April 1994, Volume 36 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Chemical Structure of Macrocalyxin G
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Wang Hong-ping, Wang Su-qing, Shinichi Ueda and Tetsuro Fujita
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    Three crystalline components, a new diterpenoid named macrocalyxin G and two known diterpenoids rabdophyllin H and ponicidin, were isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia macrocalyx (Dunn) Hara. Based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence, the structure of macrocalyxin G was established as ent-7-20-epoxy-6, 7, 14, 15, 16-pentahy-drokaurane- 17-acetate.
Abstract (Browse 1728)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Classification of Natural Types and the Charateristic Discriminatory Analysis of Pinus tabulaeformis in Shanxi
Author: Li Wen-rong, Zhao Wei-zhong, Guo Jin-ping and Li Wu-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    According to the main criteria for classifying the natural types of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. are the size of crown and the thickness of bark. The communities of Pinus tabulaeformis in Lingkong mountain in Shanxi are divided into two typesthe narrow crownthin bark-type and the wide crown-thick bark-type. The Fisher' s discrimination analysis was used to verify the accuracy of the classification. The discriminant was Y=0.0653X1-4.0369X2+0.0126X3 and the criterion was Yc= C0. 3668. The reliability was to 90% in F test and it was effective to divide the natural types with discrimination analysis. In relating the morphological variation with the character of fast-growing, the increment of trees had been measured and analysed. The results showed that there were genetic differences between the two types, and the narrow crown-thin bark-type was significantly a better one of Pinus tabulae f ormis.
Abstract (Browse 1921)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Detritus Energy During the Decomposition of Kandelia candel Leaf Litter
Author: Fan Hang-qing and Lin Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    Changes of caloric values and energy-rich organic compounds were studied in the detritus derived from mangrove Kandelia candel (L.) Druce leaf litter during the various in situ seasonal decomposition in Jiulong River Estuary, Fujian, China. The results showed that the caloric values varied little among the seasonal fallen leaves being a mean of 19.63 kJ/g dry wt or 21.55 kJ/g AF dry wt, the caloric values of detritus increased remarkably after decomposition but they more rapidly in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. The change was well in agreement with the degree of decomposition, being increased in the early decomposition period and slightly decreased in the later, with a peak at about the half-time of decomposition (50% weight loss). The maximum was averagely 17.67% of dry weight and 14.35 % of ash-free dry; weight basis over the initial values. The dissipation of total energy was somewhat slower than the loss of dry matter. As decomposition proceeds the energy of detritus was more and more contributed by raw protein, raw fat, raw fibers rather than by N-free extract. Therefore it is suggested that detritus at half-time of decomposition should be more important to marine detritivores from the viewpoint of energy supplement.
Abstract (Browse 1742)  |  Full Text PDF       
Periodicity of Cambium Activity and Seasonal Changes of the Secondary Phloem in Two Species of Dalbergia
Author: Zhang Zhen-jue, Chen Zhong-ren and Zhang Yong-tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    Periodicity of cambium activity, seasonal changes of the secondary phloem and longevity of sieve tube in main trunk of Dalbergia balansae Prain and in the twig of D. szemaoensis Prain were observed. The results are as follows: 1. All cambia fall under the category of storied type. 2. In D. balansae cambial activity begins in late April and ends in early November. Phloem differentiation is completed by early November. Xylem differentiation ceases in December. In D. szemaoensis cambial activity continues from mid-April to late October. Phloem and xylem differentiation ceases by late November. 3. The width of functional phloem zone is maximal (400600 m) in autumn and minimal (200370 m) in February to April. In overwintering, functional sieve tube elements contain P-protein, and the pores of sieve plate are open. It could be one of the reasons that these two species are promising host trees of Kerria yunnanensis during winter. 4. The longevity of sieve tubes in D. balansae and D. szemaoensis last 812 months and 911 months respectively. 5. During dormancy of cambium, the parenchyma cells of the secondary phloem contain large quantities of starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals, which decrease as cambium becomes active and remain little or even non visualized in summer.
Abstract (Browse 2230)  |  Full Text PDF       
Active Oxygen Damage Effect of Chlorophyll Degradation in Rice Seedlings Under Osmotic Stress
Author: Jiang Ming-yi, Yang Wen-ying, Xu Jiang and Chen Qiao-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    The changes of chlorophyll (Chl) content and contents of protochlorophyllide (Pchl), superoxide radical (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (ASA), glutathione (GSH), carotenoid (CAR) and the binding capacity of chlorophyll-protein (Chl-Pro) in rice (Oryza sativa L. ) seedlings exposed to osmotic stress induced by PEG 6000 (C0. 5 MPa, C0.8 MPa) were investigated to explore the relationship between Chl degradation and active oxygen effect. Under osmotic stress, Chl degradation was accompanied by the increase of contents of O2-, H2O2 and MDA and the decrease of contents of antioxidants AsA, GSH and CAR. The binding of Chl-Pro was loosened with the change of time and intensity of osmotic stress. Pretreatment with scavengers for active oxygen, such as AsA, -tocopherol and mannitol retarded lipid peroxidation and reduced the oxidative injury of Chl, but Fe2+, H2O2 and Fenton reaction promoted the formation of MDA. The Fenton reaction accelerated the degradation of Chl. The results indicate that Chl degradation in rice seedlings induced by osmotic stress may be mainly due to the formation of more active hydroxyl radicals ('OH) through Fenton reaction and Haber-Weiss reaction.
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isoelectrofocusing Electrophoretic Analysis on Soluble Protein of Germinated Embryos and Young Shoots from Different Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines and Their Maintainers in Wheat
Author: Shen Yin-Zhu, Liu Zhi-yi, Huang Zhan-jing, Si Zhi-hai Zhang Zhao-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    The soluble proteins of germinated embryos and young shoots in Wheat were studied by means of isoelectrofocusing (IEF) electrophoresis. The materials used were three species of cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) lines (Type E, T and A) and their maintainers. The protein quantity of pI 4. 9 in male-fertile materials is higher than the corresponding male-sterile ones; the protein of pI 6.85 is probably the result of gene expression in Timopheevi cytoplasm; the protein of pI 7.6 is a typical band of Jinfeng male-sterile line. Evident differences on soluble protein chromatograms of IEF electrophoresis were observed both in germinated embryos and young shoots which were from different kinds of CMS line, these differences could be used as indexes identifying various CMS lines.
Abstract (Browse 1856)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of DNA in Mycoplasma-Like Organism of the Paulownia Witches Broom
Author: Zhang Chun-li, Lin Mu-lan, Hu Qin-xue and Huang Wen-jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    Partially purified mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) preparations were obtained from diseased paulownia with witches' broom (PWB). EcoR -Hind digested fragment of the total DNAs extracted from the preparations was Iigated into pGEM-3Zf (+) vector. The recombinant molecules were transformed into Escherichia coli strain DH5. After screening by differential hybridization and identification with Dot and Southern blot hybridization analysis, two clones (A4, 1.69 kb and C42, 2.08 kb) were obtained. Their DNA inserts as probes hybridized only with total DNAs from PWB-diseased plants but not with extracts from healthy plants. Abundant (A+T) content was found in the sequences of DNA inserts from the two clones, 72.5% (A4) and 67.9% (C42, respectively, which possessed the character of DNA from mycoplasma spp.
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protoplast Culture and Plant Regeneration of Malus pumila
Author: Ding Ai-ping, Wang Hong-fan and Cao Yu-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    Calli were induced and suspension cell lines were set up from ovule of Malus pumila Mill. Protoplasts (5.40 106/g fr. wt) were isolated from suspension cell lines in enzyme mixture solution containing 2.0% Onozuka R-10, 0.5% pectinase, 0. 65 mol/L mannital, 0.01 mol/L CaC12, 0.7 mmol/L KH2 PO4, 0.3% dextran sulfate potassium salt, at pH 5.8 for 6 h at 26. The cell clumps were formed from protoplasts cultured in modified MS, K8p, D2 media. Calli were formed on MS solid medium containing 2.0 mg/L IAA, 2.0 mg/L NAA, 0.1 mg/L BA. Shoots were differentiated on differentiated medium after several changes of the medium. Eventually, shoots rooted and developed into whole plantlets on a rooting medium.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of Nitrogen Fixation in Maize Root Associated Klebsiella planticola 19-1
Author: Li Jiu-di, Wang Ji-wen, Li Yong-xing, Dong Yue-mei and Jin Hong-fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    A strain K19-1 was isolated from maize roots grown in sand of Xinjing Autonomous region. It was identified as Klebsiella planticola. K19-1 could grow on N2-free medium at 40 and reduce acetylene and 15N2 at 40. The nifH promoter: lacZ fusion was expressed in K19-1 at 40. NH4+ did not inhibit Nase activity but repressed the expression of nifH-lacZ fusion in K 19-1. K 19-1 could fix nitrogen anaerobically but Nase activity was still not inhibited till 02 concentration was increased to 4 %. The expression of nifH: lacZ fusion in K 19-1 was not repressed by O2.
Abstract (Browse 1882)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fluorescence Decaying Kinetics and Photodamage of Quinone-Reconstituted D1/D2/Cytochrome b559 Complex
Author: Tang Chong-qin, Kuang Ting-yun, Yu Zhen-bao, Lu Rong-he, Peng De-chuan, Tang Pei-song and Li Cheng-yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    Photosystem reaction center D1/D2/Cytochrome b559 complex loses its bound secondary electron acceptor QA and QB during isolation and purification. The artificial plastoquinone can reconstitute with the complex. The reconstitution of decyl-plastoquinone (DPQ) with D1/D2/Cytochrome b559 complex results in a decrease of the fraction of the two long lived fluorescence decay components (24 ns and 73 ns) coupled with photochemical activities to the total fluorescence yields, as well as a decrease of the total fluorescence intensity and a blue-shift of maximum emission wavelength. These results suggest that as the electron acceptor of reduced Pheo, DPQ restricts the charge recombination of P680+ Pheo-, and the two long lived fluorescence decay components (24 ns and 73 ns) come from the recombination. Although DPQ reconstitution has little effect on the susceptibility of Chi a to photodamage, -carotene can easily be photodamaged after DPQ reconstitution. This is probably related to the physiological function of -carotene.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultracytochemical Localzation of Acid Phosphatase Activity in Wheat During Fertilization
Author: Tian Guo-wei and Shen Jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    No acid phosphatase activity was observed in the mature embryo sac of wheat (Triticum aestivum) except the chalazal cytoplasm Of the central cell before fertilization. During fertilization, acid phosphataseactivity was observed in the following loci: part of chromatin of the egg nucleus and most of the mitochondria in the egg cytoplasm; the perinuclear spaces of the egg and sperm nuclei at the fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei; the chalazal cytoplasm and some vacuoles of the degenerated synergid; two sperm nuclei within the cytoplasm of female cells; the cell wall of each cell of the embryo sac and that of the nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac. No acid phosphatase was observed in the two-celled proembryo. Dense enzyme reaction product was localized in the chromatin of the free nuclei at early stage of the endosperm. The characteristic of acid phosphatase distribution during fertilization may be associated with the physiological change of the egg Cell, the reorganization of mitochondria in the egg cell cytoplasm, the degeneration of one of the two synergids, the physiological state of the sperm nuclei and the nuclear membrane fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei.
Abstract (Browse 1786)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cytological Mechanism of Biparental Cytoplasmic Inheritance in Pelargonium hortorum -Ultrastructural and DNA Fluorescence Studies of Male and Female
Author: Hu Shi-yi, Guo Feng-li and Luo Yu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    Electron microscopic investigation has demonstrated that plastids and mitochondria are conserved in the generative cell, sperm cells and egg cell of Pelargonium hortorum Bailey. The plastids in the generative cell which contain starch for a short period, gradually changed to proplastids during the maturation of generative cell. The plastids in the sperm cells are large and numerous the characteristics of dense matrix and an abundant endomembrane systems. These plastids always appear ringlike in cross section. In the generative cell and sperms, the spherical or rod-shaped mitochondria are smaller than the.plastids and remain unchanged during the development process from generative cell to sperm cells. DNA filaments are visualized in the transparent central zone of the mitochondria. In the egg cell, plastids are more abundant than mitochondria. The structures of the plastids and mitochondria are obviously different from those in the sperm cell. Most of the plastids are irregularly rod-shaped and contain starch, the mitochondria are about 3 times larger than those in the sperm cells. Most of them are cup-shaped as proved by successive sections. DNA epifluorescence study demonstrated that DNA nucleoids are present in both plastids and mitochondria of the egg, generative cell and sperm cells. In the sperm cells, there is no ringlike DNA nucleoid as is existed in the egg cell. This study has defined the characteristics of the plastids and mitochondria in both male and female gemates of P. hortorurn. The results are essential contributions for further investigation of the biparental organelle transmission in the zygote and proembryo.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
Behavior Study of NAD-Malic Enzyme in Facultative CAM Plants
Author: Lin Hong-hui, Wang Chen and Zhang Wei-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(4)
      
    Primary study of NAD-malic enzyme was carried out in facultative CAM plants Sedum aizoon and Mesembryanthemum cordifolium. When 5 mmol/L MnC12, 6 mmol/L Mal and 50mol/L CoA are present, the optimum pH is 7. The activity of this enzyme fluctuates with the seasons, in July, its activity reaches the summit. Its activity has a diurnal change also, being higher during the day and lower during the night. After water stress, the activity of this enzyme increases 23 times. The authors consider that the CAM activity may be regulated by carboxylate and decarboxylate system together.
Abstract (Browse 1856)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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