December 1994, Volume 36 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Nuclear Invagination and Nuclear Vacuole Formation in Several Plants
Author: Wang Yi, Yang Shi jie, Li Ming yi and Lou Cheng hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    The nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction and related activity of nuclear envelope in Gossypium hirsutum, Populus simonii and Tradescantia fluminensis were studied with electron microscopy, emphasizing on the formations of ”°pseudo-inclusion body”± and ”°nuclear vacuole”± in nuclei. The possible roles of these structures played during cell development were evaluated.
Abstract (Browse 1879)  |  Full Text PDF       
Accumulation of Phosphorus and Mineralizational Significance of Algal Cells
Author: Liu Zhi-li, Liu Xue-xian and Wang Yong-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    It was studies that the algal cells accumulate phosphate in with environment and it is related to the formation of phosphorites. The test results showed that the cells of Spirulina subsalsa could absorbe phoshate quickly in environment with rich phosphorus during the logarithmic growth phase and could synthetize a large amount of the polyphosphate in cells. The simulated test of mineralization showed that under the normal atmospheric temperature and pressure and in the Ca2+-HPO2-4-HCO3--F--H2O system, the polyphosphate extracted from algal cells of Spirulina subaslsa may form mineral deposits. It contains mainly carbonate fluorapatite, caloite and non-crystal phosphorus. These results provided a new important evidence for the theory of biological mineralization.
Abstract (Browse 1809)  |  Full Text PDF       
Paleoclimatic Analysis of Paleogene Flora in Yilan County, Heilongjiang
Author: He Chao-xing and Tao Jun-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    Plant fossils were collected from the sand-shale above the lower coal seam and the upper oil shale above the upper coal seam in the Yilan coal mine, Heilongjiang. The floras contained 2 species of pteridophytes, 10 species of gymnosperms and over 58 species of angiosperms assigned to 46 genera and 34 families. The fossils were divided into two floras, one of which was in lower sand-shale beds, with the age assigned to the Eocene, and the other was in the upper part of oil shales considered to belong to the Oligocene. The floras were complicated in composition and rich in species, and were studied by means of floristic analysis, foliar architectural and physiognomical analysis. The Eocene flora consisted of many evergreen broad-leaved species, which indicated that the flora belonged to north subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest or subtropical coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest. The foliar physiognomical analysis of the floristic composition showed that the species with entire leaf margines made up 38.3 percent of the total. The climate in the Eocene was estimated by means of climatic nomogram as follow: The mean annual temperature was 13.2 ”ę and annual temperature deviancy was 20”ę. In the Oligocene flora, deciduous broadleaved trees were dominant, which indicated that the vegetation was of temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest or warm temperate coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest. The species with entire leaf margines were 30. 8 percent with an estimated mean annual temperature of 11 ”ę and mean annual temperature deviancy of 25 ”ę. The floristic aspect and climate in the Paleogene of Yilan region were very different from the present ones.
Abstract (Browse 1960)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protective Effect of Betaine on Respiratory Enzymes
Author: Liang Zheng, Zhao Yuan, Tang Lan and Luo Ai-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    Effects of betaine and NaC1 in various concentrations on the activities of enzymes in tricarboxylic acid cycle (isocitric dehydrogenase, malic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase and fumarase), terminal oxidation (cytochrome oxidase) and photorespiratory pathway (glycolate oxidase and hydroxypyruvate reductase) have been studied. Betaine, in contrast to electolyte NaC1 was non-inhibitory to these enzymes up to 500 mmol/L. Partial protection against NaC1 inhibition to the activities of these enzymes were afforded by betaine. These results were consistent with the postulated role of betaine in cytoplasmic osmoregulation. These results showed that betaine was a superior compatible solute.
Abstract (Browse 1741)  |  Full Text PDF       
Experimental Study and Mathematical Simulation of Water Use Efficiency in Wheat Leaves Affected by Some Environmental Factors
Author: Shi Jian-zhong, Wang Tian-duo and Li Lin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    By incorporating Ball-Berry model of stomatal conductance into the models of photosynthesis and transpiration, a model of leaf water use efficiency (WUE) as affected by several environmental variables [irradiance (¢ń), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) ] was constructed. Because the environmental variables influenced the photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate in different ways, the changes of leaf WUE with these factors were quite complicated. The rates of photosynthesis and transpiration of wheat leaves were also measured in the phytotron where the environmental variables were kept within certain ranges, and leaf WUE was calculated therefrom. The results of simulation fit quite well with the measurements except at high Ca.
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observation on Differentiation Potential and Chromosome Stability of Callus in Subcultures of Picea wilsonii
Author: Yang Ying-gen, Gui Yao-lin, Tang Wei, Zhao Ran and Guo Zhong-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    Embryogenic calli of Picea wilsonii Mast. cultured on modified 59 medium supplemented with 1 ppm 2, 4-D and 1 ppm Kt still remained high reproductive potential after sequential monthly subcultures for 3 years. When the callus were transferred to 1/2 strength modification 59 medium with 1 ppm ABA, a lot of somatic embryos were produced after culturing about 3 monthes. The frequency of callus embryogenesis was above 90 %. Chromosome counting showed that the chromosome ploidy of callus cells of P. wilsonii was stable in subcultures for 3 years. The chromosome number and karyotype formula is 2n= 24= 16m (6sc) +8sm+2B. This result agrees with that form root-tip squash of seedling.
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Salt Tolerant Variant of Phragmites communis and Its Cytological Characterization
Author: Chen Ke-yong, Ye He-chun, Chen Jian-lin, Gu Li-min and Li Guo-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    A salt tolerant varaint, R5002-12 of Phragmites communis Trin. has been obtained by treating the embryogenic callis with ethyl methane sulfonate. It could grow in MS medium containing 1% W/V sodium chloride. The plant regenerated was mixoploid with chromosome number ranging from 100 to 33 and its tillers showed similar variation in morphology and chromosome.
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
Adaptation of Mature Spathiphyllum sp. Plant to Prolonged Simulated Microgravity
Author: Wu Dun-su, Chen Yi-xin, Gao Xiao-yan and Guo Yi-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    Mature Spathiphyllum sp. plants were grown in soil in pots under clinostatic or stationary condition. Photosynthetic rate fell to almost zero after 30 d in clinostat, but recovered to more than 60% of the original on the 62nd day. Grana in chloroplasts remained normal in clinostat. There were few starch grains in chloroplasts after 30 d in clinostat, and almost none on the 62nd day, but numerous globular objects of low electronic density were observed. These were probably related to the adaptative changes of photosynthesis. Cell division in meristematic cells of root cap ceased after 30 d in clinostat, and then resumed to attain a rate even higher than that in the control plant on 62nd day, Further the length of the tap root was more than double that in the control plants. Some of the meristematic cells in the root cap under clinstatic condition transformed into statocyst cells, which senesced and were not transformed into secretory cells. No exocytosis was observed in plant in clinostatic condition, albeit the cell wall was broken from abrasion during root growth, resulting in pseudo-exocytosis, and from which the exudates acted as lubricants for the free extension of the root tip during root growth.
Abstract (Browse 2308)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Three-Dimension Track of Circumnutation in Sunflower Seedlings
Author: Liu Gong-she, Zhang Jun-ying, Tong Zhe and Lin Jin-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    Circumnutation of sunflower seedlings was investigated with a self-made-equipment which enabled us to measure the movement track in three dimensions. The results showed that: 1. The tracks of the circumnutation in sunflower seedlings were of three types: elliptic, oscillating and irregular. 2. One seedling might change the circumnutation type in its course of development. Furthermore, seedlings in the same developmental stage also showed different types of tracks of movement. 3. The direction of the autonomous circumnutation could be clockwise or counter-clockwise. An artificial light moving circularly for a certain period of time could change the original direction of the movement. 4. The cireumnutation could not be recorded in the seedling of 1--3 days after sowing in our experiments. It could be measured during 4--8 days after sowing. From the 9th day onwards, the hypocotyls ceased to grow, hence no movement. From the view point of three dimensions, the sphere of the circumnutation generaly increased from the 4th day to the 6th day, and it reduced from the 6th to the 8th day.
Abstract (Browse 1804)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Transformation of Brassica juncea var. tsatsi Induced by Ri T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes
Author: Huang Ju-hui, Zhou Chang-jiu, Qin Feng-qin and Wang Fu-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    Hairy roots of mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsi) cv. "Paoye' were obtained from in vitro inoculation of reversely inserted petioles with Agrobacteriurn rhizogenes strain LBA9402 harbouring the agropine-type Ri plasmid (pRi1855). The root inducing rate was 100%. Transformed roots grew rapidly on hormone-free MS medium and showed typical hairy root phenotype. Transformed plantlets regenerated from hairy roots on MS medium supplemented with BA 8.0 mg/L and NAA 0.6 mg/L. Opine analysis evidenced the integration and expression of TR-DNA, PCR analysis and Southern hybridization confirmed the integration of TL-DNA including 862 bp rol B sequence in the transformed plants.
Abstract (Browse 2024)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regeneration of Hybrid Plantlets Via Pollen-Hypocotyl Protoplast Fusion in Brassica spp.
Author: Li Chang-gong, Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    It has been reported that "gameto-somatic hybridization" was induced by fusion of microspore tetrad protoplasts with somatic protoplasts in Nicotiana and Petunia. However, since the success of isolation of pollen protoplasts in recent years, the use of protoplasts at pollen stage as one of the fusion partners in such hybridization is a novel experimentation. Young pollen protoplasts were isolated from the pollen grains of Brassica chinensis at mid-late unicellular to early bicellular stage the pollens for 1.5--2.5 h at 25”ę in a CPW solution containing 0.8 % of eellulase, 0.5 % pectinase, 0.1% pectolyase, 1 3 % mannitol, 1 0 % glucose, 0. 3% potassium dextran sulphate and 3 mmol/L MES. The purified pollen protoplasts were then fused with the hypocotyl protoplasts of B. napus by PEG method. Heterokaryons were identified by means of visualization of the fluorescence from FITC-prela-beled pollen protoplasts. In order to increase heterokaryons and reduce hypocotyls homokaryons, the denstity of hypocotyl protoplasts were lowered and the ratio of the number of hypocotyl vs. pollen protoplasts were adjusted from 1 : 3 to 1 : 6. The fusion products were cultured in a liquid KM8p medium supplemented with 0.4 mol/L glucose, 0.8 mg/L 2, 4-D, 0.25 mg/L NAA. 0. 5 mg/L BA, 500 mg/L glutamine and 3 mmol/L MES where cell division and callus formation took place. The calli, after being transferred to a MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L BA, 3 % sucrose and 0.4 % agarose, differentiated into a few shoots. The shoots were transferred onto a half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.1--0. 2 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L IBA and 20% potato juice for root formation. Finally, three plantlets were regenerated. Chromosome counts by roottip squash method revealed that one plantlet was 2n= 48, corresponding to an allotriploid resulted from a fusion between one pollen protoplast of B. chinensis (2n = 20) and one hypocotyl protoplast of B. napus (2n = 38), and the other two plantlets were 2n = 58, which might be an allotetraploid originated from a fusion between two pollen protoplasts and one hypocotyl protoplast. The isozyme patterns of leaf esterases showed that all the three plantlets had bands characteristic of both parents. This is the first case of success in "gameto-somatic hybridization" by using pollen protoplasts rather than tetrad protoplasts as the haploid partner.
Abstract (Browse 2242)  |  Full Text PDF       
Diterpenoid Alkaloids from the Roots of Aconitum kongboense Lauener
Author: Chen Ying, Wang Ming-kui, Wu Feng-e, Ding Li-sheng and Zhu Qi-xiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    Four diterpenoid alkaloids were obtained form the roots of Aconitum kongboense Lauener. Among them, one is a new alkaloid, kongboensine (1), and the structure has been elucidated by spectral evidence. The others were identified as guayewuanine A (2), indaconitine (3) and talatisamine (4) respictevely. 2 and 3 were isolated from this plant for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Sequencing of VL Gene of Monoclonal Antibody Against Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus
Author: Li Zhen-pu, Wu You-qiang, Liu Xi-fu, Huang Hua-liang and Cai Zhu-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(12)
      
    The results showed that PCR product was 318 bp VL gene of monoclonal antibody against beet necrotic yellow vein virus, code 106 amino acids. VL gene belongs to a k chain subclass ¢ņ of mouse, frame region had 85 % homogenous with the published sequencing of VL gene of mouse and was in accord with structural characteristics of VL of mouse.
Abstract (Browse 1744)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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