June 1994, Volume 36 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
A Study on the Intrinsic Growth Rate of Scirpus planiculmis Populations
Author: Kang Xue-geng, Qiao Chun-gui and Tang En-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    Field experiments were conducted, using "Fixed Interval technique for sampling seedlings", to determine the rules of asexual reproduction of Scirpus planiculrnis population. Counts were recorded for the number of re-emerged plants on the overwintering stem tubers and of the re-emerged seedlings from the trailing branch system, from June 10 to August 30 at a 10-day interval. In this way, the exponential equation was established for describing the increase of the re-emerged plants of Scirpus planiculmis per 10-day period. The technique of "observation on specific individual plants" was also used to determine the rule of sexual reproduction of the plant, i. e. to investigate the ability of sexual reproduction by counting the number of seed-sets from the re-emerged seedlings on 12 overwintering stem tubers and all their progenies (2640 re-emerged plants). Then, pooled cal ulation was made to obtain the intrinsic growth rate of the Scirpus planiculmis population as r= 7.24. Thus, it is indicated that the ultimate reason for the over-grown of the species population is the high intrinsic growth rate. On the other hand, since the critical period of both the weed and rice was already estimated, it could be used (1) to determine the critical time for weeding and (2) to control the weed effectively, and (3) to provide sound basis for high grain yield of rice.
Abstract (Browse 2200)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Spectral Reflectance of Pinus densiflora Forest and Relations to Some Factors in Spring at Au Ore Region in Zhaoyuan County,Shandong Province
Author: Ni Jian and Wu Ji-you
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    Changes of the characteristics of spectral reflectance of Pinus densiflora forest and their relations to Au, Ag, Cu, Pb contents in pines, chlorophyll contents, degree of haggardis to pines and other ecological factors in spring such as topographic factor and soil composition as well, at Taishang Au ore region in Zhaoyuan County, Shandong Province were analysed. There were differences of spectral reflectance between Au ore and background region in spring. The ¡°blue-shift¡±in Au mine area was very obvious. The relations among characteristics of spectral reflectance and Au, Ag, Cu, Pb contents in pines were very significant. The characteristics of spectral reflectance were interrelated, to some extent, to chlorophyll contents and degree of injury, but less closely related to some main ecological factors of Pinus densi flora forest.
Abstract (Browse 1864)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Study of Secondary Xylem in Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl.
Author: L¨¹ Jing and Hu Yu-xi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    The anatomical structure of the wood of Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl. was studied with both light and scanning electron microscopy. The main characters of the secondary xylem are as follows: (1) The wood is diffuse porous with distinct growth ring. (2) Most vessel elements possess simple perforation plates, only a few are with scalariform perforation plates, but both of them have spiral thickenings on their secondary walls. (3) Tracheids, fiber-tracheids and libriform fibers all exist and the libriform fibers may or may not have septa. (4) Wood parenchyma is mainly of terminal distribution type. (5) Wood ray is heterogenous belonging to the Krib¡äs heterogenous IIB type. (6) Tylosis, resin canal and secretory cell are absent. Based on the present study and other data derived from external morphology, bark anatomy, chromosome study, palynology and embryogenetic study, the systematic position of Bretschneidera sinensis was analysed and discussed. The authors agree that the genus should be elevated to the level of a monotypic family¡ªBretschneideraceae, belonging to the order of Sapindales; also it is closely related to other primitive families of the same order such as Staphyleaceae, Sabiaceae and Connaraceae.
Abstract (Browse 1957)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Repetitive DNA Sequence Showing the Characteristic of Genomic DNA Differentiation in Oryza
Author: Liu Dian-lian, Wang Chun-xin, Liu Liang-shi and Liang Neng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    A moderately repetitive DNA sequence from rice had been cloned by the method of DNA renaturation kinetics. Restriction site analysis, Southern hybridization and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the sequence was mainly in tandem repeat in rice genome. A lot of wild and cultivated rice species were analyzed by Southern blot. With some restriction endonucleases digestion the hybridization pattern of rice DNA showed more than 40 bands with different intensity mainly consisting of the strong and weak hybridization bands. It was found that the strong hybridization bands were specific to the BBCC genome and the weak bands showed abundent polymorphism in cultivated rice species. These results suggested that the repetitive DNA sequence might be useful for rice breeding.
Abstract (Browse 1686)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure of the Chloroplast rbcL Gene from Grape (Vitis vinifera)
Author: Huang Yao, Ma Cheng, Li Chao-luan and Wu Nai-hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    The 3.1 kb BamH ¢ñ fragment containing the chloroplast rbc L gene from grape (Vitis vinifers L. ) had been cloned and the restriction endonuclease map and the nucleotide sequence had been determined. The length of the determined nucleotide sequence was 2004 bp. The coding sequence of the gene was 1428 bp encoding a 475 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 53 kD. The 5¡ä upstream sequence including the putative promoter was 358 bp, of which the -10 sequence was TAAAAT, the -35 sequence was TTGCGC and the SD sequence was GGAGG. The 3¡ä downstream sequence was 218 bp including three transcription stem-loop termination structures. The homologies of this gene with tobacco, petunia, spinach, alfalfa, rice and maize were 91.5%, 91.4% 90. 2%, 89.8 %, 86.3 % and 84.5 %, and the homologies of the putative polypeptide sequences were 92.2%, 91.6%, 92.2%, 93.7%, 93.5% and 90. 1%, respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2136)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the conditions of Cell Transformation in Astragalus sinicus
Author: Li Xue-bao, Bai Yong-yan, Xu Zhi-hong and Wei Zhi-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    The conditions of genetic transformation of cells in Astragalus sinicus were studied. The experimental results showed that Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 (pKIW 105), when incubated in medium of low pH and low phosphate concentration in presence of acetosyringone could be induced and activated. When the activated bacteria were used to infect A. sinicus, the GUS gene transient expression in the hypocotyl protoplasts of A. sinicus was immediately and remarkably enhanced. This indicated that the vir gene of A. tumefaciens was activated under the above-mentioned incubation conditions which facilitated T-DNA transfer. In PEG-mediated DNA direct transfer, transient expression of GUS gene was promoted by higher pH and higher Ca2+ concentration of fusion medium. In the same experimental condition, expression of GUS gene under the control of MAS-CaMV 35S chimeric promoter was more effective than that under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, and intensity of GUS gene expression was positively correlated with the amount of foreign plasmid DNA in the range of 10--100 ¦Ìg. Adventitious shoots were induced from cotyledon and hypocotyls explants treated with Agrobacterium turnefaciens strain PGV 2260 (pBI 121) and were subcultured on MS medium containing 50 mg/L kanamycin to select transformants, and then the transformed shoots were rooted. Stable expression of the foreign genes in the transformed plants was confirmed by assay of neomycin phosphotransferase ¢ò (NPT ¢ò ) and ¦Â-glucuronidase (GUS) activity.
Abstract (Browse 1795)  |  Full Text PDF       
Immunoaffinity Chromatographic and ELISA determination of Cytokinins in Germinating Pollens in Lilium davidii Dach.
Author: Yang Zhong-han, Chen Liang-fu and Cao Zong-xun(Tsao, T. H.)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    Liliurn davidii Duch. pollen was germinated in PEG-400. A rapid immunoaffinity chromatograpy system with high efficiency and specificity was adopted to isolate and purify trans-zeatin riboside (t-ZR) and isopentenyladenosine (ipA). Cytokinin determination was carried out by a highly sensitive enzyme linked immunosolvent assay (ELISA) for t-ZR and iPA respectively, t-ZR and iPA were present at the level of 10-8 g/g fr. wt in Lilium davidii pollen. After hydration, t-ZR content of pollen decreased slightly, while iPA increased remarkably, and the total amount of t-ZR and iPA underwent almost no change. Pollen tubes grew fast in the first 3 h after germination, and the amount of t-ZR and iPA also increased greatly both in pollen tubes and in germination medium. The increasing trend of t-ZR and iPA and growth rate of pollen tubes was basically synchronous.
Abstract (Browse 1909)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Cold-Hardening on Thylakoid Membrane Lipids and Proteins of Spring Wheat and Winter Wheat
Author: Chen Zhi-qiang, Xu Chun-hui, Chen Meng-jing, Xu Li, Wang Ke-bin, Lin Shi-qing and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    By comparison of thylakoid membrane lipids and their fatty acid composition, the supermolecular structure of light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of Photosystem ¢ò (LHC ¢ò ) and the spectroscopic characteristics of thylakoids in winter wheat (Yanda 1817) with those in spring wheat (8901) before and after cold-hardening, it was found that after cold-hardening: (1)The trans-3-hexadeeenoic acid content of phosphatidyl alycerol (PG) in both cultivars decreased significantly, the ratio of monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG)/digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG) in the thylakoid of Yanda 1817 decreased, but had no distinct change in 8901. (2)The lipid/chlorophyll ratio in thylakoids of Yanda 1817 increased significantly, but had no distinct change in 8901. (3) The LHC ¢ò oligomer content decreased in thylakoids of both cultivars. (4) The A683/A652 ratio of the 4th derivative absorption spectra increased in both cultivars. (5)The F685/F738 ratio of low temperature (77K) fluorescence spectra of thylakoids in 8901 increased but was not affected in Yanda 1817. It was concluded that one of the major strategies of wheat to adapt low temperature was the increase of thylakoid membrane fluidity, and that the decrease of MGDG content may play an important role in stabilizing the bilayer structure of the thylakoid membrane at low temperature.
Abstract (Browse 1740)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Studies of Somatic Embryogenesis in Wheat
Author: Wang Ya-fu, Cui Kai-rong, Wang Li-hong and Wang Lun-shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    Electron microscopic observation of somatic embryogenesis from cultured immature wheat embryos revealed the presence of a lot of small vacuoles, a large nucleus, clear nucleolus and polynucleoli. The electron density of cytoplasm was strengthened during somatic embryogenesis. Quantity and type of organelles¡ªplastid, ribosome and mitochondrion were increased; thickened cell wall, disappeared plasmodesmata, increased organelles andstarch accumulation in the embryogenic cells. Nucleolus vacuoles, autophagic vacuoles and secretory vesicles were present in the embryogenic cells with thickened cell walls. The multicellular proembryos, globular embryoid and pear-shaped embryoid were surrounded by an envelop, but plasmodesmata existed extensively between cells of somatic embryoid. The membranous structures appeared in the plastid which underwent transformation into chloroplast in the cells of growing point in almost mature embryoid. The relation of the above-mentioned structureal changes to somatic embryogenesis is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1779)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Manganese on the Reconstitution of Partial Metallocluster-deficient Nitrogenase Molybdenum-Iron Protein
Author: Huang Ju-fu, Wang Zhi-ping, Luo Ai-ling, Zhong Ze-pu and Li Jia-ge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    By treating the reduced MoFe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii with O-phenanthroline (O-phen) and O2, inactive MoFe protein which was partialy deficient in both P-cluster and FeMoco could be obtained. After incubating the inactive protein with a reconstituent solution containing KMnO4, ferric homocitrate, Na2S and dithiothreitol, a reconstituted protein could be obtained. The absorption spectrum and C2H2, H+ and N2 reduction activity of the reconstituted protein could be well restored to the state of the reduced MoFe protein. However, the ¦Á-helix and CD spectrum at 380¡ª550 nm and at 620¡ª670 nm of the reconstituted protein were somewhat different from those of the reduced MoFe protein. The results showed that: (1) the reconstituted protein was composed of the assembled protein which might be a MnFe protein due to the reconstitution of the metalloclusterdeficient MoFe protein with Mn-containing solution and MoFe protein in which metalloclusters were still intact after the treatment with O-phen and O2; (2) It might be possible that the MnFe protein and MoFe protein were similar in the ability of nitrogen fixation, but were somewhat different in the structure from each other.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Induction of Regeneration of Fruit-Like Structure in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Author: Lu Wen-liang and Liang Bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    It is possible to induce in vitro regeneration of fruit-like structures from tissue pieces excised from young pistil and young fruit of Lycopersicon esculenturn Mill. These fruit-like structures could be cultured in vitro to maturation, meanwhile they became red coloured. Under dissection it was observed that the fruit-like structure consists of fruit flesh and fruit coats without seeds and plancentae. Tests of exogenous hormones and explant ages revealed: 1. Supplement with exogenous cytokinins alone could induce the explants excised from the pistils to regenerate the fruit-like structures, and the highest induced frequency (50%) was obtained when 0. 5 mg/L zeatin was supplemented. Exogenous auxin seems unnecessary. 2. When tissues of young fruit were used as explants, all explants excised from 4¡ª12 mm (diameter) young fruits could be induced to differentiate the fruit-like structures on medium supplemented with exogenous hormones. However, the hightest frequency of induction (62.5%) was obtained only in tissues of explants excised from 8 mm (diameter) sized fruit and cultured on medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of 6-BAP and 1 mg/L of NAA where regermination of the fruit-like structures took place. In order to investigate the expression of cell totipotency arisen in the regeneration of the fruit-like structure a concept of partial expression of plant cell totipotency was proposed and discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1890)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Diterpene Glycoside in Aster ageratoides Turcz.
Author: Cheng Dong-liang, Cao Xiao-ping and Wei Han-xun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    A new natural diterpene glycoside was isolated from Aster ageratoides Turcz. Its structure was elucidated by means of IR, MS (FAB, EI), NMR (1H-, 13C-, DEPT), 2D-NMR (1H-1H COSY, 13C-1 H COSY, J-resolved, CoLoC) spectra and chemical method as 16¦Â, 17-dihydroxy- (¡ª) -kauran- 19-oic acid-¦Â-D-glucopyanosyl ester.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Alkaloids of Stephania macrantha H. S. Lo et M. Yang
Author: Chen Yan, Yuan Tian-shuo, Xu Ya-ming and Liu Guang-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    Eight alkaloids had been isolated from the roots of Stephania rnacrantha H. S. Lo et M. Yang which is a novel species growing in Yang-bi district of Yunnan Province. The structures of these compounds were identified as l-tetrahydropalmatine ( ¢ñ ), isocorydine ( ¢ò ), corydine ( ¢ó ), corydalmine (¢ô), stepholidine ( ¢õ ), palmatine ( ¢ö ), corytuberine salt (¢÷) and laudanidine (¢ø) by means of spectral and chemical methods. Isocorydine is a main alkaloid with 1.82% yield. It is interested that laudanidine is found for the first time in the plants of Menispermaceae.
Abstract (Browse 1992)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Cell and Protoplast Cultures of Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa Hybrid
Author: Zhang Hong, Tian Hui-qin and Li Jun-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(6)
      
    Starting materials used in these experiments were taken from Triticum aestivum-Hay-naldia villosa hybrid embryo-derived callus, which had been maintained for nearly two years. To establish suspension cultures, the callus was subcultured till its compact texture became friable, and then shaken in a liquid medium. Upon transferring the suspended cells onto a semisolid medium, high frequency of plant regeneration was achieved.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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