January 1994, Volume 36 Issue 1


          Research Articles
Cell Wall Regenration During Early Development of Mesophyll Protoplasts of Astragalus melilotoides var. tenuis
Author: Li Xi-wen, An Li-jia, Tong De-juan, Huang Bai-qu and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    The techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron microscopy (EM) cytochemical visualization of polysaccharide, cell wall flourescence labelling of cell wall and inhibition of wall formation by coumarin treatment were used to explore the cell wall regeneration and its chemical characteristics in mesophyll protoplasts of Astragalus melilotoides var. tenuis. The results showed that after 24 h in culture a number of protruding vesicles, as well as a small amount of fibrillar component were formed on the surface of protoplasts. On day 3, the amount of fibrils increased significantly. On day 5, regenerated primary wall composed of fibrils and granules were observed, in which polysacchaides were detected as result of the periodic acid-silver methenamine reaction. In addition, after 36 h in culture, the protoplasts tended to coalesce, flourescence staining and coumarin treatment demonstrated that the protoplast adhesion was the result of cell wall formation. Based on these data, problems such as the structure of regenerated wall and its chemical nature, etc. were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1931)  |  Full Text PDF       
Triterpene Glycosides in the Leaves of Acanthopanax giraldii
Author: Cheng Dong-liang, Shao Yu, Yang Li and Zhan Pei-en
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    Five triterpene glycosides have been isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax giraldii Harms (Araliaceae), which are elucidated as: hederagenin-3-O--L-rhamnopyranosyl (12) --L-arabinopyranoside ( ), hederagenin-28--L-rhamnopyranosyl- (14) - -D-glu- copyranosyl-(16)- -D-glucopyranosylester ( ), 3-O--L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin- 28- -D-glucopyranosyl- ( 16 ) - -D-glucopyranosylester ( ), 3-O--L-arabinopyranosyl- hederagenin-28--L-rhamnopyranosyl- ( 14 ) - -D-glucopyranosyl- ( 16 ) - -D-glucopyra-nosylester ( ) and 3-O--L-rhamnopyranosyl- (12) --L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin-28--L-rhamnopyranosyl-( 14 )- -D-glucopyranosyl-( 16 )- -D-glucopyranosylester ( ). All of them are reported in this genus for the first time. Perhaps the findings are valuable for chemotaxonomy of Acanthopanax genus.
Abstract (Browse 2177)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intranuclear and Cytoplasmic Inclusions in Embryogenic and Embryoidal Cells of Panax quinque folius
Author: Zheng Xiao-feng and Huang Bai-qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    The presence of intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions in cells of embryogenic callus and developing embryoids from tissue cultures of Panax quinquefolius L. was described. These cellular structures were not found in non-embryogenic cells. The size of intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions seemed to be related to the developmental status of the cell.
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetation Characteristics and Its Distribution of Qilian Mountain Region
Author: Chen Gui-chen, Peng Min, Huang Rong-fu and Lu Xue-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    The main vegetation types and distributional characteristics in the Qilian Mountain region were studies. It is shown that characteristic of the Vegetation is evidanced by eeo-geography marginal effect and plateau zone law. The vegetation of this region is affected considerably by the vegetation around the Qilian Mountain region, but is advantageous for all kinds of alpine vegetations, and has an evident similarity and an extensive unanimity with those of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. On the other hand, the vegetation of the area has its specificity difference with the plateau plane. So, the authors consider to classify the Qilian Mountain region as the secondary unit of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau vegetation region.
Abstract (Browse 1871)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distributional Characteristics of Nano-and Microalgae in the Intertidal Zones of the Zhongshan Station, Antarctica
Author: Zhu Gen-hai and Wang Zi-pan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    This paper first reports the composition, distribution and similarities among various flats of nano-and microalgae in sand and gravel covered by ice and snow in the intertidal zones of the Zhongshan Station in Larsemann Hills (6921䡪6925S, 7600䡪7625E), East Antarctica. The samples were collected from six gravel-sand flats during January 1989 to February 1990. The following distributional characteristics of nano-and microalgae in the intertidal zones were revealed: small cell size, high cell abundance and up to 80% of cells less than 30 m. The average cell abundance was 1011.2 103 and 661.82 103 cells per gram of gravell-sand in January and February respectively. The maximum cell abundance of nano-and microalgae occurred at station B. One hundred and sixty taxa of nano-and microalgae were observed, of which, 45 species occurred at all substations, and Navicula glaciei was the dominant species.
Abstract (Browse 1936)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Chilling Temperature on Photosynthesis and Photosynthate Transport in Flag Leaves of Hybrid Rice at Milky Stage
Author: Li Ping, Wang Yi-rou, Chen Yi-zhu and Liu Hong-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    To understand the physiological reasons for poor yield of the second rice crop in southern China challenged by low temperature. The authors investigated the effects of chilling temperature on photosynthesis and the activity of fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase (FBPase) of flag leaves at milky stage using two hybrid rice varieties with different cold tolerance. The results indicated that chilling temperature caused decreases of photosynthetic efficiency and FBPase activity in detached flag leaves. The decline of photosynthetic efficiency and FBPase activity was greater in Shanyou-63 which is as cold sensitive as its parents than in Xiuyou-57 which is cold tolerant like its parents. The milky stage is the period of the fastest grain filling. The decreased the yield of the second rice crop caused by natural low temperature was associated with decline of photosynthesis and the abilities of adaption and adjustment of FBPase in attached flag leaves. The relationship between the effects of chilling temperature on photosynthesis and photosynthate transport and the yield formed by grain was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1838)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stem Apex Culture and Quality Improvement of Tubercles of Pinellia ternata
Author: He Yi-kun, Liu Gang, Lu Tie-gang and Sun Jing-san
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    Formation of Plantlets was achieved when stem apex of Pinellia ternata Brier. Cultured in vitro on MS medium with KT 0. 5 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L (MSI). With petioles of the plantlet as explants callus could be induced after cultured for a week on MS medium with 2, 4-D 2.0 mg/L + KT 0.5 mg/L (MSII). Calli were subcultured once in every month. After 3--4 months a kind of friable calli could be selected, from which the tubercles could be differentiate and the plantlets formed when transfered onto MSI. But before callus differentiation, a lot of roots were formed on callus. The plantlets could be produced directly from the petiole segment. It was found that the stem growing tip was always covered by the leaf primordium and the former leaf primordium was covered by the latter leaf primordium during the differentiation of the apical bud of tubercle. The frenquency of plantlet differentiation from callus and petioles was over 70%. The rate of regeneration of plantlet on liquid static culture was twice as much as that on solid culture. All plantlets grew well after being transfered into the plot. The fresh weight of tuber-plant was 103 % higher than that of control (cultivated plant come from tubers). The alkaloid content of tubers come from tuberplant was 0. 344%, that of control was 0. 203% and 0. 264% for the wild tuber.
Abstract (Browse 2018)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Wood Anatomy of Eucalyptus globulus Under Different Habitats
Author: Wang Chang-ming and Zhang Xin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    Wood anatomy of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. under different habitats was comparatively studied under light and scanning electron microscope. According to the eleven major quantitative perimeters of wood characteristics of E. globulus viz: vessel frequency, percentage of solitary vessels, vessel diameter, vessel member length; tracheid length and diameter; fibre tracheid length and diameter; libriform fibre length; ray frequency and ray height, the plants under different habitats have been made a comparison. The results showed that growth ring was indistinct, and there was a positive correlation between the quantitative characters of most wood constituent members were positively correlated with the latitude except for some of vessel frequency decreased. The decrease in effects of annual rainfall on the structure of the wood of E. glotrulus were evaluated.
Abstract (Browse 2121)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of Cytoskeleton in Isolated Generative Cells of Lily
Author: Xu Shi-xiong(S Y Zee) and Ye Xiu- lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    Isolated generative cells of lily were extracted with Triton X-100, ammonium sulphate and RNase. The exposed contents were then viewed in the scanning electron microscope after critical point drying. The treatments revealed that in the cytoplasm of the generative cell there was a reticulate network of cytoskeleton. This reticulate network of cytoskeletal scaffold had two layers: (1) an outer layer (near the membrane) consisting of long and thick fibres that were tightly knitted together, and (2) an inner layer (near the nucleus) consisting of thin and short fibres that were loosely knitted together. Indirect evidence using immunofluorescence techniques for labelling microtubules and TRITC-phalloidin staining of actin microfilaments indicated that the cytoskeleton seen in the scanning electron microscope appeared likely to be a microtubule cytoskeleton rather than a microfilament cytoskeleton.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
RFLP Analysis of Progeny from Hybrid of Oryza altaO.sativa
Author: Mao Long, Zhou Qing, Wang Xian-ping, Hu Han and Zhu Li-huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    Oryza alta Swallen is a species of allotetraploid wild rice (CCDD, 2n = 48) with high biomass production and resistant to several insects and diseases. The high polymorphism (RFLP) between O. alta and O. sativa L. (average 90%) reveals the long phylogenical distance between these two species which may impede the crossing. The chromosome constitutions of several progeny from O. alta O. sativa were analyzed with 22 mapped rice RFLP markers. The results showed that almost all triploid sterile plants which had 36 chromosomes were, as expected, composed of the chromosomes from two parents. But the two partial fertile regenerated plants from 02428 (O. sativa) WHS601-2 (O. alta) which had only 24 and 25 chromosomes respectively, in most cases, had RFLP patterns similiar to their O. sativa parent. Therefore the chromosomes constituted their genomes were mainly from O. sativa or have high homology with the chromosomes of O. sativa. It seems evident that chromosome elimination had occurred during the wide hybridization as O. alta RFLP patterns could be found in them. Furthermore, that the introgression of O. alta chromosome fragment into that of O. sativa in an F2 plant was indicative that some kind of recombination also occurred. Regarding the rare chromosome pairing in PMCs, the probability of the existence of a nonconventional mechanism for the wild rice chromosomes (chromosome fragments ) to introgressing into cultivated rice genomes in a relatively short time was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of Kinesin-Like Protein on Golgi Vesicles of Pollen
Author: Liu Guo-qin, Casino C D, Cai G, Tiezzi A,Cresti M and Yan Long-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    Kinesin-like protein was identified on Golgi vesicles of pollen. At the tip of pollen tube of Nicotiana alata, the vesicle-like particles were recognized by monoclonal antibody against the kinesin heavy chain from bovine brain (K71s23). The Glogi vesicles isolated from the pollens of Corylus avellana by discontinious sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, could be recognized as antikinesin, based on immuno-gold labelling. Results from SDS-PAGE and western blot, showed that the 100 kD polypeptides on Golgi vesicles were the major polypeptides of kinesin-like protein.
Abstract (Browse 1921)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mitochondrial Genome Fingerprinting in Hybrid Rice and Its Associated Lines Using the Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction
Author: Xu Ren-lin, Guo Wei, Wang Xun-ming, Shi Su-yun, Yang Shu-qing and Mao Yu-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(1)
    A new economic and efficient DNA polymorphism assay was developed in 1990 that is based on the amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of random DNA segments using primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. Authors have now adapted this type of amplification to rice mitochondrial genome. Using 6 rice varieties in conjunction with 7 of 20C27 mer oligonucleotide primers, the AP-PCR products revealed that the amplified DNA bands fell into two categories, the evolutively conserved the cytoplasmic-specific. It is suggested that AP-PCR assay of mtDNA may help to classify or identify the cytoplasms in rice. By comparing "fingerprints" among the WA type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) rice, its Maintainer and Restorer lines, as well as its hybrid, one CMS cytoplasm-specific band (primer R2/630 bp) and one normal cytoplasm-specific segment (primer V5/707 bp) could be directly identified among the set of amplified DNA fragments. Further, some difference in the amplification patterns of mtDNA between CMS line and its hybrid, which infers that rearrangement of mitochondrial genome in hybrid rice probably happened.
Abstract (Browse 1964)  |  Full Text PDF       
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