October 1994, Volume 36 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
Squamosinin A: a Novel Para-Tris-Tetrahydrofuranyl Annonaceous Acetogenins
Author: Yang Ren-zhou, Zheng Xiang-ci, Qin Guo-wei and Xu Ren-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    Compound A has been isolated from the seeds of Annona squarnosa L. It was a new compound containing C36 with para-tris-tetrahydrofuran rings. Compound A was found as the first example of the new type of para-tris-tetrahydrofuranyl annonaceous acetogenins and was named squamosinin A.
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Annonaceous Acetogenins from Annona muricata
Author: Yang Ren-zhou,Wu Shu-jun,Xu Ren-sheng,Qin Guo-wei and Fan Da-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    Three annonaceous acetogenins of monotetrahydrofuran type, S2, S5 and S13. were isolated {rom the seeds of Annona muricata L. Based on spectral analysis (IR, MS, NMR) and preparation of the derivative, they were identified as howiicin A (S13), howiicin B (S5) and 4-desoxyhowiicin B (S2). S2 is a new compound.
Abstract (Browse 1756)  |  Full Text PDF       
Methods of Phytolith Analysis
Author: Wang Yong-ji, L Hou-yuan and Heng Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    Methods of phytolith analysis adopted from abroad as well as the authors' own experiences are introduced. It consists of two parts: The field method and the laboratory method of phytolith analysis; the former consists of plant collection, surface soil, stratum and archaeological samplings and the latter includes use of modern plants, soil sediment and archaeological phytolith analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1713)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Climatic Factors on the Yield of Aneurolepidium chinense (Trin.) Keng Community
Author: Guo Ji-xun and Zhu Ting-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    According to the yield of Aneurolepidium chinense (Trin.) Keng community and climatic variations from 1978 to 1990, the relationship between the yield and climatic factors was probed by correlation analysis. The results showed that the correlation degrees of 78 months' precipitation, 6--8 months' precipitation/6--8 months' temperature and 47 months' sunshine in relation to the yield were 0.47, O. 41 and 0. 35 respectively and the correlation was in the order of 0.47>0. 41>0. 35. Water was the main limiting factor affecting the community yield. The effect of interation of water and heat factors on the yield was also extremely remakable. The yield of A. chinense community was simulated by using multiple regression equations and periodic variance analysis, reaching a simulated rate over 90%.
Abstract (Browse 1718)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influences of Ce on the Formation of Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes in Chloroplasts of Cucumber Leaves
Author: Chu Zhong-xi, Mu Meng-hua, Shao Hong-xiang and Wang Feng-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    It has been proven that the Ce content of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) leaves was enhanced with the increase of CeC13 concentration in Hoagland solution. The Chl a/b ratio of cucumber leaves in the control was the same as that in the treated plant, both being 3.67. However, under lower light intensity, the Chl a/b ratio in leaves of the contral was 2.72 whereas that of the treated leaves was 2.86. It showed that only under lower light intensity Ce could decrease the contents of chlorophyll b in leaves. The authors also evidenced that Ce was able to accelerate the formation of chlorophyll-protein complexes of PS and 110 kD polypeptide and decrease the light harvesting complex protein and 27 kD polypeptide.
Abstract (Browse 1670)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Anatomy of Secondary Phloem in Celastraceae
Author: Qi Wen-qing and Gao Xin-zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    A comparative anatomical study on the secondary phloem of 5-genera, 10 species in Celastraceae was carried out. Based on the phloem structure characters, 3 phloem types were observed. In type , as seen in 5 species of Euonymus, the sieve-tube elements have more inclined end walls and numerous sieve areas (compound sieve plates), phloem rays are almost uniseriate. Type is seen in Celastrus and Tripterygium. It has relatively short sievetube elements, slight inclined end wall and sparse number of sieve areas: the phloem fiber is not lignified and ray is multiseriate. Type is observed in Dipentodon and Perrottetia, the sieve-tube elements are with simple sieve plate, the end wall is almost transverse, there are sclereid and fiber groups in the nonfounctional phloem, and phloem rays are uniseriate or biseriate.
Abstract (Browse 1873)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification of an Apoplastic -N-Acetyl-D-Hexosaminidase from Tomato Leaves Infected with Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Author: Shi Yi-min, Yan Ji-qiong, Fei Xue-nan and Xu Yu-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    Systematic infection of tomato (Lycopersicon esculenturn) leaves by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) increased the levels of -N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase activity. The enzyme was purified from intercellular fluid by --20 acetone precipitation, CM-Sephadex C-25 ion exchange chromatography, Polybuffer Exchanger 94 chromatofocusing and Sephadex G-150 gel filtration column to homogeneity. The molecular weight obtained by SDS-PAGE and Sephadex G-150 gel filtration was 75 kD and 145 kD respectively. The enzyme hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl--glucosaminide and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl--galaetosaminide, it was a glycoprotein. Most of the enzyme activity in the TMV-infected tomato leaves was found in the intercellular spaces.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation of Phytochrome on Swelling of Protoplasts Isolated from Hypocotyl of Etiolated Mung Bean Seedlings
Author: Long Cheng, Wang Xiao-jing and Pan Rui-chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    Protoplasts from hypocotyls of etiolated mung bean (Phaseolus raditus L. ) seedlings were maintained at a constant osmotic potential at 202, and they were found to swell gradually after being pulsed with red light (R) (10.5 W m-2, 3 min) when CaCl2 was present in the medium. The volume reached maximum during 30--60 min after R-irradiation and decreased swelling afterwards. Farred light (FR) irradiation in presence or absence of Ca2+ did not influence the protoplast volume. The R-effect was photoreversible by subse- quent FR (2.5 W m-2, 5 min) irradiation, usually seen over two R-FR cycles. Furthermore, swelling response was in positivecorrelation with red light intensity and duration of R pulse, indicating the involvement of phytoehrome. FR became less effective in reversing the effect of R after 10 min in dark between R and FR. Protoplast swelling occurred only when Ca2+ ions (1 mmol/L) then Ca2+ ions (1 mmol/L) is added to the medium 5 rain after R. The effect of Ca2+ could not be replaced by Mg2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, or K+. The time course of water (3H20) uptake into protoplasts after R-irradiation was consistent with the trend of protoplast swelling, indicating the existence of certain relationship between the swelling and water uptake of the protoplasts.
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Abortive Processes of Pollen in Male Sterile Rice
Author: Wu Shi-bin, Zhou Kai-yuan and Wan Jian-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    The abortive processes of pollen in five genic male sterile lines and one cytoplasmic genetic male sterile line with cytoplasm of wild rice are reported. The authors found that the cytoplasmic-genetic MS Zhenshan 97A line is a typical nuclear degenerative type of pollen abortion. The sign of abortion manifested at the late mononuclear stage. The genic male sterile lines are all typical nuclear proliferative type. They show their apparent abnormality as failure of membrane formation between the two daughter nuclei at the telophase of the first meiotic division. This type of male sterility is very stable, and no flower with dehiscent anthers is present in the panicles.
Abstract (Browse 1745)  |  Full Text PDF       
Number, Volume and Distribution of the Puff-Like Structure in Interphase Nuclei of Allium cepa
Author: Xing Miao, Jiao Ming-da and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    The puff-like structure (PLS) is an intranuclear structure often observed in cells of higher plants. It is a spherical and fibrillar structure with a configuration similar to the puff of polytene chromosomes. A number of studies upon the PLS have been done and different hypotheses regarding the nature of the PLS remain. The authors describe the number, volume and distribution of the PLSs in the interphase nuclei of Allium cepa L. based on electron microscopical (EM) observation of serial sections and 3-D reconstruction of complete series for 6 nuclei. The results are as follows. 1. The number of PLSs differed from the diploid number (2n= 16) of A. cepa. In S phase nuclei the number of PLSs is 4 to 10 and in G2 phase nuclei the number is 4 to 9. 2. Volume variation occurred among the individual PLSs and most of the structures measured from 0. 1 to 0.4m3. The total volume of PLSs in individual G2 phase nuclei varied considerably and in some G2 phase nuclei the total volume of PLSs is much smaller than that in some S phase nuclei. 3. The PLSS were clustered in certain area of the nucleus. The authors previously reported that: (1) Radioactivity was found in PLSs after they were pulse-labelled with tritiated uridine; the PLS contained cytochemically distinct regions in some of which RNP was predominantly present; (2) A brushlike structure consisting of an axial fibre and lateral fibrils was observed in the PLS; after treatment of a-amanitin, the brush-like structure disappeared and some of the PLSs were destroyed ultrastructurally. These results indicate that the PLS is a transcriptional structure of chromatin instead of an inclusion of nucleolar transcripts as suggested by some authors. Some other authors proposed that the PLS corresponds to the centromere in interphase nuclei. The centromere is a special region of a chromosome. It is uncertain at the present time how the Ultrastructure of a centromere changes during cell cycle and we know even less about how a centromere functions in interphase. According to the hypothesis mentioned above, the total volume of PLSs in individual G2 phase nuclei should be consistent with each other in the rough and the total volume of PLSs in a G2 phase nucleus should not be remarkably smaller than that in a S phase nucleus. Our results in the present study, however, are opposite to this hypothesis and we believe that the hypothesis should be further tested.
Abstract (Browse 1707)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes of the Microtubule in the Generative Cell of Amaryllis vittata Ait. During Mitosis
Author: Cai Xue, Hu Shi-yi and Zhu Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    Structural changes of microtubules (MTs) in the generative cell (GC) of Amaryllis vittara Alt. during mitosis in pollen tube have been investigated with electron microscopy. The division cycle was completed approximately within 12 h. During prophase, the MTs bundles distributed in the cortex of the GC, they were less and shorter than that before mitosis, some of which beginning to be near the nucleus. When the chromatin condensed and the GC entered metaphase, the MTs increased in number and distributed among the chromosomes (CHs) in the original nuclear zone, but they were not arranged in distinct bundlesed. Some of them connected with the CHs to form kinetochore MTs (KMTs), where as the cortical MTs in prophase still remained there. During metaphase, the CHs were arranged on the equartor forming a metaphase plate, and all the MTs formed a diffuse spindle. When the GC entered anaphase, the KMTs were shortened and they were involved in the segregation of the CHs into two groups. The MTs were much more and focused in the two polar regions. In late anaphase, while the MTs still existed at the poles, rich phragmoplast MTs appeared in the equator zone and the precusors of cell plate (CP) aggregated in the middle of the phragmoplast. When the GC entered telophase, the CHs diffused as chromatin, and phragmoplast MTs extended between the two newly formed nuclear envelops and even through the CP While the polar MTs and KMTs disappeared, the MTs in the newly formed sperm cells were different from that of the GC.
Abstract (Browse 1778)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Structure of Macrocalyxin H
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Wang Hong-ping, Shinichi Ueda and Tetsuro Fujita
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    Three crystalline components, a new kaurane type diterpenoid named macrocalyxin H and two known diterpenoid oridonin and enmenol, were isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia macrocalyx (Dunn) Hara. Based on IR, MS, 1H-1H COSY, 13C-1H COSY and NOE spectroscopy, the structure of macrocalyxin H was determined as ent-7-20-epoxy-l, 6, 7, 15, 16-pentahydroxy kaurene- 17-acetate.
Abstract (Browse 1731)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on rDNA ITS1 Regions of Soybean and Its Wild Relatives
Author: Gu Jing, Hui Dong-wei, Zhuang Bing-chang, Song Wen-yuan, Xu Bao and Chen Shou-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions of wild soybean (Glycine soja), semiwild soybean (G. gracillis), perennial wild soybean (G. tomentella, G. tabacina) and two accessions of cultivated soybean (G. max) were amplified by PCR and cloned. The copy number in soybean genome was about 2 103. Sequence analysis showed that the G/C content of G. soja (61.40%), G. gracillis (61.40%), G. max (61.40%), G. tabacina (58.11%) and G. tomentella (59.01%) were very similar to that of Phaseolus radiatus (59.81%), and the G/C content of G. tabacina was the lowest one in all known ITS1 re- gions of plants. Maxium-homology analysis proved that the ITS1 sequence of soybean was the most homologous to its counterpart of P. radiatus. It was implied that the homology of ITS1 regions of relative species were related with the genetic relationships among these species. Sequence analysis disclosed that there were two conserved sequences (GACCCGC- GAA) and (GCGCCAAGGAA) in all sequenced ITS1 regions of plants.
Abstract (Browse 1770)  |  Full Text PDF       
Localization of Nitrogen Fixation Gene in an Associated Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Klebsiella planticola 19-1
Author: Li Jiu-di and Jin Hong-fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    A large plasmid in Klebsiella planticola 19-1 was identified from lysis of bacteria in an agarose gel and using a technique of electrical field overturn. The presence of nil HDK-like gene and localization of nif HDK-like gene in the large plasmid were confirmed by Southern hybridization with 32P-labelled nif HDK probe.
Abstract (Browse 1747)  |  Full Text PDF       
Amides from the Fruits of Phellodendron chinense
Author: Su Rong-hui,Kim Mujo,Nakajima Shuhei, Takahashi Shozo and Liu Meng-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(10)
      
    A new N-isobutylamide, (2E, 4E, 8Z) -N-isobutyltetradecatrienamide, along with two known amides and N-methylfiindersine, was isolated from the fruits of Phellodendron chinense Schneid. They are responsible for insecticidal and antifeedantal activities in the fruit.
Abstract (Browse 1760)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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