September 1994, Volume 36 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
Revised Structure of Maoyerabdosin
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Sun Han-dong, Shinichi Ueda and Tetsuro Fujita
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    Known diterpenoid maoyerabdosin was isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia macrocalysc (Dunn) Hara. Based on elemental analyses and spectra of MS, NMR, COSY and NOESY, the structure of maoyerabdosin was revised as ent-7-20-epoxy-l, 7, 15, 16-tetrahydro- xy kaurene-6, 17-diacetate.
Abstract (Browse 1726)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study in Leaf Cell of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Under Heat Stress
Author: Miao Chen, Li Rong-qian and Wang Jian-bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    Ultrastructural changes of the leaf cells in response to heat stress in thermo-resistant cultivar and thermo-sensitive cultivar of Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. were investigated. No ultrastructural change was shown in mesophyll cell of the thermo-resistant cultivar. All membrane-bound structure remained intact. However, the cell ultrastructure of thermosensitive cultivar showed significant changes. One of the major effects of heat stress was the disruption of membrane structure. Chloroplasts and nucleus were extremely sensitive to heat stress. Chloroplasts rounded off in different extents and their outer membranes disappeared. Structural alteration of the thylakoid membrane were visualized. Large amount of plastoglobulis appeared within the chloroplast. Mitochondria were far more resistant to heat stress than chloroplasts. There was no distinct changes of mitochondria structure. Nucleus suffered from serious damage as heat caused disruption of nuclear envelope and condensation of nucleoplasm, showing, eventually, numerous fibrillar granulous material and irregularly shaped hollow spaces presented within the nucleus.
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure of Micropyle in Gossypium hirsutum and the Pathway of Pollen Tube Growth
Author: Zhang Jin-song, He Cai-ping and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    The micropyle of Gossypium hirsutum consists of an exostome and an endostome. On semithin serial transections, the exostome was visualized as a branched narrow gap except its outer and inner openings, whereas the endostome only a narrow linear gap. Ultrastructurally, the micropyle gap was formed by the integumental epidermal cells coated with a cuticle. The cells lining the micropyle gap were characterized by a large nucleus and abundant organelles as mitochondria, plastids, rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicle-secreting dictyosomes and small vacuoles. One or two pollen tubes were seen growing through the exostome and endostome gaps. Thus, the micropyle in cotton was basically a closed type as has been found in sunflower, but similar asymmetrical structural features were not observed.
Abstract (Browse 2153)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Atmosphere Spores and Pollen and Their Influences on the Sporopollen Assemblages in the Sediments of Huanghai Sea
Author: Xu Jia-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    Totally, 321 grains of spores and pollens which consist of 23 genera and species, were collected from the atmosphere over Huanghai Sea during the survey in 1978C1979. It has been found that the amount of spores and pollen in the atmosphere was high in spring, lower in autumn and the lowest in summer and winter. The content of arboreal pollens amount to 74%, with 23% of herbaceous pollens and SM of spores. By comparing the spores and pollens in the atmosphere with those in the marine sedments it was revealed that they were well correlated but the former influences distinctly to the distribution of the latter, thus making a high content of herbaceous pollens in the sporopollen distributions in the marine sediments nearshore area and high content of arboreal pollens in area far from the coast.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies on F1 Hybrids Between Hexaploid Aegilops and Triticum aestivum
Author: Li Hong-jie, Fang Ren, Guo Bei-hai, Wang Zi-ning, Pei Cui-juan and Cui Hai-rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    Morphologcal and cytological studies of hybrids between hexaploid Aegilops crassa Boiss. (2n = 6x = 42, DDD2 D2Mcr Mcr), Ae. vavilovii (Zhuk.) Chen. (2n = 6x = 42, DDMcr McrSp Sp) and Triticum aestivum L. (2n= 6x = 42, AABBDD) were carried out. The results showed that most of the F1 hybrids morphologically resembled their Aegilops parental species. Four Fl hybrids of Ae. vavilovii T. aestivum and one of Ae. crassa T. aestivum produced seeds containing few endosperms. The percentage of seed obtained ranged from 0.1% to 6.5 %. These seeds were not vigorous and only a few of them germinated. A large number of univalents appeared at meiosis MI. The frequencies of bivalents were lower than those being theoriticaly estimated. These results indicated that the D genomes in Ae. Crassa and Ae. vavilovii may have been substantially modified. Trivalents were observed in all Fl hybrids. Quadrivalents and pentavalents were also observed in some PMCs during meiosis. The chiasmata frequencies in hybrids using Aegilops species as maternal parents were higher than those in their reciprocal ones. Chromosome segrigations were abnormal at A and A . Polyads and micronuclei appeared frequently at telophase tetrad stage. A plant with 21 chromosomes was obtained in Ae. vavilovii Jimai 30, although the reason was not yet clear.
Abstract (Browse 1856)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship Between the Change of Calmodulin Content and Ethylene Biosynthesis of Carnation Flower During Its Senescence
Author: Tang Fu-qiang, Wu You-mei, Liu Yu and Liang Hou-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    The relationship between the change of calmodulin content and the ethylene hiosynthesis in cut carnation flower (Dianthus caryophyllus sun besm ) during its senescence was studied. Ethylene releasing was detected at the forth day and reached its peak at the sixth day after the cut carnation flower was cultured under controlled conditions of 27 with a 14 h photoperiod of 15000 lx provided by fluorescent lamps. The change of calmodulin content positively correlated with the increased' content of ACC, the activity of ACC synthase and ethylene production. The calmodulin contents in petals of the detached flower treated with GA, silver thiosulfate (STS) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) were lower than those in control flower petals before they withered, ethylene releasing was reduced and their senescence was delayed too. Ca2+ stimulated ethylene releasing in carnation flower petals, but chlorobenzene (CPZ), an antagonist of calmodulin, inhibited its releasing. It seemed that calmodulin was involved in the regulation of senescence of carnation flower.
Abstract (Browse 1977)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphatase Activity and Partial Properties in Rice Leaves
Author: Guo Zhen-fei, Xu Chang-jie, Lu Shao-yun and Li Ming-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) specific phosphatase was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) leaves. Its Km (PEP) was 0. 42 mmol/L. The partially purified PEP phosphatase showed a narrow pH profile and had an optimum pH of 8.7. It was relatively stable at the pH ranging from 6.2 to 9.5 and at temperature below 40. Pi showed no effect on the enzyme activity at low concentrations, but slight inhibitory effect at the concentrations above 5 mmol/L. The enzyme activity was activated by Mgz+ and inhibited by CaCl2, CoCl2, CuSO4, FeSO4 and ZnSO4.
Abstract (Browse 1697)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Activity in Leaves of Soybean Bragg and Its Nodulated Mutants
Author: Li Zhi zheng and Gong Song-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    The extracts from leaves of nodulated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. ) cv. Bragg and its nodulated mutants i. e. non-nodulated Nod 49, supernodulated nts 382 and nts 246 contained inhibitors of activities iNR, c1NR and c2NR in vitro. Both white light illumination of 300 E m-2 s-1 and inoculation with strain USDAll0 were essential conditions for ac- cumulating these inhibitors in leaves. Comparing inhibiting activities of the extracts from different varieties indicated that Nod 49 extract showed stronger inhibition than Bragg extract did, but nts 382 extract had only weakest inhibitory effect. The inoculated Bragg root extract possessed the same inhibitory activity as its leaf extract. The inoculated nts 382 root extract, like its leaf extract, showed only a little inhibitory activity. However inoculated Nod 49 root extract lead to an inhibition of leaf c2NR activity, which was different from its leaf extract that inhibited three kinds of NR activities. The above results suggested that both leaf and root extracts contained common inhibitory factor which was accumulated after inoculation.
Abstract (Browse 1848)  |  Full Text PDF       
Research on the Application and Mechanism of Stomatic Resistance Assessment in Monitoring Air TSP Pollution
Author: Jiang Gao-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    The stomatic resistance of 9 woody species in different functional areas of Chengde City, North China, was measured with an automatic porometer and the effect of total suspensible particles (TSP) on the plugging of stomata was observed under SEM. It was found that plants in the heavy traffic area and the residential area had relatively higher stomatic resistance, with a mean value (averaged from the upper and lower epidermis) of 10. 55.1 s cm-1. The stomatic resistance of the heavy traffic area was twice as much as that of the relativey clean area, even 8 times more in some species. The great difference, as much as 25 times more, was also found between the upper and lower epidermis even in the same species. In some species such as Fraxinus americana, the stomatic resistance of the upper epidermis was so high that it was beyond the limit of measurement. There was a very good correlation between the stomatic resistance of the lower epidermis and the air TSP, especially in F. americana and Salix matsudana, with r=0. 9968 (<0. 001) and 0. 9951 (<0. 001) respectively. Such relation was very poor for the upper epidermis. Stomata plugging with TSP was studied under SEM. It was noticed that small particles (<5 m) could enter the stomta to cause plugging and large particles (>30 m) could plug the stomata by covering the whole orifices, both of which cause stomatic resistance. The findings indicate the main mechanism of monitoring air TSP pollution by stomatal resistance measurement.
Abstract (Browse 1954)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Analysis of Nodule-Like Tissue on Rice Roots Collected from Wenzhou District of Zhejiang Province
Author: Shan Xue-qin and Jing Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    Structural analysis of nodule-like tissues on rice roots collected from Wenzhou District of Zhejiang Province were conducted by using LM, SEM and TEM, and compared with that of nodules on leguminous plants. The observation showed the followings: During the stage of young rice shoots the bacteria were distributed in either dispersed or aggregated form in a few of the host cells of the nodule-like tissue, but the host cells showed their defence reaction to the bacteria, resulting in cytoplasmic agglutination and fibrillation, from which the fine structure of cytoplasm became undistinguishable, indicating the death of infected cells; during the booting or earing stage of rice, the surfaces of the nodule-like tissues were dark-brown with phellem matrial. In the exo-cortex there were no vascular tissue. In the endo-cortex the parenchyma cells were expanded and no bacteria were observed. In some of the nodule-like tissues the exo-and endo-cortical cells were basically lignified. It was clearly shown that there were gear wheel-like structures especially existing in the endo-cortical cells. Under the observations by LM, SEM, these structures were identified as coral-like balls of fibre-like material. In fact, they are spores of a kind of fungi with hyphae. Therefore, the nodule-like tissues on rice roots collected from Wenzhou District of Zhejiang Province are completely different from the genuine nodules on leguminous roots. In fact, they are calluses infected by bacteria and fungi.
Abstract (Browse 1737)  |  Full Text PDF       
Culture of Cotyledon and Hypocotyl Protoplasts from True Potato Seedlings in Solanum tuberosum L.
Author: Dai Chao-xi and Sun Shun-di
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    Culture of protoplast using cotyledon and hypocotyl as the donor tissue from true potato seedlings (TPSs) of 3 breeding lines (DTO-33, ND 860-2 and BN 9815-3) of Solanum tuberosum L. was studied. The cotyledons and hypocotyls of TPSs just extended were excised and digested in an enzyme solution containing 1 % cellulase and 0. 5 % macerozyme for 1720 h after vacuum infiltration of the tissue in the solution. The protoplasts were cultured in an improved liquid medium and transferred onto solid media for callus culture and shoot regeneration. Some factors affecting the efficiency of cotyledon and hypocotyl protoplast culture were studied. The results showed that using the cotyledons and hypocotyls as donor tissues for protoplast isolation and culture in potato, the division frequency of protoplast derived cells was significantly higher than that using the leaves and shoot-tips of the test-tube plantlets: the yield and quality of the protoplast from TPSs cultured under continuous high light intensity (3000 Ix) were much higher than the TPSs cultured under low light intensity (1000 Ix), and no intact protoplast was ever obtained from the TPSs cultured in continuous dark condition. Vacuum infiltration of the cotyledon and hypocotyl segments in enzyme solution before digestion increased protoplast yield. The yield of protoplasts from hypocotyl tissue was significantly higher than from the cotyledon, but there was no significant difference in quality between the protoplast derived from the two tissues. The significance, advantages and shortcomings of using the cotyledons and hypocotyls as the donor tissues for isolation and culture of potato protoplasts are dicussed.
Abstract (Browse 2083)  |  Full Text PDF       
RFLP Analysis of Phytochrome Gene (phyA) of Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male-Sterile Rice NK58S and Control NK58
Author: Liang Cheng-zhi, Tong Zhe, Song Wen-yuan and Zhu Li-huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    DNAs of NK58S and NK58 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) were digested with Eco R, Dra , Hind , Xba , Msp or Hpa and probed with a cDNA clone of IR36 (O. sativa L. ssp. indica) phyA gene. Polymorphism was found only when the DNAs were digested with Hpa . Msp and Hpa are isoschizomers whose recognition sites are CCGG. They are sensitive differently to the methylation of the second C, i.e. CpG in the recognition site. The experimental results indicated that the methylation level of CpGs in phyA gene of NK58S was lower than that of NK58. The possible function of the demethylation of NK58S phyA gene was discussed. DNA fragments in the upstream region from the transcription starting site of phyA gene were obtained by PCR amplification from IR36, NK58 and NK58S. The PCR product of NK58S (PCR2) was one bp longer than that of IR36 (PCR1), moreover, 8 nucleotides were different between PCR2 and PCR1. RFLP analysis with PCR1 as a probe showed that there was variation between the 5-flanking region of phyA gene of NK58S and that of IR36. According to the sequences of PCR2 and IR36 phyA gene, this variation might be caused by insertion or deletion.
Abstract (Browse 1898)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of Trisomic Series of Millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.)
Author: Wang Run-qi, Gao Jun-hua, Wang Zhi-xing and Wang Zhi-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    The young-ears of Yugu No. 1, a millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. ) variety of good quality, high yielding and stress-resistance, were chosen to induce callus on N6 medium. After 35 times of subcultures, the callus was treated with colchicine (0.02%) for 48 hours and then transferred hack to subculture medium to restore growth, after which the callus was transferred to differentiation medium and subsequently, tetraploid plants were obtained. Through crossing, using tetraploid plants as female parent and diploid plant as male parent, 5 triploid plants were found among 2100 offspring plants. The triploid plants were fertilized with pollens from diploid plants. Among the plants developed from the seeds harvested on triploid plants, 9 kinds of trisomics (totally 283 plants) were identified according to chromosomal number and morphologic feature. Each kind of the trisomics has specific marker feature: (Figures in parentheses represent the number of plants obtained) Triplo-1 (52) has rolling leaves, Triplo-2 (18) is dark green, Triplo-3 (43) is bushy and has degenerated spikelets at the tip of panicles: Triplo-4 (58) has long bristle: Triplo-5 (16) has slender stalks: Triplo-6 (36) has twisted panicle neck; Triplo-7 (44) is semi-erect; Triplo-8 (8) has thick panicles; Triplo-9 (8) is pseudonormal (Similar with diploid of Yugu No. 1).
Abstract (Browse 1689)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transformation of Brassica napus Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Regeneration of Transgenic Plants
Author: Cheng Zhen dong, Wei Zhi ming and Xu Zhi hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(9)
      
    Seeds of Brassica napus L. cv. "Yunbei 2" were surface-sterilized and germinated on hormone-free MS medium. After 45 days the cotyledons were excised in such a way that each has a 12 mm petiole was remained at its base. These cotyledons were used as the explants for tissue culture and genetic transformation. This paper first deals with the improvement of the medium for shoot regeneration. Of the elements tested, AgNO3 and carbenicillin enhanced shoot regeneration. The highest frequency (52 %) was obtained on MS medium containing 4.5 mg/L BAP, 20 mol/L AgNOa and 500 mg/L earbenicillin. An efficient gene transfer system based on the regeneration procedure was established. After 2 days of cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A208SE (pTi T37-SE, pROA93), the explants were transferred onto selection medium containing 25 mg/L kanamycin. After 1.5 months shoots emerged from 27% of the explants inoculated. They were excised and transferred onto rooting medium containing 25 mg/L kanamycin and 200 mg/L cefotaxime which is better than carbenicillin for root induction. Whole plants were transplanted into pots, and grew well in the phytotron. Transformation was confirmed by -glueuronidase assay and Southern blotting analysis.
Abstract (Browse 2007)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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