November 1994, Volume 36 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
Anatomical Characteristics of the Stem of Sigillaria cf. brardii from Coal Balls in Guizhou Province, China
Author: Guo Ying-ting and Tian Bao-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    The stem specimens of Sigillaria cf. brardii were collected from the coal balls of Upper Permian in Shuicheng Coal Mines in Guizhou Province. The main anatomical characteristics of Sigillaria cf. brardii are described as follows: The stem is siphonostelic, with pith composed entirely of polygonal parenchyma cells, there are secondary walls in some pith cell cavities these secondary walls show the characters of cell division. Surrounding the pith is the continuous cylindrical primary xylem which consists entirely of tracheids. The outermost, and part are the protoxylem elements show spiral secondary thickenings. In cross section, the outer edge of exarch primary xylem appears regularly sinuous, with trace of mesarch leaf originating from the furrows. The centripetal metaxylem is characterized by scalariform wall thickenings on the tracheids, and delicated strands of secondary wall materials extending between abjacent bars, these structures are called fimbris, or williamson striations, and are characteristic in lepidodendrids. The secondary xylem consists of tracheids and vascular rays. The tracheids, too, have scalariform wall thickenings and fimbris. The rays are one-to twocell width and several to more than ten cells in height.
Abstract (Browse 1974)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of Pyrola calliantha H. Andres: The Structure and Identification of Hydroxylrenifolin
Author: Wang Jun-xian, Chen Xin-min, Li Hong, Yang Lei and Yu Wen-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    Pyrola calliantha is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, from which two chemical compounds were isolated. On the basis of spectroscopy (VU, IR, NMR, MS), a new compound, named hydroxylrenifolin was elucidated as 8-¦Â-glucosyloxy-2-hydroxymethyl-7- methyl-1, 4-dihydronapthalene-5-ol (1). And another known compound was identified as catechin (3).
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Life-Form Spectrum of Plant Community in Dongling Mountain
Author: Jiang Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    According to the classification system of life-form provided by Raunkiaer, Danmark ecologist, the life-form of plant communities in Dongling Mountain was analysed, and the life-form spectrum was organized. Ordination and classification of the life-form of plant community were done by principle component analysis (PCA) and systemic cluster analysis. The relationship between environmental factors (climate and soil) and plant life-form gradient was analysed by double sieving progressive regression method, and mathematical models were set up. The results showed that the characters of life-form of plant community were conformed to the general regular pattern of warm temperate plant life-form of the world, i. e the hemicryptophyte occupies highest percentage in the community. The result of ordination and classification of life-form of plant community is similar to the result of those of plant species of the community. The reaction to temperature gradient is most sensitive in geophyte and mid-phaenerophyte, less in little-phaenerophyte. The reaction to moisture gradientis most sensitive in chamaephyte and short-phaenerophyte. The percenage of hemicryptophyte is relatively stable in this area, indicating a strong binding force of the zones. The statistical models of elevant and life-form spectrum of plant community are better correlated with the mid-phaenerophyte, short-phaenerophyte and geophyte.
Abstract (Browse 2045)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytokinin Binding Proteins from Phaseolus vulgaris Hypocotyls
Author: Yang Zhong-han and Yang Ying-zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    t-Zeatin (t-Z) and isopentenyladenosine (iPA) occur naturally as highly active plant cell division regulators, t-Z-Sepherose-4B and iPA-Sepherose-4B affinity column were constructed to isolate and purify the cytokinin-binding proteins from etiolated hypocotyl of Phaseolus vulgaris. Two kinds of cytokinin-binding proteins were obtained. One was 15.5 kD in molecular weight (named ZBP) with only one peptide. The other (named IBP), 165 kD in molecular weight, contained two different subunits (40 kD and 43 kD respectively). The binding activity of ZBP was tested and the dissociation constant (Kd) was determined to be 3.2 ¡Á 10-7 mol/L. There was one binding site for t-Z in each molecule of ZBP.
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Antioxidant and 6-BA on the Properties of Photosynthetic Membrane of Maize Leaves Under Osmotic Stress of Root
Author: Li Shuang-shun and Lin Zhi-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    Osmotic stress of root system of maize seedling was induced by treatment with different concentrations of polyethyleneglycol solution. After 1--3 h of treatment, obvious physiological changes were observed in leaves. The leaf water potential decreased with the increase of PEG concentration and time of stress. An increase of malondialdehyde content was associated with the higher electrolyte leakage through cell membrane. Osmotic stress of root system caused degradation of chlorophyll, reduction of photosysthetic rates and photosynthetic electron transport, as well as the increase of respiration/photosynthesis ratio. The inhibition of electron transport was more severs in PS ¢ò than in PS ¢ñ . Pretreatment by leaf spraying with 6-BA and the three kinds of antioxidants (propyl gallate, dibutyl hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid) before the roots were submited to osmotic stress in -0. 41 MPa PEG solution for 3 h improved all of the above parameters significantly. The results indicated that antioxidant possessed definite protective regulative and adaptative effects on photosysthetic membrane under water stress of root. As the damage of water stress to plant may volve the free radical mechanism.
Abstract (Browse 1758)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Some Properties of the Apoplastic ¦Â-N-Acetyl-D-Hexosaminidase from Tomato Leaves
Author: Shi Yi min, Yan Ji qiong, Fei Xue nan and Xu Yu quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    Some properties of the ¦Â-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase purified from intercellular fluid of tomato leaves after the plant was systematically infected by TMV (tobacco mosaic virus) were studied. When pNP ¦Â-D-GlcNAc (p nitrophenyl-N-aeetyl ¦Â-D-glucosaminide) or pNP ¦Â-D- GalNAc (p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-¦Â-D galactosaminide) was used as the substrate, it showed the optical pH between 4. 8--5.0 and optical temperature between 44¡ª 47¡æ. Studies of thermostabillty indicated that the enzyme had a biphasic denaturation curve. Using pNP-¦Â-D-GIcNAc or pNP-¦Â-D GalNAc as the substrate, the Km value of the enzyme was 0. 36 and 0. 67 mmol/L respectively. N acetyi-D glucosamine and N acetyl-D-galactosamine were competitive inhibitors of the enzyme activities. Ag+ and Hg2+ were sensitive inhibitors and Fe2+ . Fe3+ and Cu2+ were also inhibitors enzyme activities.
Abstract (Browse 1739)  |  Full Text PDF       
Binding of Pollen Golgi Vesicles to Calf Brain Microtubule in Vitro
Author: Liu Guo-qin, Yan Long-fei (Lung-Fei Yen), Cai G, Casino C D, Tiezzi A and Cresti M
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    The Golgi vesicles isolated from the pollen of Corylus avellana were incubated with the microtubules polymerized from highly purified calf brain tubulin. After ultracentrifugation on a layer of 1.5 mol/L sucrose, the pellets were assayed with SDS-PAGE and negative staining. The results showed that, in vitro, the pollen Golgi vesicles were able to bind onto calf brain microtubules. The microtubule-binding ability was suppressed by 10 mmol/L ATP and 0. 5 mol/L KCI, but not by 5 mmol/L AMP-PNP, suggesting that the binding may result from some ATP-related peripheral membrane proteins.
Abstract (Browse 1703)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Specific Inclusion in the Mesophyll Cells of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus
Author: Han Shan-hua, Wang Shuang and Li Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    The development of specific inclusion in the mesophyll cells of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus was observed by means of transmission electron microscopy. The inclusion is approximately oval-shaped with very high electron-density. It originates from outside of the central vacuole. During its early development it only contains small amount of vesicle-like elements and electron-dense materials. Then the two kinds of components gradually increase in amount and form a protuberance by endocytosis of the tonoplast. The protuberance becomes larger and larger, sometimes even occupies a great part of the vacuole. Later, the vesiclelike elements gradually decrease as the electron-dense materials rapidly increase, eventually filling up the protuberance. The protuberance gradually contracts and finally detaches from the tonoplast and immerses freely in the central vacuole. However, such inclusions were never found in small vacuoles. The inclusions usually appear in cold season and contain large quantity of lipid.
Abstract (Browse 1883)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of Plant Expression Vector with Double Resistance to Virus and Insect and Identification of Transformation in Tomato
Author: Liang Xiao-you, Mi Jing-jiu, Zhu Yu-xian and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    By in situ hybridization of bacterium clone and analysis of restriction enzyme digestion, both CMV-cp gene and Bt-toxin gene were inserted one by one into T-DNA of binary plant expression vector pea. The reconstructed plasmid was named pE14. Then, tomato was transformed with pE14 mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV311-SE, four regenerated tomato plants were obtained on the MS medium containing 100 ¦Ìg/mL kanamycin. Assay of nopaline, dot blotting of tomato genomic DNA and PCR amplication of CMV-cp gene and Bt-toxin gene from genomic DNA showed that CMV-cp gene and Bt-toxin gene were transferred into the four regenerated tomato plants simultaneously with T-DNA, and no recombination of genes occurred. RNA dot blotting showed that two of them could express simultaneously the CMV-cp gene and Bt-toxin gene proteins. The resistances to virus and insect of the transgenic tomato plants will be tested in their F1 and F2 regenerations.
Abstract (Browse 1749)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of Plant Expression Vectors and Identification of Transgenic Potato Plants
Author: Song Yan-ru,Li Cong,Hou Lin-lin,Zhang Li-zhi,Ma Qing-hu, Peng Xue-xian, Cui Xiao-jiang, Zhou Xue-rong, Wang Hai-yun and Mang Ke-qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    Potato virus X (PVX), potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) infection in potato may result in the loss of centrification of seed potatoes and affect the quality and yield of potatoes in agricultural production. The authors cloned coat protein (cp) genes of PVX, PVY and PLRV and constructed two kinds of plant expression vector which contain PVX and PVY or PVY and PLRV cp genes. Three major commercial cultivars of potato and one cultivar of tobacco were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated procedure. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR analysis. Transgenic tobacco plants containing both PVX and PVY cp genes were significantly resistant to PVX and PVY infection via mechanical inoculation.
Abstract (Browse 1860)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological Observation on ¡°Polyembryonic Seedling¡± of Rice
Author: Mu Xi-jin, Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    The formation of the so-called polyembryonic seedling and its morphology were observed. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. All caryopses contain only one embryo; 2, ¡°The polyembryonic seedling¡± reported is actually single seedling with 1 or 2 lateral shoots sprouted from the main shoot. The first lateral shoot arises from the axil of coleoptile and the second one from the axil of lower leaf in the first lateral shoot. These lateral shoots are not independent seedlings. The formation of lateral shoot in wheat is the same as that of rice as mentioned above. The authors had dissected 1500 rice caryopses, 1600 young seedlings from the field and 1102 seedlings germinated under artificial conditions. Thus, polyembryonic seedlings as preriously reported is not present, at least, in rice C1001B line.
Abstract (Browse 1763)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Study on Apomixis in a Sorghum Line SSA-1
Author: Wu Shu-biao, Shang Yong-jin, Han Xue-mei, Wang Jing-xue, Niu Tian-tang, Zhang Fu-yao, Wei Yao-ming, Meng Cun-gang, Yan Xi-mei and Zheng Jing-bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    The Developmental process of apomictic embryo sac and embryo in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. ) line SSA-1 was observed under light microscope, using the method of conventional paraffin sectioning. The result showed that the apomictic development conforms apospory and diplospory. The uninucleate embryo sac underwent mitotic divisions for three times to form a seven-celled or eight-nuclei mature embryo sac including an egg, two synergids, two polar nuclei and three antipodals. The antipodals divided and multiplicated to form an antipodal mass. Moreover, aposporous multiarchesporial cells and multiple embryo sacs were infrequently observed. Without pollination, the egg divided autonomously to form a typical graminaceous mature embryo. The authors counted the apomictic sections in the whole sections and the result showed that the frequency of apomixis was 42%, indicating the facultative apomictic property in the line SSA-1. The characteristics of apomictic process in the line SSA-1 is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1977)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytoembryological Studies on Polyembryonic Line SB-1 of Oryza sativa: Apogamy of Synergids
Author: Liu Yong-sheng, Sun Jing-san, Wang Fu-hsiung and Zhou Kai-da
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    Cytoembryologilal studies were carried out to reveal the origin of haploids occurring in the natural population of polyembryonic line SB-1 from Oryza sativa L. The results showed that one or both synergids might develop into embryos prior to fertilization with frequencies of 2.24% and 1.75 % respectively in the observed ovaries. Double fertilization was observed in the embryo sacs with one previously-developed multicellular embryo. In caryopsis 3¡ª8 days after anthesis, 1.62 % of abnormal slender embryos, which were morphologically different from zygotic embryos, were present between the endosperm and nucellus, while 0. 8% of pyriform embryos near the micropylar end without endosperm were observed. These embryos were considered to possess the apogamous origin of unfertilized synergids. Rarely, in addition some ovaries the unfertilized central cells automatically developed into endosperms, which were confirmed by the presence of distinctly intact egg apparatus and the absence of trace of pollen tubes. The occurrence of apogamy in SB-1 and its potentiality to rice breeding are here with discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1810)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytoembryological Studies on Polyembryonic Line SB-1 of Oryza sativa: Polyembryong and Its Origin
Author: Liu Yong-sheng, Sun Jing-san, Wang Fu-hsiung and Zhou Kai-da
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    Anatomical observations, genetic and cytoembryological studies were conducted to determine the cytological factors in relation to the production of diploid polyembryony within one embryo sac occurring in polyembryonic line SB-1 of O. sativa L. The results showed that the diploid polyembryony in SB-1 was not originated from the fertilization of synergids, but presumably from the megagametophytes with supernumerary egg cells. Potentially polyembryonic megagametophytes at maturity contained either a conventional 3-celled egg apparatus (92.60% of megagametophytes) or the supernumerary eggs forming either a 4-celled (5.2 %) or 5-celled (2.2 %) egg apparatus. In megagametophyte with one additional supernumerary egg cells were almost situated side by side in adjacent to the synergids and recessed from the micropyle, whereas in megagametophyte with two additional supernumerary eggs, one egg cell occupied the conventional possition and the other two lay above the synergids. The arrangement of embryos in polyembryonic caryopsis at various developmental stages was concordant to that of egg cells in megagametophytes with supernumerary eggs. Karyotype analysis showed that most of the twins and triplets were of 2n--2n and 2n-2n-2n respectively. Polyembryony was observed in Fo and F1 caryopsis of cross SB-1 ¡Á Malaihong (Malaihong is of non-polyembryony) and in Fl caryopsis of its reciprocal but not in Fo caryopsis. This implies that polyembryony occurring in SB-1 is of a dominant character of embryo sac. Anatomical observations proved that each seedling from twins or triplets was completely independent with no vascular bundle connected with each other. The causes of polyembryony within one embryo sac, the entry of supernumerary sperms and the origin of supernumerary egg cells are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1817)  |  Full Text PDF       
Diterpenoid Alkaloids of Aconitum Hemsleyanum
Author: Ding Li-sheng, Chen Ying, Wang Ming-kui,Peng Shu-lin,Chen Xin-min and Wu Feng-e
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(11)
      
    A new diterpenoid alkaloid, hemsleyanaine (1), was isolated from the roots of Aconiturn hemsleyanum Pritz. Its structure was elucidated as 8-aeetyl-14-benzoyl-ezochasmanine on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. Together with this new compound the known diterpenoid alkaloids, chasmanine (2), indaconitine (3) and talatisamine (4), were isolated and identified.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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