. These characters of the three genera were similar to those of other genera (except Liriodendron Law. ) in Magnoliaceae. These facts support that all genera (except Liriodendron Law. ) in Magnoliaceae were similar in morphological features and belonged to a same natural group. Meanwhile there was a clear line of demarcation among these three genera in the epidermal features such as the degree of curved walls of epidermal cells, the fine structure of stamota apparatus and hairs. Their specialized level on epidermal characters paralleled with their taxonomic positions in Magnoliaceae proposed by Professor Liu Yu-hwu. On the other hand, the two species of Paragmeria were much similar in their epidermal features visualized under light microscope. However, the results by scanning electron microscopy showed that wax ornamentation on the outer surface of the two species was clearly different and seemed to be one of the distinguished features between two species.
Abstract (Browse 1739)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Production of Artificial Seeds of Hybrid Papaya
Author: Ye Ke-nan,Huang Jun-chao and Li Bao-jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Abundant embryogenic calli were induced from young roots and hypocotyls of hybrid papaya (Carica papaya L. ) on modified MS medium. After the calli were subcultured in liquid medium, a large number of somatic embryos were obtained. The different classes of cells were separated by screening the suspension through meshes of different sizes, a filtration step which served to synchronize somatic embryo development, thus, about 70% synchronous mature embryos were obtained. After desiccated to 50%--70% of water, dry somatic embryos were encapsulated in modified sodium alginate system which was composed of a mixture of sodium alginate with cellulose derivative A. The conversion rate of artificial seeds reached 80% under sterile condition and the survival rate of seedlings reached 72 % after they were transplanted to the field where the plants blossomed and yielded fruits normally.
Abstract (Browse 1953)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Development and Uhrastructure of Axillary Squamules of Sagittaria sagittfolia
Author: Shi Guo-xin,Xu Xiang-sheng and Chen Wei-pei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Lots of small developed squamules 12 celled layers in thickness and without vascular bundle were observed in the leaf axils of Sagittaria sagittifolia. They were formed after divisions of epidermal cells at the basal portion of both dorsal and ventral sides of leaf sheath and leaf axils, and their origin bore no direct relation to the apical meristem. The apical meristem was covered up by such squamules after their development. Owing to the mucous secretory function of squamules, the apical meristem and leaf primordia were embedded in the mucilage which effectively served to protect them against attacks of water current. Cellular structure of the squamule in its active state of secretion showed under TEM the following properties viz. :number of dictyosomes increased significantly with vesicles budded off from the cisternae; the endoplasmic reticulum dilated to form the large vesicles; mitochondria distributed by the side of plasmalemma with deformed ones might be discovered. At the later stage of squamule development, vacuolation of cells occurred, all the cell organelles other than nucleus disappeared completely. The ultrastructural changes appeared in cells of squamule during process of development indicated that the cells of squamule possessed the characteristics of typical secretory function.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on High-Frequeney Plant Regeneration from Monocell Suspension ,Cultures of Astragalus grubovii
Author: An Li-jia, Zhang Jun-min,Li Feng-xia,Luo Xi-ming,He Meng-yuan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1993 35(Suppl.)
    Callus colony PL1 possessing the potential for a high frequency of plant regeneration (997.1%) was obtained from selected brown and green calli of Astragalus grubovii explants in subcultures. A relatively homogeneous cell suspension line was established from the callus colony in liquid Bx medium containing NO3- and NH4+ at a NO3-/NH4+ of 10:1 on a rotary shaker. Calli having a high frequency of plant regeneration (968.9%) were obtained from the the cell suspension line in monocell cultures.
Abstract (Browse 1639)  |  Full Text PDF       


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