August 1994, Volume 36 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Projects and Their Analysis of Plants Science Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1993
Author: Zhu Da-bao and Chen Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
Abstract (Browse 1590)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Antifreeze Protein with High Activity in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus
Author: Fei Yun-biao, Sun Long-hua, Huang Tao, Shu Nian-hong, Gao Su-qin and Jian Ling-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    The authors have isolated and partial purified antifreeze protein antifreeze protein (AFP) produced endogenously in Arnrnopiptanthus rnongolicus. The results show that the partial purified AFP ranged in size including 45.7 kD, 81.2 kD, and so on. At 50 mg/mL protein concentration, the temperature of melting point is C15 , and its freezing point is even lower. Therefore, the AFP activity exhibited by the Arnmopiptanthus mongolicus is higher than that observed for AFP found in polar fishes or in winter rye. In addition, by a phase contrast light photomicroscope, the author have observed the morphology of individual ice crystals formed in the solution, including squares, rectangles, cones, hexagons. The morphology of these ice crystals are similar to those of ice crystals observed in polar fishes and in cold-acclimation winter rye.
Abstract (Browse 1811)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents from Dracocephalum tanguticum Maxim.
Author: Zhang Xiao-feng, Hu Bo-lin and Wang Sheng-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    Dracocephalum tanguticum Maxim. is endemic in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It has been widely used in Tibetan traditional medicine. From the methanol extracts of this species, eight compounds were isolated and identified as oleanolic acid ( ), ursolic acid ( ), daucosterol (), skimmin (), eosmosiin (), pedalitin (), pedaliin (), and a new natural product pedaliin-6-acetate ( ).
Abstract (Browse 2055)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics and Quantitative Analysis of K, Na, Ca, Mg and S Contents in the Dominant Plant Species on the Hutubi Cattle Stock Farm Area, Xinjing
Author: Kong Ling-shao, Ma Mao-hua and Pan Dai-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    The characteristics on K, Na, Ca, Mg and S contents of 25 plant species were analysed at the grassland on the Hutubi Cattle Stock Farm area, Xinjiang. The level of content is in the order of Na>S>K>Mg>Ca. Different plant species have considerable variation in contents of Na and S, for example, the contents of Na and S are more than 100000 ppm and 30000 ppm respectively in Suaeda physophara and Halocnemum strobilaceum and less than 30000 ppm and 4000 ppm respectively in Phragmites cornmunis and Aeluropus littoralis; their interspecific coefficient of variation (c. v. ) are 95.10 % and 63.16% respectively. The interspecific c. v. of K content, 34.42 %, is the lowest. The contents of K, Na, Ca and S in all innerspecific plants at different sites are less various than interspecific ones; the content of Mg in some innerspecific plants is more various than in interspecific ones. The analysis of correlation between contents of elements in plants and soil shows that Nitraria sibirica is the only plant specie whose coefficient of correlation (c. c. ) of Na content in plant with that in soil reaches the significant negative level in seven plant species; among 5 elements in plants, the c. c. between Na and Ca reaches the significant negative corrrelative level, the c. c. between Na and S reaches the significant positive correlation level. The results of classification and ordination of TWINSPAN and DCA of 25 plant species using the data of 5 elemental contents show that seven plant species, for example, H. strobilaceum, S. physophora, Kalidium foliatum, K. caspicum, etc. are Na and S type plant; Phragmites communis, Achnatherum splendens, etc. are Na and K type plant.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pattern of a Seed Disperasl of Hordeum brevisubulatum on Alkalized Meadow in the Songnen Plain of China
Author: Yang Yun-fei and Zhu Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    Based on the survey sampling far from the parent plants, the quantitative analysis on seed dispersal of Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.)Link on alkalized meadow in the Songnen Plain of China on six orientations was conducted. The results showed that due to the effect of wind direction, the greatest number of seeds disposed was in the northeast, which was 4 times more than the smallest number in the South west. The mean radius of the seed dispersal was about 130 cm. All seed disposal patterns per unit area in different orientations fit, more or less, well with the weibull distribution. It refected that seed dispersal of the with barley provided the character of extending, far from the parent plants, their potential space niche under the natural conditions at the Songnen Plain. The number of seeds dispersed by sequence centrifugation far from the parent plants increased following a Logistic curve relevant to the expansion of accumulated unit area. The rates of increase were relatively lower in the east and northeast where seed disporsal was greater and the distance was farther from the parent plants.
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Salinity on Ion Contents, Betaine Level and Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Seepweed (Suaeda salsa) Seedlings
Author: Liu Jia-yao, Yi Yan-jun and Zhao Ke-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    The changes of ion contents, betaine levels and betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity in seedling of halophyte seepweed (Suaeda salsa) were studied under different salinity (NaC1 and KC1). Results showed that the K+ contents in seepweed seedlings grown in NaC1 for 96 h decreased as the external salinity was increased comparing with the controls while the Na+ levels increased substantially. The levels of Na+ in seepweed treated with KC1 fell, but K+ levels rose. The betaine levels and the BADH activity rose with the increase of external NaC1 concentrations and the betaine levels increased as the time of the treatment was lengthened. The effects of KC1 on the betaine levels and BADH activity were similar to these of NaC1. These results illustrated that NaC1 and KC1 can cause a large amounts of betaine accumulation in seepweed, and preliminary data suggest that BADH activity has played a role in betaine accumulation.
Abstract (Browse 1918)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Boundary Layer Conductance on Leaf Gas Exchange
Author: Fu Wei and Wang Tian-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    Using an improved gas-exchange technique for leaf chamber the authors' conclusions derived from electrical analogy analysis and simulation have been tested. In most devices for gas-exchange measurements, a fixed ventilation speed is used, which results in a fixed boundary layer conductance of leaf, but the results of experiments are often used to predict canopy transpiration or photosynthesis where the boundary layer conductance changes with the position of the leaf in the canopy and the wind speed above the canopy. To change the boundary layer conductance of a leaf, a barrier of variable size was inserted into the leaf chamber to decrease the wind speed over the leaf. The responses of stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate to light were then measured. The relationships amongst them have been tested. The experimental results matched well with the results predicted by electrical analogy analysis and simulation in most cases.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship of the Brassinolide Promoted Epicotyl Elongation to Protein and Nucleic Acid Synthesis in Mung Bean Cuttings
Author: Zhu Guang-lian and Zhang Jiang-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    Relationship of brossinolide promoted epicotyl elongation to protein, RNA, DNA and mRNA synthesis in mung bean cuttings were studied using radioactive precursors and inhibitors (cycloheximide, actinomycine D and 5-fluorouracil) of protein and nucleic acid synthesis. It was proved that epicotyl elongation of mung bean cutting depended on protein and nucleic acid synthesis, especially mRNA synthesis. This indicates that BR promoted epicotyl elongation was regulated at the level of gene transcription.
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
CD Spectra of D1/D2/Cyt b559 Complax in Photodamaged Photosystem Reaction Center
Author: Yu Zhen-bao, Li Chong-ci, Tang Chong-qin, Kuang Ting-yun, Lu Rong-he Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    The CD spectrum of photosystem reaction center D1/D2/Cyt b559 complex showed a strong reverse band with positive peak at 680 nm and negative peak at 660 nm in the red absorption region (Qy band). After the D1/D2/Cyt b559 complex was illuminated by strong light, the CD signals of the complex decreased significantly in the red region in which the negative peak still existed but the positive one disappeared. The result suggested that the CD signal of photosystem reaction center D1/D2/Cyt b559 complex not only came from the primary donor, P680, but also from other pigments such as from accessory Chl a or Pheo a.
Abstract (Browse 1728)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influenc of Chloroplast Development and Light on the Gene Expression of Glutamine Synthetase in Wheat Leaves
Author: Yin Li-ping, Chai Xiao-qing, Liu Xiang-lin, Li Xin, Li Si-da, Wu Xiao-qiang, Zhang Cheng-qian and Zhao Wei-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    The ralationship between the developing chloroplast ultrastructure and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) leaf has been studied by electron microscopy, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and GS enzyme activity assay. The results showed that net photosynthesis rate and GS activity increased from basal meristerm to the tip of the leaf along with the development of chloroplasts. The investigation of the incorporation of a H-Uracil and 3 H-Leucine into isolated plastids and Northern blot indicated that the level of gene expression was the highest in basal section. The acumulation of GS-mRNA was most abundant in the developing chloroplast and GS activity was the highest in the developed chloroplast. Within 72 hours of illumination to etiolated seedlings, the quantity of GS mRNA and GS activity increased gradually to the same level of normal seedlings, these observations suggested that the light inducible regulation of GS gene expression is at least at a transcriptional level and the increase in GS on illumination is due largely to the de nove protein synthesis.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Studies on the Development, Structure and Ecological Adaptation of Aboveground Root Apices of the Mangrove Plants
Author: Huang Qing-chang, Huang Gui-ling and Yang Man-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    The aboveground root apices of 15 species of the mangrove plants have been observed. The species belong to 9 genera and 6 families, which are distributed in the intertidal region along tropical to subtropical coast in Hainan and Guangdong provinces. The histology of the prop root apices (aerial) of 4 genera of the Rhizophoraceae was characterized markedly by columnar meristematic area, columella and suberized sheath of root cap. The prop root apices (aerial) of Acanthus and Avicennia as well as pneumatophore apices of Avicennia and Sonneratia possessed short columella and thin suberized sheath, or showed growth layer in the phellem of root cap. Most of the mangrove plants started procambial activity very early. Under the epidermis exodermis usually and in the subepidermal layer periderm was developed. All these have shown the selectivity of environment and adaptive convergence in mangrove.
Abstract (Browse 1914)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of the Level of Ca2+ in Cells of Rice Seedlings Under Low Temperature Stress
Author: Wang Hong, Jian Ling-cheng and Zhang Ju-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    The changes of Ca2+ localization in ceils of rice (Oryza sativa L. ) seedlings under chilling stress were investigated with calcium antimonate precipitate-electromicroscopic-cyto- chemical methods. When rice seedlings grew at the optimum temperature, it was shown that the deposits of calcium antimonate, being the indicator for Ca2+ localization, mainly concen-trated within the vacuoles and intercellular spaces, and that there was also some Caz+ deposits in plastid, mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus. This indicates that under the normal condition, the vacuoles are the main pool of Ca2+ in plant cells, and that there is quite an amount of Ca2+ in the intercellular spaces. On the contrary, the free Ca2+ in cytoplasm and nucleus is very low under the normal condition. When the rice seedlings were treated at the temperature of 1 for 24 h, there nearly appeared a ring of well arranged Ca2+ precipitates in the inner side of plasmalemma. Meanwhile, the level of Ca2+ in cytoplasm and nucleus increased considerably. When the chilling stress of 1 continued for 48 h, a great amount of Ca2+ distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus, and there was also a large quantity of Ca2+ deposits on vacuolar membranes and envelope of plastid. However, the ultrastructures of the cells remained normal. Based on the above observations, the authors proposed that the increase of Ca2+ in cytoplasm and nucleus under chilling stress might be related to the ulterior changes of physiological-biochemical processes.
Abstract (Browse 1713)  |  Full Text PDF       
Role of Exogenous Hormones in Inducing Cells in different Positions of Perianth Explants to Regenerate Flower Buds in Hyacinthus orientalis
Author: Lu Wen-liang, Liang Bin, Enomoto K and Fukunaga Y
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    Role of the exogenous hormone in inducing different position cells of perianth explants of hyacinth to regenerate flower buds was studied. Experiments showed that (1) Exogenous hormones are necessary for inducing cells of the perianth explant to regenerate the flower buds; (2) Only cytokinine alone could induce the regeneration of the flower buds, the auxin was not necessary; (3) Exogenous hormones in different concentrations could induce cells in the different parts of the perianth explants to differentiate the flower buds: 6-BAP or zeatin 2 mg/L alone could induce cells located at the lower part of the perianth to differentiate flower buds. Combination of 6-BAP or zeatin 2 mg/L and 2, 4-D 0.1 mg/L was advantageous to cells located middle part of the perianth to regenerate the flower buds. Combination of 6-BAP or zeatin 2 mg/L and 2, 4-D 1.0 mg/L could promote cells located at the upper part of the perianth to differentiate flower buds.
Abstract (Browse 1787)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Embryo Development and Deposition of Storage Reserves in Coix lacryma-jobi
Author: Xi Xiang-yuan and Ye Bao-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(8)
      
    Embryo development in Coix lacryma-jobi is classified into the following stages: proembryo before club-shaped, club-shaped, coleoptilar, I-leafed, 2-1eared, 3-1eared, 4-1eared, 5-leafed and 6-leafed (mature embryo). The 3-, 4-, 5-leafed embryos have 1, 2 and 3 adventitious roots (seminal roots) respectively, and the matrue also has 3. These seminal roots are arranged in a longitudinal row parallelling with the radicle. The storage reserves first deposit in the scutellar cells. 9 days after anthesis (l-leafed stage), the starch grains are accumulated in cells of scutellum, coleoptile and mesocotyle. When the embryo matures, starch grains are deposited throughout its cells. The increase in size and amount of starch grains correlates with the initiation and growth order of the embryonic organs. But the amount in the scutellar cells decreases from later to mature stage. 10 days after anthesis (2-leafed stage), protein bodies containing crystals, of protein and phytin are present in the scutellar cells. They subsequently become larger and abundant druses. At the same time some protein bodies without crystals are also formed. Later, the protein bodies containing crystals disappear, while those without crystals increase until the embryo matures. 13 days after anthesis (3- leafed stage) protein bodlies are formed in the upper coleoptile cells. Protein bodies are rich in the cells of mature embryo, but the earlier the organ of embryo occurs, the more and the larger protein bodies it contains. 10 days after anthesis, lipid bodies appear in the scutellar cells and increase in size and quantity rapidly as the embryo develops. The correlation of the length of caryopsis and scutellum with embryo development is also observed.
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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