December 1994, Volume 36 Issue Suppl.


          Research Articles
Cloning of Tomato Polygalacturonase cDNA and Transforming Plants with Antisense RNA
Author: Dang Wei, L邦 Wan-ge, Cao Xiao-feng, Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    RNA was isolated from pericarp of ripe tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. ) fruit and purified. The first strand of cDNA using oligo (dT) as primer was synthesized and a 1.5 kb DNA fragment was obtained by PCR technique. The restriction map of the DNA fragment was analyzed and its whole nucleic acid sequence was determined after it was cloned into pBluescript. The results show that the entire cDNA encoding polygalacturonase has been cloned. The DNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence reported here were compared with that published abroad and found 99. 3% and 98. 7% homologous respectively. The gene was inserted into binary vector in reverse orientation and transformed first into agrobacterium then tomato cotyledons. Now authors have obtained transgenic plants.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       
Autoradiographic Study on the Transport Pathway of Storage Protein of Soybean Within Cotyledon Cells
Author: Xu Shou-min, Hao Shui and He Meng-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. ) cotyledons of 40 days after flowering were labeled and traced with aH-leucine, and examined by the technique of electron microscopic autoradiography (EMARG). The results showed that the transport pathway of 3H-leucine in cotyledon cells is cell gap-cell wall-cytoplasm. After the aH-leucine went into cytoplasm, it was distributed more into endoplasmic reticulam, plastids, vacuoles and edge of protein bodies near cell wall. As the tracing time extended, most of the silver grains went into vacuoles and developing protein bodies. Few silver grains were found in Golgi bodies. The analysis by liquid scintillation of the aH-leucine in isolated protein subunits showed that the radiostrength was increased as the labeling and tracing time extended. The possible transport pathway of storage protein in cotyledon cell was discussed according to the above results.
Abstract (Browse 1615)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Petrified Wood from Taiyuan Formation Xuzhou Coal Field Jiangsu Province
Author: Wang Shi-jun, Jiang Yao-fa and and Qin Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    A petrified wood was described in the floor sandstone of Coal No. 20 of Taiyuan Formation at Xinqiao Coal Mine, Xuzhou Coal Field, Jiangsu Province. Although the anatomical characters of the wood are close to those of Dadoxylon Endlicher, it is different from all the other pycnoxylic woods (include Dadoxylon Endlicher) described from Carboniferous and Permian in the world in possessing ray tracheids. So a new name Szeioxylon xuzhouense gen. et sp. nov. is suggested for this wood. It is named as a new genus Szeioxylon is in honor of Dr Sze Hsinehien, a famous paleobotanist for study of petrified woods in China.
Abstract (Browse 1823)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isozymes and Classification of Citrus Species in China
Author: Fang De-qiu, Zhang Wen-cai and Xiao Shun-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Leaf isozymes of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphoglucose mutase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and tetrazolium oxidase from 105 biotypes of Citrus, FortuneUa and Poncirus were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to demonstrate the phylogenetic relationship among the biotypes. The study on genetic control of seven enzyme systems was conducted based on the segregation of isozymic phenotypes in one self-crossing and two Fl populations. They were controlled by at least 14 loci which displayed polymorphism. Genotypic comparison among the biotypes showed that there were remarkable differences among the three genera, and each of them possessed its unique genes. The affinity between two biotypes could be inferred by comparing the differences of their isozymic genes. The results suggest that there is a close correlation between the number of homozygous loci and the evolution of citrus plants. Biotypes with a higher number of homozygous loci are primitive types, while those with a lower number of homozygous loci are of hybrid origin. Fuming trifoliate orange could be considered as a new species of Poncirus〞P. polyandra S. Q. Ding. It seems to be more reasonable to consider Ichang papeda as the third subgenus of Citrus, i. e. subgenus Ichang papeda. The small-fruited mandarins are primitive forms, and it is better to consider ※Daoxian wild mandarin§, ※Horse-nose mandarin§ or ※Goushigan mandarin§ as original species of mandarins originated in China, The origins of F. obovata, F. crassifolia, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1882)  |  Full Text PDF       
Change of Peroxidase Activity in Wheat Seedlings Induced by Magnetic field and ITS Response Under Dehydration Condition
Author: Xi Gang, Fu Zhi-dong and Jia Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    After wheat seeds were treated by magnetic field, the activity of peroxidase (POD) in embryos were increased during germination. Two more POD isoenzymes were found in treated seeds as compared with control. The activity of POD in roots and leaves differentiated from treatment seeds were still higher than that in the control. There was obvious difference of POD isoenzymes of leaves between the treatment and control. It implys that a posteffect the gene expression of POD isoenzymes induced by magnetic field was displayed. The high activity of POD in root and leaf pretreated by magnetic field still existed during the dehydration of seedlings. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed the same trend as that of POD. Thus. it is indicated that the function of defence enzymes in seedling was intensified due to the treatment of magnetic field.
Abstract (Browse 2066)  |  Full Text PDF       
Approach to Mechanism of Preserving Fresh for Cut Flowers
Author: Zhang Wei, Wu Ma-li, Cui Su-xia, Zhang Hui, Zheng Hai-jin, Chen Xin-yang, Yang Zhen-tu and Pan Hui-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Several cut flowers such as Gladiolus hybridus and so on were treated with the methods of preserving fresh, and the changes of its endogenous phytohormones were determined. The results showed that the effect of preserving fresh by using the method of inhibit ethylene production was not ideal. Otherwise, the senescence of medium-lived flowers such as Gladiolus hybridus, Rosa sertata, Rosa chinensis ect. and short-lived ones such as Epiphyllum oxypetalum, Nopalxochia ackerrnannii could be postponed by promoting the release of endogenous ethylene: delaying senescence of short-lived and medium-lived flowers such as Althaea rosea and Hemerocallis minor could be controlled by promoting water absorbtion. The results proved once again that the ability of endogenous ethylene production and the ratio of CTK/ABA was much higher in the long-lived flowers than in the short-lived ones.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Investigation on Emission and Transformation of Nitrous Oxide by Aseptic Soybean Plant
Author: Huang Guo-hong, Chen Guan-xiong, Shang Shu-hui, Wu Jie and Xu Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The leaves and cotyledons of aseptic soybean plants can emit and transform N2O under aerobic condition. But obvious differences of N2O emission rate were obsered under different nitrogen sources and light durations: The emission rate of N2O from nitrate-nitrogen culture was 15 % higher than that from ammonium-nitrogen and it was also three times higher in light for four hours than in light for eight hours. The results also showed that N20 can not be released from soybean leaves without acetylene during the incubation. If giving N2O to soybean leaves without acetylene, Authors found that little NzO released, infering that N20 was changed into another product in the leaves.
Abstract (Browse 1728)  |  Full Text PDF       
Injury of the MoFe Protein of Nitrogenase From Azotobacter Vinelandii By H2O2
Author: Zhao Yun-feng, Lin Yong-qi, Huang Ju-fu, Luo Ai-ling and Li Jia-ge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    After treating the MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii with H2O2, the Mo and Fe contents, C2H2-reduction activity, molecular extinction coefficient and 汐-helix of the treated protein were significantly decreased; and the polypeptides of the protein might be partially degraded. The damage of MoFe protein by H2O2 could be avoided by addition of peroxidase purified from A. vinelandii before the addition of H2O2. The results showed that the metal clusters and protein structure of MoFe protein could be remarkably damaged by H2O2 and peroxidase could protect nitrogenase against the damage by H2O2.
Abstract (Browse 1727)  |  Full Text PDF       
Loss of the Viability and Accumulation of the Chromosome Aberration in Ultradried Elm Seeds During Accelerated Aging
Author: Jing Xin-ming Zheng Guang-hua and Tao Jia-Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    A loss of seed viability in elm (Ulmus pumila L. ) was associated with an increase in frequency of anaphase cells in the surviving seeds, showing chromosome aberration. The condition of accelerated aging at 35⊥; the decrease of seed viability and accumulation of the chromosome aberration in ultradried seeds were effectively retarded, and therefore, its storability was greatly improved. However. according to statistical figures, for any given loss of germination rate, the vigor of ultradried seeds (UD) was lower than control seeds (CK), and the frequency of abnormal cells was higher than CK.
Abstract (Browse 1897)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on Fertility and Physiological Activities of Rice Annong S-1 and Hengnong S-1
Author: Chen Liang-bi, Zhou Guang-qia and Huang Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The changes in fertility and physiological activities of rice Annong S-1 and Hengnong S-1 were studied under different day length and temperature conditions. The results showed that, in long day or short day, the high temperature (31⊥/28⊥) induced male sterility of Annong S-1 and Hengnong S-1, the low temperature (24⊥/22⊥) induced them fertile. Under high temperature condition, ATP contents in their floscules and anthers were decreased obviously, the rates of respiration of the floscules and the anthers were declined gradually.
Abstract (Browse 1717)  |  Full Text PDF       
Bioproductivity of Various Tree and Shrub Plantations in the Loess Region, Northwestern Shanxi
Author: Wang Meng-ben
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The result showed that the biomass of five types of forest plantations, i.e. 22-aged Pinus tabulae formis. 24-aged Populus hopeiensis, 17-aged Robinia pseudoacacia, 5-aged P. simonii and 17-aged P. canadensis plantations, was 11. 812 t ﹞ ha -1, 16. 540 t ﹞ ha-1, 19. 765 t ﹞ ha-1 5. 831 t ﹞ ha -1 and 124. 882 t ﹞ ha-1 respectively, and their net primary productivity (NPP) was0.537t﹞ ha-1 ﹞ a -1, 0.689t﹞ ha-1 ﹞ a-1. 1.163t﹞ ha-1 ﹞ a-1, 1.166t﹞ ha-1 ﹞ a-1 and 7. 346 t ﹞ ha -1﹞ a-1 respectively; and that the biomass of 20-aged Caragana korshinskii plantation was 8. 241 t ﹞ ha-1 with its NPP of 0. 421 t ﹞ ha-1 ﹞ a-1. The generally lower productivity of various tree and shrub plantations in the region may result from less precipitation, lower field capacity and a serious lack of soil nutrients.
Abstract (Browse 1708)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Study on Photosynthetic Rate of Grass Populations
Author: Qi Qiu-hui and Sheng Xiu-wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The photosynthetic rate of four grass populations were measured under the natural condition. The results are as follows: The diurnal changes of the population photosynthesis of Bromus inermis, Agropyron cristatum, Elymus sibiricus belong to the noon descent form at the later of July fine day. It is correlated with lower relative humidity at noon. The photosynthetic rate in the morning is higher than in the afternoon. The diurnal changes of E. dahuricus population photosynthesis are single peak type without a reduction at noon. The diurnal net photosynthesis of B. inermis population (29.6 gCO2 ﹞ m-2 ﹞ d-1) is the highest among measureing grasses. It is closely correlated with more leaf area. Choosing the pasture with more leaf area and higher photosynthesis ability are effective ways for the rise production.
Abstract (Browse 1717)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observation on the Biological Characters of Pterygoneurum ovatum (Hedw.) Dix.
Author: Wu Peng-cheng and Wang Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, located at northwest China, is very harsh and dry. Its average annual precipitation is usually lower than 300 mm, and the average month temperature never reaches 15 ⊥. Due to the conditions of low temperature and humidity, the bryophytes become strongly to suffer the harsh environment, and their sporophytes rapidly grow in a very short period of time. The observation on Pterygoneurum ovatum (Hedw.) Dix. confirms that its morphology and biological characters with cuculate leaves and lamellae on the ventral surface of midrib make it strongly adapt to the environment condition.
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Purification of Megasporocarp and Microsporangium in Azolla
Author: Zhang Gui-jin and Li Zhuo-shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    A simple and efficient method was developed to isolate and purify megasporocarp and microsporangium from Azolla. After dry powder of sporocarp-yielded A. microphyUa was imbibed for 48 hours, filterations were conducted sequently through three nets of 40-mesh (朴 0.45 mm). 60-mesh (朴 0.30 mm) and 80-mesh (朴 0. 18 mm). so that magaporocarp or microsporangium were remained in the interception mixture on 60-mesh or 80-mesh net. Then the megasporocarp or microsporangium preparation Was spun in density gradient tube with 45% and 12% sucrose and water at 1000 r/min for 4 minutes in wing rotor, respectively. Finally. the megasporocarp floating in the upper layer of 12% sucrose or the microsporangium band between 45% and 12% sucrose layer were collected. With this method. 800㊣120 pure megasporocarps of 12000㊣ 1200 pure microsporangia were harvested from 15 g fresh Azolla.
Abstract (Browse 1779)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Endogenous Polyamines in Leaf and Floral Buds of Pear Trees During Growth and Dormancy
Author: Wei Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    It was found that five kinds of polyamines (putrescine, cadaverine, hexanediamme, spermidine and spermine) existed in the leaf and floral buds of pear trees during growth. But during dormancy, only three kinds of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) could be detected. It clearly indicated the differences in changes of polyamine contents be tween the leaf and floral buds of pear trees. It,seems that cadaverine and hexanediamine were closely connected with growth and dormancy of pear buds.
Abstract (Browse 1748)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Polyamines and Morphogenesis in Cotyledons of Cucumis melon L. Cultured in Vitro
Author: Tian Chang-en, Li Ren-gui and Guan He
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Cotyledons of Cucumis melon L. would be induced to form callus, adventitous roots and shoots on MS medum with different kinds of and ratios of exogeneous phytohormones. Content of polyamines was measured by means of TLC-fluorometry during different stages of morphogenesis in cultured cotyledons. Effects of D-arg and MGBG [methylgluoxadis (guganylhydrazone) ], which are the inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, on endogeneous polyamine and morphogenesis in cultured cotyledons were studied, respectively. The results showed that relationship between the polyamines are not related to callus formaton, but put (putrescine) and all 3 kinds of polyamine measured are related to adventitious root formation. These results indicate that different kinds and ratios of exogeneous phytohormones would change metabolism of the endogeneous polyamine, thus influence the morphogenesis in explant.
Abstract (Browse 1754)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Trehalose on Mg2+, K+-ATPase Activities and TTC Reduction in Frozen and Freeze-Dried Seedlings of Mung Bean
Author: Pei Yan, Deng Ru-fu, Wang Yu-ning and Xia Yu-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Mung Bean (Phaseolus aureus) seedlings treated with trehalose were frozen and freezedried. Mg2+, K+-ATPase activities from the purified protoplasmic membranes and the tetrazolium (TTC) reduction from the freeze-dried seedlings were investigated, The freeze-dried seedlings treated with trehalose showed higher enzyme activities than those of the control. As the concentration of trehalose increased, Mg2+, K+-ATPase activities and the TTC reduction were increased too. At 30 ⊥, the Mg2+, K+-ATPase activities in frozen seedlings were about twice higher than those of the control. The results indicated that trehalose is a good protectant for the frozen or freeze-dried plant materials.
Abstract (Browse 1625)  |  Full Text PDF       
High Frequency Callus Formation and Plant Regeneration from Leaf Protoplasts of Pepino (Solanum muricatum L.)
Author: Zhang Lan-ying, Chen Ru-zhu and Li Geng-guang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Protoplasts were isolated from young leaves of two cultivars of pepino, Solanum muricatum L., and cultured on SCM, LCM and M-K8p media for 1每2 d respectively. Protoplasts became enlarged and produced cell wall, then initial division was observed. Division rate of 85 % in LCM medium was calculated one week after culturing. The plate efficiency of small clone (PE) was higher than that of P i (47.9%) and P j (62.7%). Ability of shoot formation in calli derived from protoplast culture as well as genetypes of pepino; was different among that in dilution media. The best result in shoot formation (30. 1%) was obtained in regeneration medium supplemented with IAA 0. 1 mg/L, and ZT 2.0 mg/L. Shoots were transferred onto MS+ IAA 0. 2 mg/L to complete rooting following which the plantlets were successfully grown in soil.
Abstract (Browse 2046)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protective Effect of Exogenous Cholesterol on Rice Seedlings During Chilling Injury
Author: Guo Jin-quan, Yang Yun-zhu and Chen Wen-tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The ultrasturctural location of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) active reaction in leaflet cells of rice seedlings were conducted by cytochemical method of lead phosphates deposition. The changes of ATPase activity in cells and the protective effect against chilling injury of exogehous cholesterol on the ATPase activity in leaflet cells of seedlings were studied. The results showed: 1. The ATPase activity in leaflet cells of rice seedlings grown at 28 ⊥ was located at plasmolemma, plasmodesma, intercellular space, nuclear chromatin and chloroplastid lamella, but it was low at plasmolemma: 2. In the control, the ATPase activity at plasmolemma in leaflet cells incubated at 5 ⊥ was inactivated, and decreased in chromatin and intercellular space, wheras it remained higher at chloroplast. In the leaflet cells treated with cholesterol, the ATPase activity at blasmolemma, plasmodesma and chloroplast remained higher when they were incubated at 5 ⊥, and decreased in intercellular space and chromatin. 3. During 24每48 h of chilling injury, the ATPase activity in leaflet cells was almost inactivated at plasmolemma and chloroplastid lamella, and evidently decreased in chromatin and intercellular space in the control. There was not any change in the ATPase activity of the leaflet cells treated with cholesterol.
Abstract (Browse 1748)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Dynamics of C, H and N Elements for Bruguiera sexangula Mangrove Forest in Hainan Island, China
Author: Zheng Wen-jiao, Lin Peng and Xue Xiong-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The contents, pool amounts and yearly dynamics of C, H and N elements were studied in 55-year-old Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. mangrove forest in Dongzhai harbour of Hainan Island, China. The results showed that C, H and N contents in various fractions of B. sescangula were: C 46.82%每53.04%, H 4.61%每5.85% and N 0. 18%0-1.55%. The atom rato was C (1), H (1.16每1.36), N (0. 003每0. 028). In standing crop of the community, the pool amounts of C, Hand N were 20330.9g﹞ m- 2. 2139.7 g﹞m- 2 and 233.5 g﹞m- 2, respectively. The yearly dynamics of C, H and N for the community were: annual net fixing C1473.4 g﹞m-2, net binding H166.1 g﹞m- 2 and absorbing N 23.3 g﹞m-2. among which the annual retention was: C 786.6 g ﹞ m- 2, H83.8 g﹞m- 2. N 10.3 g﹞ m- 2 and the annual litter fall export was: C 686.8 g﹞ m- 2 H 82.3 g ﹞ m-2, N 13. 0 g﹞ m-2, The yearly net energy production was about 57622 k J﹞m- 2 and net O2 giving out was about 3929 g﹞m- 2.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of Species Diversity of the Forest Vegetation in Dongling Mountain, Beijing
Author: Huang Jian-hui and Chen Ling-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Through investigating the forest vegetation of the Dongling Mountain, Beijing, which is a region in warm temperate climate zone of China, the authors have caculated three diversity indices in the 20 plots belonging to several different plant communities, respectivey, and found that there are variations among different communities and the zonal vegetation community type has the highest diversity. This situation is also true in northern subtropical and southern subtropical zone. From warm temperate, northern subtropical, to southern subtropical zone, there is an evident tendency of gradual increase in species diversity. This is mainly because of the more solar energy, higher temperature, more precipitation and higher nutrient cycling rate in the lower latitudinal zone, though several other hypotheses proposed earlier may be partially applicable to our findings, from the point of view of community succession, the plant communities in a later stage of a succession series have higher diversity. The plant community tends to be more stable as the community diversity increases, at least to some extent, though thereare still many theoretical controversies on whether complexity and diversity will increase the ecosystem stability.
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Meiotic Behavious of F-1 and Fertility Restoration in Hybrid of Gossypium herbaceum℅ G. bickii
Author: Liang Zheng-lan, Jiang Ru-qin and Zhong Wen-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    By dropping GA3 (50 ppm) and NAA (40 ppm) on hybrid boll and embryo culture in vitro, The authors obtained two Fl plants of Gossypium herbaceum ℅ G. bickii in 1980. 19 charcters of Fl plants have been exmined, of which 8 characters were intermediate, 3 were superdominance, and other 8 characters of the wild parent were dominant. The F1 plant had two types of flowers. On the lower fruit-branches the flowers were very small (0. 5 cm in length) and did not bloom (cleistogamy), but on the middle and upper branches the flowers were very large (4.4 cm in length), pink in color with dark purple spots and kept blooming normally (chasmogame). The bract shape were lanceolate and out-spread. These traits were all like G. bickii. Two F1 plants were both male and female sterile. In meiosis of PMC, mean chromosome configuration was 17.77 i +3.85 j +0.77 k +0. 77 l. Mean number of chiasmta of per bivalents was 1.22. The irregular behavious, such as lagging chromosome, muhipolar distripution of chromosome and chromosome clump etc. were observed in MI and A i. At M j, authors had found 5 spindles forming in one cell simultaneously, and 2 of them were formed from a single chromosome. After 11 years survival, one F1 plant sets five bolls containing 17 normal seeds in the green house of 1992. This fact showed that fertility of this Fl plant was restored in certain degree. These seeds were proved of glandless after examining. It was noteworthy that the traits of glanded plant and glandless-seed of G. bickii was transfered into the hybrid.
Abstract (Browse 1842)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New High玨Potent Pollen Donor in Wheat Intergeneric Crosses--Tripsacum dactyloides
Author: Li Da-wei, Qiu Ji-wen, Ouyang Ping, Yao Qing-xiao and Guo Li-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Frequencies of embryo formation in crosses of wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x= 42) with Hordeum bulbosum (2n = 4x = 28), Zea mays (2n = 2x = 20) and Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 4x = 72) were compared. The results showed that Tripsacum dactyloides was the same elatively insentive to the action of dominant alleles at the Kr loci as maize. Frequency of embryo formation was higher when crossed with Tripsacum dactyloides than that of maize as male parent. In addition, Tripsacurn dactyloides also were able to offer pollen conveniently as the same as Hordeum bulbosum did. Therefore, It is suggested that Tripsacum dectyloides has great potentiality as a pollen donor in wheat intergeneric corsses.
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ploidy on Anther Plantlets of
Author: Cao Zi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Anthers of grape cultivar ※Pobeda§ (Vitis vinefera) were inoculated on the same medium for induction and differentiation and cultured in the same conditions, and embryogenic calli from anthers were induced, then regenerated plantlets were obtained. Finally they survived through transplanting. The frequency of induction and differentiation, however, had some changes in different ecogeographic conditions and gathered times of anthers, All of regenerated plantlets were diploid by identification chromosomes in root tip cells. Author did not find any typical polycetl of poly-nucleus pollens determined during culture. It showed that all induced plantlets from anthers in these ecogeographic conditions come from anther sometic cells and not from pollen. Anther culture of cultivar ※Pobeda§ could not obtained regenerated haploid plantlets through testing in given regions for many years.
Abstract (Browse 2013)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Vigor of Carrot Somatic Embryos Enhanced by Desiccation
Author: Huang Shao-xing, Huang Mei-juan, Sodmergen and Zhu Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Effects of desiccation and different storage period on the vigor of somatic embryos of carrot were studied. After quiescence carrot somatic embryos obtained by 5 % sucrose treatment were dried to 17 % moisture and stored for 4 months in the dry state at room temperature, approximately 67% of the dried embryos converted into plants, whereas the control embryos dehydrated naturally, which had not been stored did not survive. After quiescence embryos with various dry degree were stored at room temperature, viable tests showed that suitable dehydration influenced the vigor of somatic embryos and slow drying could improve adversity-resistance of somatic embryos much more than rapid drying did. The result of this study provided an exploratory pathway for solving problems with storage and transportation of artificial seeds.
Abstract (Browse 1681)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on Esterase Isozymes of Some Species of Fritillaria
Author: Cheng Lin, Zhang Yao-jia, Ge Rui chang and An Wang-shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis was adopted to test esterase isozymes of 8 species of Fritillaria. Their bulbs were collected from 19 populations in Gansu province. It is shown that there are 28 bands observed which can be divided into four zones: A, B, C and D. All taxa have A2, A7 and C22 bands in the zymograms, but they are different to some extent in the number of isozyme bands, migration rate of enzymes and their chromatogram scanning. The esteraase isozymograms can generally be repeated, and as a biochemical index are stable of taxonomic importance in Fritillaria. Based on the dissimilarity of isozymograms﹜ between F. taipaiensis var. zhouguensis and F. taipaiensis the authors suggest that F. taiensis var. zhouquensis is raised to the rank of species.
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Diurnal Change and Midday Depression of Photosynthetic Rate in Chinese Cabbage Leaves Under Field Conditions
Author: Zhang Zhen-xian, Liang Shu-hua and Chen Li-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    In early heading stage of Chinese cabbage, diurnal change and midday depression of photosynthetic rate (Pn) were in investigated with cultivar ※Lubai No. 3§ under field conditions. The results showed that diurnal change of Pn was double-peak curve, two peak at 10: 30每11:00 A. M. and 14: 00每14:30 P.M. respectively. There was a midday depression at 13: 00 P. M., and stomatal limitation was one of the most importance factors causing midday depression. Light intensity and CO2 concentration had an effect on midday depression too. No midday depression appeared under lower light intensity and higher CO2 concentration. Besides, vapour pressure deficiency, relative humidity, and leaf temperature had an effect on midday depression of photosynthetic rate to a certain extent.
Abstract (Browse 1825)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preparation and Reconstitution of the Severely Metalloclusters-Deficient MoFe Protein of Nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii
Author: Wang Zhi-ping, Huang Ju-fu, Luo Ai-ling, Zhong Ze-pu and Li Jia-ge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    By anaerobical incubation of the Azotobacter vinelandii MoFe protein with O-phenan-throline (O-phen) urea could remarkably enhance the number of Fe atoms chelated from the protein. When excessive Na2S204 was. added, the Fe atoms chelated by O-phen from the MoFe protein increased rapidly. After Sephadex G-25 column chromatography, the metallo-clusters-deficient MoFe protein which lost 85 % of the C2H2 reduction activity was obtained. However, the recovery of protein could be reached over 60 %. After reconstitution with a reconstituent solution containing Mo, the ultraviolet and visible CD spectra, and profile of the native anaerobic gel electrophoresis, and C2H2-reduction activity of the protein were signify cantly restored. The results indicated that: (1) Under anaerobic condition, urea could not only result in the chelation by O-phen of Fe atoms from P-cluster, but also the chelation of Fe atoms from FeMoco in the protein. (2) The valence of Fe atoms in MoFe protein might not be all the same. (3) The structure and function of the severely metalloclusters-deficient MoFe protein could be partially restored by reconstitution with the Mo-containing reconstituent solution.
Abstract (Browse 1754)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction of Hairy Root from Artemisia annua with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Its Culture in Vitro
Author: Qin Ming-bo, Li Guo-zhen, Yun Yue, Ye He-chun and Li Guo-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Genetic transformation of Artemisia annua L. with Agrobacteriurn rhizogenes is reported. The strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes used were: 1. Strain R1000, which harboured the Ri plasmid pRiA4b. 2. Strain R1500, which carried pRiA4b containing a chimaeric neomycin phosph0transferase j (NPT-j ) gene inserted in the Hind k fragment 21 of the TL-DNA. 3. Strain R1601, which was similar to the strain R1500 but into which has been cojugated cosmid pTVK291 containing the part of the vir region from supervirulent Ti plasmid pTiBo542. Hairy roots produced from Artemisia annua transformed with all three strains individually. Transformation frequencies of up to 100% were obtained with the strain R1601, which was higher than with the others. The culture system in vitro of the hairy root transformed by the strain R1601 was established. Results of Southern analysis indicated that all the TL-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes was transferred into the hairy root cells of Artemisia annua. Agropine and mannopine were detected in the extracts of the freshly isolated hairy roots, but not in those which have been cultured for a prolonged time. Cultured hairy roots expressed NPT-j enzyme activity which was correlated with the presence of the Ri plasmid TL-DNA and the structural sequence of the NPT- H gene.
Abstract (Browse 2489)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biochemical Evidence of Homoeology Between Wheat and Wheatgrass Chromosomes in Set j Wheat Wheatgrass Alien addition Lines
Author: Gao Ming-jun, Bu Xiu-ling, He Meng-yuan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Peroxidase (PER), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), esterase (EST), alcohol dehydro-genase (ADH), acid (ACPH) and alkline (PHE) phosphatase zymogram phenotypes were analysed in Set j wheat-wheatgrass alien addition lines and their parents. A number of isozyme structural genes have been located onto the individual wheatgrass chromosomes in different addition lines, e.g., genes perl-agil and mdh-agi2 in line TAI-21, est-agi3 in TAI-22, est-agil in TAI-23. est-agi4 in TAI-24, and genes adhl-agil, acph-agi2 and phe-agil in TAI-27, respectively. These results, combined with certain morphological characters of the plants, suggest that the alien addition lines TAI-21, TAI-22, TAI-23, TAI-24, TAI-25, TAI-26 and TAI-27 carry the wheatgrass chromosomes which are, to a certain extent, homoeologous to the wheat chromosomes belonging to homoeologous groups 1, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5 aud 4 respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1729)  |  Full Text PDF       
Growth and Morphological Structure of Trapa acornis Seedlings
Author: Yan Su-zhen, Xu Xiang-sheng, Chang Fu-chen and Du Kai-he
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Mature seeds of Trapa acornis Nakai with low temperature treatment were preserved in water and would be used for germination next year. Samples of different seedling stages were photographed and collected, and prepared for observation. Anatomical study shows that the seed contains no endosperm. The two cotyledons are typically unequal in size, one of which is greatly larger than that of the other one. Anatomical structure of radicle is quite simple, while that of hypocotyl well developed. The abortion of main root makes the well-developed adventitious roots in substituting its function. The shape of seedling leaves is of four types, namely: linear, ribbon-shaped, elliptical and rhomboidal; they appear in a successive sequence. Aerenchyma is developed in all of its vegetative organs. Development of phloem is normal but that of xylem is very weak. Nutritive substances for seed germination are provided by the large cotyledon while the foliage leaves of the seedling take the second part.
Abstract (Browse 1841)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study on Cell Dedifferentiation in Safflower Tissue Culture
Author: Hou Zhan-ming and Han Bi-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The ultrastructural research of cell dedifferentiation in callus of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. ) revealed that active cell metablism occured when the cell dedifferentiation took place and stored lipid was used up during the early period of induction. Accompanied the dedifferentiation of vacuolate cells, the chloroplasts also went through a process of dedifferentiation. Their lamellar membrane swelled and degenerated. Meanwhile, the chloroplasts divided or budded anc1 finally became proplastids. The transfer of callus into the differentiation medium resulted in the redifferentiation of chloroplasts. The vesicles between cell wall and plasmalemma which were called paramural body were observed when the cell dedifferentiation and callus formation. The probable function of paramural body and the cause of chloroplast dedifferentiation have been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1949)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Anatomy and Desert Adaptability of Stem Secondary Xylem in 6 Species of Calligonum
Author: Ma Rui-jun, Wu Shu-ming and Wang Feng-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The structure of secondary xylem of 6 species of Calligonum, grow in desert region of Gansu. China. was studied. There were wide and narrow two kinds of vessels, which were densely aggregated into clusters with a high molti-pore rate and short vessel elements of small average diameter. All species had exclusively simple perforation in oblique and horizontal end walls. Vessels had spiral thickenings and intervessel vestured pits, and inner aperture extended outwards forming many irregular bluges. Among them those of C. arborescens were the most outstanding and except C. klemertzii, the rest species had more or less tylosis in the 5-year-old stem. There were short libriform fibres. A portion of the fibres had glutinous substance composed of polysaccharides. Rays were low, homogeneous, and of multiseriate and uniseriate. Ray cells and axial parenchyma were riehed in glutinous substance. In addition, there were also interspecies differences in the amount of pit vesture, crystals, the presence or, absence of vessols with tylosis, ray height and quantity of the fibres with glutinous substance.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structures of Secondary Xylem in Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel and Its Adaption to Enviroments
Author: Liu Hong-qi, Lin Jin-xing and Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Structures of secondary xylem of wild and cultivated Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel have been observed under light microscope, polarized microscope and scanning electron microscope. The growth rings of the trunk and branches exhibit an eccentric growth, while the distinction between sap- and heart-wood is relatively obvious. Spiral checks and trabeculae are present in tracheids. The intercellular spaces among tracheids are distinct. Ray-tra-cheids are located at the margin of the rays, some low rays consist only of ray-tracheids. Rays are uniseriate and fusiform, within the latter the transverse resin ducts present. The number of the longitudinal resin ducts shows a negative correlation with the width of the growth rings. The pits in the cross-field are window-like. The dwarf Pinus pumila shows some characteristics of the compression wood.
Abstract (Browse 1885)  |  Full Text PDF       
Correlation Between Ultrastructural Changes of Mesophyll Cell and Lipid Peroxidation Damage in Maize Leaves During Water Stress
Author: Tang Lian-shun and Li Guang-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The effect on the ultrasturcture of mesophyll cells and correlation among the ultrastructural changes, protective enzyme activities, destraction of membrane peroxidation was studied with the leaves of hybrid maize (Zea mays L. ) during water stress induced by hypertonic solution (PEG, 1500). During initial period of water stress, the ultrastructural changes of mesophyll cells were unremarkable, SOD and catalase (CAT) activities increased obviously. The permeability of plasma membrane and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased slowly with the extension of water stress, ultrastructural injury of mesophyll cells was serious, and the sensitivity of organelles to water stress was much different, SOD and CAT activities decreased, the permeability of plasma membrane and MDA content increased rapidly. Moreover, the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells. SOD and CAT activities, the permeability of plasma membrane and MDA content could be partly recovered after rewatering. There were great differences between maize hybrid and it*s parental inbred lines during water stress and rewatering.
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Peroxidase and Esterase Activities in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. During Breaking Dormancy at Low Temperature
Author: Gao Wen-yuan, Li Zhi-liang and Xiao-Pei gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    By means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and other techniques, changes of peroxidase and esterase were studied in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. during breaking dormancy at low temperature. The results showed that the activities of peroxidase and esterase of the bud Were changed considerably after low temperature treatment for 40 days. It is suggested that the change of physiological state of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. took place after treated with low temperature for 40 days.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on the Ultrastructure of the Developing Aleurone and Sub-Aleurone Cells in Coix lacryma-jobi
Author: Gao Rong-qi and Xi Xiang-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    The differentiation of aleurone cells of Coix lacryma-jobi' began at 10 days after pollina tion (DAP). At this time many lipid bodies were formed in the cellls. By 15 DAP. the granular or flocculent proteins were accumulated in the vacuoles of the aleurone cells. By 20 DAP, the small vacuoles filled with protein deposits became the aleurone grains. The mature aleurone cells were characterized by a large number of lipid bodies and aleurone grains. In the cytoplasm the'organelies Were'not present. but ribosomes, Some aleurone grains had one or several spherical bodies in the protein matrix and some had one electro-dense body. Starch grains and lipid bodies produced in the sub-aleurone cells at 10-15 DAP. A great number of protein bodies fromed but lipid bodies disappeared at 15-20 DAP. The protein bodies arose from the vesicles or intracisternal dilations of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and had a central core and concentric rings. Some of them also possessed radiative fissures.
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Salt Stress on Membrane System in Radicle Cells of Barley
Author: Yan Xian-xi, Zhao Tan-fang, Ye Bao-xing, Hu Yan-ji and Zhang Ji-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    During the imbibition of barley (Hordeum vulgate L. ) seeds, the effect of salt stress on the ultrastructure of radicle cells was investigated. At 12 h after barley seeds in distilled water, the cytoplasmic membrane of radicle cells was apparent, the plastid membranes were continuous, and the mitochondria had bilayer membranes and internal cristae. However, at 12 h after seeds in 2 % NaCl solution, the cytoplasmic membranes in the radicle cells were unclear, the plastid membranes were not continuous, and mitochondria bad no bilayer membranes and cristae. The membrane system in the radicle cells developed very well at 72 h after seeds in distilled water. At 72 h after the seeds in 2% NaCl solution, the radicle cells became round in shape and the inter-cellular spaces enlarged. Many small vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm. The plastids greatly increased in size and contained many osmiophilic droplets and few lamellae. The bilayer membrane and cristae of mitochondria were still not distinguished. The cytoplasmic membrane seemed still not to be recognizable and in some regions the plasmclysis occurred. These results showed that the salt stress resulted in the difficulty of the membrane system restoration and organelie reconstruction in the radicle cells. It is possible that the ion toxicity may affect the inhibition of the membrane system restoration.
Abstract (Browse 1753)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphogenesis of Juice Sac in Citrus reticulata var. unshiu
Author: Guan Xue-lian, Zhu Cheng and Zhang Jin-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Studies on the origin and the whole developmental stages of juice sac of Citrus reticulata var. unshiu (Marcoritch) Hu indicate that the juice sac originates from a single cell of the carpellary inner epidermis. After anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the initial cell, the juice sac primodium forms a multicellular globular structure. With the development of citrus fruit, the globular structure developes into a columnar structure, in which tissue differentiation takes place simultaneously. At the center of the column apex, a meristem-like cell cluster differentiates. The meristem-like cells are polygonal, each cell has a big nucleus in the center surrounded by dense cytoplasm. The other part of the column consists of parenchyme cells. The column then expands and widens as a result of the division and growth of meristem-like cells. After three months of the fruit development, the columnar structure has grown into an expanding sac, espcially by the expansion of parenchyma cells filled with juice in the vacuoles. The mature juice sac is a swollen sac with a slender stalk and a sac wall lined with layers of tightly arranged cells. The mature juice sac stores an abundant amount of water, sugar, organic acid. pigments, etc. in the parenchyma.
Abstract (Browse 2028)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Light Intensity on Microstructure and Ultrastructure of Panax ginseng Leaves Under Field Condition
Author: Xu Ke-zhang, Zhang Zhi-an, Wang Ying-dian, Ren Yue-ying, Chen Xing, Qiao Ren-tang and Cui Qiu-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Microstructure and ultrastructure of Panax ginseng leaves grown under four light transmission rate (LTR) shades were investigated. The results showed that, specific leaf weight, leaf thickness, number of mesophyll cells per unit leaf area and surface area of mesophyll cell and cell layers were increased as the increase of light intensity in the leaves grown under 5%. 20% and 35% LTR shades. The leaves grown under 50% LTR shade were decreased. Under 5% and 20% LTR shade, mesophyll cells were loose arranged in horizontal. Under 35 % LTR shade mesophyll cells were compact and palisade-like cells appeared adjacent to up epidermis in the leaves. Under 50% LTR shade, bigger round-like mesophyll cells formed and arranged irregularly. The leaves under 5 0% LTR shade, had larger chloroplasts with the most development of grana lamella. As the increase of light intensity, granum and strom lamella were relatively decreased and increased respectively, and more and bigger plastoglobulis and starch grains also formed in chloroplasts. By the analyses of microstructure and ultrastructure of the cell in the ginseng leaves grown under four LTR shades. The authors that 35 % LTR shade was optimal light condition for ginseng growth.
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemosystematic Notes of Genus Stephania (Menispermaceae) in China
Author: Yang He-ming and Chen Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    According to the study of isoquinoline alkaloids in Stephania (Menispermaceae) and phytotaxonomy as well as pharmacognosy, the distribution pattern and relativity of alkaloids of this specific category in the genus were approached. The results showed as follows: The main constituents of Stephania are isoquinoline alkaloids. A correlativity between the chemi- cai patterns and plant evolution was found. The structural types and kinds of alkaloid are few in primitive sections and developed greatly in evolution sections. In the subgenus, some alkaloids with special structural types and constituents distributed narrowly in plant, play an important role in the sections of classification.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening
Author: Song Yan-ru and Xie An-yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1994 36(Suppl.)
    Considerable progress in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening has been made over the past ten years. Under certain circumstances it has been a goal to prevent or delay fruit ripening in a reversible manner. Especially antisense genes expressed in transgenic plants have proved to be highly effective for inhibiting the specific expression of ripening-related genes. With elucidation of ethylene-mediated signal transduction pathway, it may prove to be of great value in regulation of fruit ripening by controlling this pathway.
Abstract (Browse 1701)  |  Full Text PDF       
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