March 1994, Volume 36 Issue 3


          Research Articles
Isolation and Identification of Flavonoids from Gynostemma yixingense
Author: Si Jian-yong, Chen Di-hua, Chang Qi, Shen Lian-gang and Zhu Zhao-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    A new flavonol glucoside, named yixingensin, was isolated from the aerial parts of Gy-nostemma yixingense C. Y. Wu et S. K. Chen. besides six known compounds. By means of spectroscopic analysis, the structure of yixingensin was identified as ombuin-3-O--D-glu-copyranoside ( ) . The known compounds were identified as kaempferol ( ), ombuin ( ), ombuoside ( ), quercetin ( ), isorhamnetin ( ) and stearie acid ().
Abstract (Browse 2072)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Polysaccharides UV-2 and UV-3 from Umbilicaria vellea
Author: Shi Wan-yang, Shang Li-jian, He Wei, Wen Guang-yu and Hu Chang-xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    Two polysaccharides, coded UV-2 and UV-3, have been isolated by boiling water extraction from Umbilicaria vellea (L.) Ach., fractionally precipitated by 60% and 90% EtOH, and isolated through DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. They are homoge-neous as judged by ultracentrifuge and filtration on sepharose 6B. By means of analysis of sugar component. periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and methylation, UV-2 and UV-3 were shown to be two highly brenched heteroglycans with few acetyl residues. The main chain of UV-2 is composed of (13) linked glucose and mannose residues, but the main chain of UV-3 is composed of (13) (14) linked glucosed residues. The results of pharmacological tests showed that activity inhibiting implanted S-180 in mice could not be found in UV-2, but UV-2 was able to significantly Stimulate phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocyte transformation.
Abstract (Browse 2008)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Simplified Mechanistic Model of Carbon Assimilation and Biomass Accumulation of Spring Wheat with and Without Water Limitation
Author: Zheng Hai-lie, Huang Zi-chen and Zhao Song-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    The authors have established a simplified mechanistic model of spring wheat carbon assimilation and dry matter accumulation processes in which two independent variables, were considered as daylength and total daily radiation integral. This leaf water potential, an indicator of water limitation on spring wheat was incoorperated into the simplified mechanistic growth model assuming that both the light consuming efficiency and the carboxylation conductance of assimilation were inhibited by water limitation. The simulated data were well agreed with the data observed at Linze Oasis in 1989 for various water treatments and at Zhangye Oasis in 1992 in field. The analysis and simulation of the model demonstrated that the simplified mechanistic growth model could describe very well the dry matter accumulation process of spring wheat with or without water limitation.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Activity of Endoplasmic Reticulum During the Tapetum Development in Forsythia suspensa
Author: Cao Ya-juan and Wang Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    With electron microscopy, the authors have observed the ER activities during the tapeturn development in Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl as following: 1. It produces pro-U-bisch bodies at the meiotic stage of microspore mother cell; 2. It surrounds the proplastid and partakes the activity of lipid accumulation inside the plastids; 3. It secrets sporopollenin and 4. The rough ER inflats twice, surrounds and seperates the cytoplasm apart, forming the ER pocket and spherical bodies, which contribute to the thickenintg of tapetal cell walls and the secretion of exine protein.
Abstract (Browse 2025)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Changes of Steroidal Sex Hormone--Testosterone Contents in Reproductive Organs of Lilium davidii Duch.
Author: Yang Zhong-han, Tang Yin and Cao Zong-xun(T.H.Tsao)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    Testosterone, a steroidal sex hormone, was determined in petal, anther, pistil and pollen of Lilium davidii, using a highly sensitive and specific enzyme linked immunosotvent assay (ELISA), and found to be present at levels of ng/g dry wt. In anther of lily, the level of testosterone increased during anther development, reached maximum at anthesis. After pollen shedding, testosterone rapidly decreased. No obvious changes of testosterone were observed with development of pistil and petal.Lily expresses gametophytic self-incompatibility. The levels of testosterone showed little difference in pistil, either after bud pollination, or self pollination. After hydration, the contents of testosterone in pollen slightly decreased. It rapidly decreased in pollen tube during germination at the first 3 h, but very little amount was found in germination medium. These results suggest that testosterone is associated with development and ripening of male gametophyte and pollen germination, but no sign indicates its participation in the process of self-incompatibility.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Screening of Clone Lines with High Yield of Oligosaccharins from Culture Cells of Panax ginseng
Author: Luo Jian-ping, Zheng Guang-zhi and Gan Fan-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    Cell plating clone technique was employed to screen clone lines with high yield of oligosaccharins from culture cells of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Near 300 clone lines were obtained. The results from some clone lines analysed implied that these clone lines were significantly different in cell growth rate, oligosaccharins content and yield. Furthermore, there was a distinct correlation between oligosaccharins productivity and cell growth. A more stable high-yield oligosaccharin clone line PG-180 had been selected according to the characteristics of growth rate, oligosaccharin yield and peroxidases isozyme patterns during successive subculturing of 11 generations of clone lines. The mean growth rate of clone line PG-180 was 0. 495 g dry wt/L d, and was 1.39 folds higher than to the original strain. Its mean content and yield of oligosaccharins were 14. 69 % dry wt and 2.183 g/L, which were 65 % and 132% respectively higher than those of the original strain. In comparing the time course of cell suspension culture between clone line PG-180 and the original strain, the optimal period for high oligosaccharin production from P. ginseng culture cells was approximately three weeks.
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Transformation of Lotus corniculatus with 10 kD Zein Gene
Author: Wang Guang-li, Tang Mao-zhi and Lin Zhong-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    Lotus corniculatus L. is a common legume forage, l0 kD zein is a maize storage protein in which about 25 % of total amino acids contain sulphur. The chimeric plasmids of the 10 kD zein gene regulated by rbcS promoter and CaMV 35S promoter were introduced into L. corniculatus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated procedures, and the transformed plants have been obtained. Kanamycin-resistance of plantlets was evidenced by the presence of enzyme activity from NPT assay. Southern blotting indicated that the 10 kD zein gene had been integrated into the chromosomal genome of L. corniculatus.
Abstract (Browse 2056)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of Antagonistic Strain TG26 and Purification of Its Antifungal Protein BI
Author: Liu Yi-qiang, Wang Ya-ping, Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    Antagonistic bacterium strain TG26 secreting large amount of antifungal proteins was identified to be Bacillus subtilis by its cell morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. One of the antifungal proteins from TG26 strain was separated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 column and further purified with Mono Q column on FPLC. The purified protein with a molecular weight of 14.5 kD and a isoelectric point of 5.58 inhibits strongly mycelial spread of many kinds of plant pathogens. A amino acid analysis of the protein BI showed that glut aminic acid was the most abundant amino acid. No arginine, histidine, phenylalanine and tryptophane were found. The partial sequence of N-terminal was determined by Edman degradation.
Abstract (Browse 1964)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photoinhibitory Characteristics of Indica-Japonica Subspecies F1 Hybrid Rice
Author: Jiao De-mao, Ji Ben-hua, Tong Hong-yu and Li Zhuan-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    To elucidate genetic background of photoinhibition (P) in Indica-Japonica F1 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. ), reciprocal crosses were made among Indica rice 3037, Palghar, Minghui 75, NJ 11, Luweidao and Japonica rice 02428, LH 422, 029, YS 8072. Apparent photosynthesis, PS activity, binding amount of 14C-atrazine to thylakoid were determined as parameters for seeking the genetic nature of the photoinhibition revealed by the parents and Fl hybrids. The results suggested that Indica cultivars with few exceptions were usually more sensitive than Japonica cultivars. Degree of P in reciprocal Fl hybrids was much biased toward the value of their maternal cultivars, indicating a maternal inheritance which involved in the PSbA encoded D1 protein known to be related to the photoinhibitory PS damage and repairing. The sensitivity of photoinhibitory damage was also related to superoxide dismutase (SOD), an active oxygen scavenging enzyme encoded by the nuclear gene. Meanwhile, comparison of photoinhibition between Indica-Japonica Fl hybrid 3037/ 02428 and Indica Fl hybrid Shanyou 63, It was found that Indica-Japonica Fl hybrid appears to be a cultivar with tolerance of photoinhibition and more stable photosynthesis under photoinhibitory condition and weak-strong light shift in terms of above parameters. It was emphasized that photoinhibition of Indica-Japonica Fl hybrids usually varied depending upon the female mainly in the rice breeding .
Abstract (Browse 1992)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Mechanistic Model Describing the Photosynthate Partitioning During Vegetative Phase
Author: Shi Jian-zhong and Wang Tian-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    A teleonomic model has been established which describes photoassimilate partitioning among plant organs during vegetative stage. Under circumstance of daily photosynthesis supply, linking the transpiration rate per unit of leaf dry weight (U) with water absorption rate per unit of water-absorbing root dry weight (V), using the function equilibrium among plant parts as the constraint conditions, the authors can obtain under-ground portions, influence of environmental factors on partitioning among plant organs. Likewise the authors explain how the plant adjusts it into a new state of function equilibrium under agricultural managments such as irrigation and pruning. Finally, the authors use the data published by Nagarajah (1983) to validate the model and it proves to be rather well. The anthors predict the photoassimilate partition by predicting U and V under environmental conditions. However it still awaits evaluation of its more extensive applicability.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Marker Proteins for Somatic Embryogenesis in Several Plants
Author: Zheng Xiao-feng and Huang Bai-qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was employed to examine the soluble protein composition of embryogenic callus, non-embryogenic callus, as well as developing embryoids in Panax quinquefolius L., Freesia refracta Klatt., Oxytropis leptophylla L. and Medicago suaveolens L. The results showed that embryogenic proteins were specifically present in potentially embryogenic calluses in all the 4 plant species studied. In Panax quinquefolius and Oxytropis leptophylla , the same embryogenic proteins were detected in developing embryoids. Besides a number of callus-specfic proteins was also found in non-embryogenic calluses of Freesia refracta and Medicago suaveolens. Although diverse in number, molecular weight and life span in different species, these specfic proteins seem to be related to the embryogenic state of callus, and may be used as markers to identify potentially embryogenic cultures and to trace the development of embryoids. They also provide the basis for studies of gene activities and molecular mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis in these plant species.
Abstract (Browse 2048)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Acid Phosphatase and Cytokinins During Haustorial Development of the Parasitic Plant Cassytha filiformis L.
Author: Yao Dong-rui, Zheng Xiao-ming, Huang Jian-zhong and Li Yang-han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    During the haustorial development of Cassytha filiformis L., the acid phosphatase and cytokinin (CTK) contents show dynamic changes in the cells. When haustoria are developed the isopenlenyl adenine (iPA) and zeatin nucleotide (ZR) contents are 20 and 6 times respectively higher in the region than that in the control region showing the occurrence of haustorial primordium in relation to the increase of CTK content. Acid phosphatase is firstly released from the cells of the penetrating haustoria and causes injury to the host cells. As the haustoria grow, they further squeeze the host cells. Therefore, the penetration and development of haustoria are the results of both physical and chemical actions.
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes of Parenchyma Cells in Detached Garlic Scape During Storage
Author: Wang Yi, Lou Cheng-hou and Yang Shi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(3)
    The parenchyma cells in the detached garlic scape undergo regular breakdown of cellular constituents and withdrawal of the degrading protoplasm. Autophagic vacuoles from endomembrane components are involved in the degradation process. The bulk of the products from degradation of the protoplasts are removed by both symplastic and apoplastic pathways from the senescing parenchyma cells and are used as nutrients for the growth of aerial cloves at the apex.
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
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