February 1994, Volume 36 Issue 2


          Research Articles
A Method of PollenSpore Analysis in Loess
Author: Ke Man-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    A systematic and effective method has been worked out for pollen-spore analysis in loess. In this method, both chemical and physical treatment was appropriately employed according to the loess characteristics, such as its chemical composition, etc. So the pollenspores could be sorted out of loess to the highest limit. Abundnat pollen-spores have been obtained in more than 90 samples taken from seven sections in Shaanxi and Gansu provinces where the loess is best developed. Observed 1 to 3 pieces of glasses, the total pollen-spores could be sorted out more than 204 to 594, and 39 to 551 thousand particles of 250 g of loess sample.
Abstract (Browse 1728)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Characteristics of Reflection Spectrum in Subaerial Blue-Green Algae in Ding Hu Mo Ore-field, Guangdong Province
Author: Zhong Heng and Xie Yong-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    The reflection spectra of subaerial blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) lack the reflected high peak of the reflected infrared spectral wave band (770--1000 nm)as usually exists in green seed plants. The curve of reflected ratio slopes gently. The reflected ratio of bluegreen algae growing on the mineral soil was positively correlated with the Mo concentration in the cells, and was evidently greater than that of the normal soil blue-green algae (13 %-- 27 %). This abnormal reflection ratio was related to the mineral concentration in soil. The reflection spectra of green algae (Chlorophyceae) and bryophyta were similar to these of the subaerial blue-green algae.
Abstract (Browse 1803)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cushion Plant in the Hoh Xil Area of Qinghai
Author: Huang Rong-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    During the first scientific expedition to the Hoh Xil area of Qinghai, the author had collected about 210 speceis of seed plant, which belong to 30 families and 102 genera. Among these plants, 48 species are cushion plant included 8 families and 15 genera. They occupy respectively 26.7% of the total number of the family, 14.7% of the total number of the genus and 22.9% of the total number of the species of the seed plant in this area. Therefore, Qinghai Hoh Xil is the most developed area for the growth of the cushion plant. These cushion plants are morpho-structural and roughly divided into four types: Typical (spongy) cushion plant; Dense clumping cushion plant; Brevi-rhizome or collar tillaring cushion plant; and collar radial dense branching cushion plant. These cushion plants are very much adaptable to the special harmful climate and the adverse nature environment on the plateau platform of Hoh Xil. The community or the population of cushion plant occurs extensively of the various of types of vegetation are very luxurient in the Hoh Xil area. They often become the dominant community or together with often vegetation form a huge landscape of cushion vegetation. The cushion plants are the pioneers in the Hoh Xil area. Their growth cycle, from sprouting, growing, multiplying, flourishing until dying, contribute to the accumulation of soil rich in organic nutrients and create a favourable condition for migration, growth and development of the flora and vegetation in the Hoh Xil area.
Abstract (Browse 1941)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two Novel Diterpenoid Alkaloids Isolated from the Roots of Aconitum brevicalcaratum
Author: Li Ying-he and Chen Di-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    Two new diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated from the roots of Aconitum brevicalcaratum Diels. They were acobretine D ( )and acobretine E ( ), and the structures of which were identified on the basis of spectroscopic evidences (IR, MS, 1 H and 13C-NMR) and confirmed by chemical transformations. The 1 H and 13C chemical shifts of the hydrochloride of were assigned in relation to of 1 H-1 H COSY and 13C-1 H COSY.
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  Full Text PDF       
Electromicrographic Analysis Storage Protein Accumulation in Endosperms of Maize with Qualified Protein
Author: Chen Ming-sheng and Zeng Meng-qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    The characteristics of storage protein accumulation of maize with qualified protein (MQP) and 02 maize were analysed basing on the genetical and biochemical point of views. The 22 kD and 20 kD zeins in the developing endosperms of maize accumulated 15 days after pollination. The structural genes encoding 22 kD and 20 kD zeins in the developing endosperms were simutaneously expressed. In the endosperms of MPQ and o2 maize the synthesis of 22 kD and 20 kD zeins was suppressed. That is to say, o2 gene negatively regulated the synthesis of 22 kD and 20 kD zeins. Two-dimentional electrophoretic analysis of zeins in the maize endosperms further revealed the effects of o2 gene and its modifiers on the synthesis of zeins. In Mol7 and Mo17/o2 endosperms the synthesis of 27 kD, 22 kD, 20 kD and 15 kD zeins was severely suppressed. In 041/oz and 040/o2 endosperms little difference existed SDS-PAGE analysis of the soluble proteins of Mol 7 and Mo17/o2 endosperms revealted that two bands with molecular weight (MW) of 38.7 kD and 26.7 kD were present in wild type but absent in o2 mutant, while two bands with MW 27.2 kD and 26.1 kD were present in o2 mutant but absent in wild type. These differences were resulted from the effect of o2 gene. In 040/02 and 041/o2 endosperms two bands with MW 18.6 kD and 17.6 kD were present in 041/o2 but absent in 040/02 while one band with MW 40. 2 kD was present in 040/02 and absent in 041/o2, which was closely related to the effects of the modifiers of o2 gene.
Abstract (Browse 1807)  |  Full Text PDF       
Physiological, Biochemical and Cytological Changes in Senescing Corolla of Four-O'clock Flower
Author: Li Xian-zhang, Hou Jian-zhong, Shao Li-mei and Yin Wei-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    Senescing corolla of Four-O clock flower (Mirabilis jalapa L. ) was accompanied by a decline in the contents of RNA and protein as well as an increase of free nucleotides and amino acid but with no change in DNA content. SDS-PAGE of proteins showed a gradual reduction in the molecular weight of protein. RNase activity increased obviously but there was no change of DNase activity. Prior to flower wilting the peroxidase activity increased and the rate of ethylene production reached it's the highest level. When isolated corolla lobes were floated on distilled water, RNase activity and ethylene production increased dramatically in a few hours. But if they were floated on cycloheximide solution, the increase of Rnase activity and ethylene production were completely inhibited. Cycloheximide (0.5C1.0 ppm) could extend the longevity of Four-Oclock flower outtings. Electron micrographs showed that starch grain disappeared after flowering. However, no significant disintegration is observed in cell nucleus and mitochondria during senescence of corolla.
Abstract (Browse 1976)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Study on the Accumulation of Storage Protein in the Soybean Seeds with High and Low Protein Contents
Author: Xu Shou- min, Miao Yi-nong, Zu Chang-fu, Liu Xue-jun, Xu-Bao and Zheng Hui-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    The difference in storage protein accumulation between two soybean was compared by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. The results showed that the Gongjiao 8059-3 (protein content 45 %) was more rapid in protein accumulation rate and higher in protein content than that in GD 1515 (protein content 35 %) during cotyledon development. The subunits (7S and l1S) of the storage protein accumulated earlier in Gongjiao 8059-3 than in GD 1515. Under electron microscope, the protein accumulated in vacuoles was similar between the two cultivars, but the protein density was higher and the volume of protein bodies was larger in cells after mid developing stage in Gongjiao 8059-3. These results showed that difference in protein contents may be based on biochemical and structural alterations.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protoplast Culture and Plantlet Regeneration from Hypocotyls of Brassica campestris var. parachinesis
Author: Zhang Lan-ying, Li Geng- guang, Chen Ru-zhu and Li Kai-lian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    Protoplasts isolated from 3--4 day-old (ca 4 cm in length) etiolated hypocotyls of Brassica carnpestris var. parachinesis (Bally) Tsen et Lee and purified with 20% sucrose were cultured on K8p medium suplemented with 0. 5 mg/L ZT, 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D, 1.0 mg/L NAA and 0. 4 mol/L glucose. When initially cultured for 14-18 hours the protoplasts formed new walls and by first division after 36 hours. The divided protoplasts reached 35 % after being cultured for three days. When cultured under optimum conditions for 8-9 days, the proto plasts formed 8-16 cell colonies with a plate effeciency as high as 15%-18%. Rapidly growing and dividing calli of 2 mm in diameter were transferred onto semisold gelrite media with 0.3 mg/L 2, 4-D enabling them to proliferate further towards the size of 4-5 mm in diameter. Shoot differentiation was carried out in MS medium with 3.2 (or 1.6) mg/L BA, 1.6 (or 0.8) mg/L ZT, 0.01 mg/L NAA, 0. 1 mg/L GA3 and 0.2 % sucrose. Shoots were cut down and rooted on medium with 0.2 mg/L IAA and 2 % sucrose where whole plants were evatually developed.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Meiotic Analysis of the Regenerated Plants Derived from a Young Spike of Octoploid Triticale Secale cereale F1 Hybrid
Author: Xiang Qi-jun and Wu Lan-pei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    The regenerated plants had high frequencies of changes in chromosome number and the pairing variation. The chromosome number was more or less variably decreased in different pollen mother cells. Most of regenerated plants were mixoploids. Some had higher frequency of homolgous chromosome pairing because double doses of rye genome had inhibited the effect of Ph gene. But, there was obvious different of chromosome pairing among regenerted plants. The difference was related to numerical chromosome change. Meiosis in a regenerant was analysed with Giemsa-C banding technigue. Partial rye chromosomes did not pair homologously or only very loosely paired. There was moderate level of wheat-wheat homologous partial pairing, however, wheat-rye chromosome pairing also occurred.
Abstract (Browse 1721)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Water Stress on Photosystem in Wheat
Author: Lu Cong-ming, Zhang Qi-de and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    The fluorescence yield at room temperature, the capacity of excitation energy distribution between photosystem and by Mg2+, variable fluorescence yield, variable fluorescence quenching rate and fluorescence complementary area were decreased under water stress. These indicated that photosystem Il was impaired. The inhibited variable fluorescence yield could be partly recovered by the addition of artificial electron donor DPC. Therefore, water stress inhibited not only the oxidizing site of photosystem but also impaired partly the reaction center of photosystem .
Abstract (Browse 1675)  |  Full Text PDF       
Positional Shift Between the Vegetative Nucleus and the Generative Cell in Amaryllis Pollen Tube
Author: Zhu Cheng, Gao Ming-geng and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    A modified technique, FITC-tubulin immunofluorescence and DAPI localization to demonstrate simultaneously both the generative cell (GC) and the vegetative nucleus (VN) in the pollen tube under ultra-violet excitation, was developed sucessfully. During the germination of the pollen tube of Amaryllis vittata Ait. the GC and the VN, either being the first one, entered the tube within the first 12 h from the pollen grain. However, before the time of GC division, the VN was always positioned distally near the tip of the tube. In case when the GC entered the tube first, then the VN must have a positional shift in order to pass over the GC. The detail processes of positional shift between the GC and the VN were observed. Three basic processes were demonstrated: 1. The anterior end of the VN first reached the vicinity of the posterior attenuated extension of the GC about 2 h following germination forming a temporal physical association. Sometimes their both ends could be inserted into one another for certain extent. 2. The whole VN moved forward and contacted in parallel with the GC until they became twisted together and 3. The VN passed over the GC and greatly elongted lengthwise. Its posterior part became inserted into the anterior end of the GC. The behavior of positional shift between the VN and the GC in the pollen tube seems to be an adjustment of their diameters to fit the narrow tube. A conclusion may be drawn that the rate of movement between the VN and the GC was apparently different during the passage through the tube. Such difference may presumably be accompanied by the independent motive mechanism and structural difference between the VN and GC themselves, which provide their motive force for movement in the tube.
Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning of Calmodulin Gene of Pea (Pisum sativum) by PCR and Comparison of Its Coding Sequences in Different Speices
Author: Yao Jin, Cao Xiao-feng, Liu Zhi-hua and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    Using the oligo nucleotides of both ends of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) calmodulin structural gene as primers, pea (Pisum sativurn L. ) calmodulin gene (CAM) was synthesized from RNA derived cDNA first strand through PCR before it was actually cloned and sequenced. Compared with CaMs of alfafa ( Medicago sativa L. ), rice ( Oryza sativa L. ), barley ( Hordeurn vulgate L. ), eel electroplax ( Electrophoridae ), Aspergillus nidulans and yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), it has homology of 91.3% C60. 8%, while the change between C and T at corresponding position in pea CaM can often be observed. Analysis of the seven CaMs shows that some of them have one or two dominant nucleotide change pattern,their codon bias is also different.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Macrocalyxin B and F
Author: Wang Xian-rong,Wang Hong-ping, Wang Su-qing, Shinichi Ueda and Tetsuro Fujita
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    Two novel diterpenoids, macrocalyxin B and macrocalyxin F, were isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia rnacrocalyx (Dunn) Hara and their structures were elucidated by spectral and chemical evidences.
Abstract (Browse 1679)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Triterpenoid Constituents Isolated from the Roots of Sabia schumanniana
Author: Yuan Xiao, Wang Guo-liang and Gong Fu-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(2)
    Five triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Sabia schurnanniana Diels. Based on their physical constants, UV. IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT spectroscopic analysis and preparation of their derivatives, they were identified as 3-oxo-olean-ll, 13 (18)-diene (1), 3, 1 1-dioxo-olean- 12-ene (2), 3 -hydroxy-olean- 11, 13 (1 8) -diene (3), 3-oxo, 11 -hydroxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3, 11-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (5) . Compound 4 is a new compound. Their 13C-NMR spectra have been signified by means of DEPT analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       


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