January 1995, Volume 37 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Transpiration in Aneurolepidium chinense of Different Soil Types
Author: Du Zhan-chi and Yang Zong-gui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    The most striking difference in the characteristics of photosythesis and transpiration in Aneurolepidium chinense of different soil types was declined ratio of photosynthetic rate at light saturation point and maximum transpiration rate when the sufficient soil moisture became deficit. The declined range of photosynthesis in A. chinense of typical chestnut soil type was smaller than that of dark chestnut soil type and saline meadow soil type, but its declined range of transpiration was larger than that of the other two soil types. Therefore, using efficiency of solar energy and water of A. chinense of typical chestnut soil type was all higher at soil drought condition and adapitability itself to drought was stronger. These differences indicated that different edaphic ecotype of A. chinense can exist in natural condition.
Abstract (Browse 1721)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on the Population of Cathaya argyrophylla in Bamianshan Mountain
Author: Xie Zong-qiang,Chen Wei-lie, Jiang Ming-xi, Huang Han-dong and Zhu Ri-guang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    Cathaya argyrophylla Chun et Kuang is a China endemic and endangered evergreen conifer, listed in the Red Data Book of plant in China, with less than 5000 individuals remaining on earth. The age structure of C. argyrophylla population in Bamianshan Mountain showed its stability, but was different among metapopulations, especially in the aged Cathaya forests there often appeared a lack of generation continuety. Though the aboveground biomass of the population varied from 30000 kg ﹞ ha-1 to 110000 kg ﹞ ha-1 with different metapopulations, the increment of the biomass had no significant difference among metapopulations but could basically reflect the productivity of this population in that area. Its distribution patterns were mainly contagious, even when the shrub cover was very high and random in young Cathaya stands.
Abstract (Browse 2026)  |  Full Text PDF       
Periodicity of Cambial Activity and Changes of Starch Content in Broussonetia papyrifera
Author: Cui Ke-ming, Wei Ling-bo, Li Ju-huai, Li Shao-wen and Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    Methods of sampling and sections preparaction were the same as reported previously. Except that sampling was made at monthly intervals between May 20 and July 30, then at 7每14 day-intervals between July 30 and October 14, and then at monthly intervals between October 14 and March 25 in the next year. The stored starch in various tissues was stained with PAS reaction. During active period of cambium in Broussonetia papyrifera after July 30, the cell layers of immature xylem and phloem decreased progressively, and the formation of mature xylem and phloem increased rapidly. The formation of late wood started early in August, formation of xylem ceased after September 5, followed by ceasation of phloem formation about 1.5 months later. Increasing and decreasing of stored starch were closely related to the periodicity of cambial activity during the year. Starch grains decreased progressively after cambial activity was resumed in early spring until they disappeared in all the stem tissues. Then, starch accumulated progressively again after cambial activity slowed down, particularly after the ceasation of xylem formation. However, after the formation of phloem had ceased, the stored starch once again disappeared progressively until the end of December, and accumulated again. Such changes might be related to the transition of cambium activity involving two periods of dormancy.
Abstract (Browse 1860)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Salt Stress on Ion Channel Selective Permeability of Plasmalemma in Sorghum Roots
Author: Pei Zhen-ming and Tang Zhang-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    100 mmol/L, 200 mmol/L and 300 mmol/L NaC1 was used in proper order to treat three-day old seedlings of Sorghum vulgare Pets. The plasma membrane of roots was isolated and purified by aqueous biphasic partition device. The plasmalemma was incorporated into planar bilayer lipid membrane and ion channels were measured by electrical methods. Ion selective permeabilities (PK: PNa) were assayed in asymmetrical solutions containing 100 mmol/L NaC1 in Cis chamber and 100 mmol/L KC1 in Tran with chamber and were calculated from Goldman-Hodgkin-Kaltz equation. PK: PNa was 3.5 in plasmalemma of control roots and 1.5 in plasmalemma of salt stressed roots. It showed that the changes of ion selective permeability was very significant under salt stress. The importance of the change of ion selective permeability is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of Diurnal Changes in Photosynthetic Rate and Quantum Efficiency of Grapevine Leaves and Their Utilization in Canopy Management
Author: Zhang Da-peng, Huang Cong-lin, Wang Xue-chen and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    Photosynthetic rate and quatum efficiency of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc) leaves were measured under the field with ample soil water supply, and in phytotron with ample supply of water and mineral nutrients, constant air humidity and CO2 concentration, and optimum air temperature, respectively. Under field conditions CO2 assimilation quantum efficiency of leaves reached its maximum in the morning, which was followed by continuous decrease and midday depression. The leaves intercepting more light energy in the morning showed a higher quantum efficiency. Those leaves subjected continuously to strong irradiance exhibited a more obvious and longer midday depression. Reduction of leaf light interception around midday could reduce midday depression. Shaded leaves had a higher quantum efficiency than leaves under direct sunlight. The diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate and quantum efficiency of leaves were shown to be closely related to the variations in mesophyll resistance to CO2. In phytotron experiments the photosynthetic quantum efficiency of leaves was reduced after a certain period of illumination not only at 1200 米mol ﹞ m-2 ﹞ s-1 PFD, higher than the saturating light of vine leaves (>1000 米mol ﹞ m-2 ﹞ s-1), which was caused by "photoinhibition§, but also at 800 and 200米mol ﹞ m-2 ﹞ s-1, which was similar to "photoinhibition§. But photosynthetic quantum efficiency of leaves exposed continuously to a very weak PFD (100 米mol ﹞ m -2 ﹞ s-1) remained contant. The diurnal changes in mesophyll resistance to CO2 of vine leaves could be partly related to photoinhibition. It is considered that, under field conditions without soil water limitation, midday depression of vine leaf photosynthesis could be a result of an increase of the mesophyll resistance induced by multiple effects of strong light, high temperature and low humidity. A higher light interception by canopy plane in the morning may be advantageous to exploit higher photosynthetic potentiality of leaves, but a lower light interception in the middle of day may reduce midday depression. The north-south orientation plane can provide optimum light regime and improve photosynthetic environment in vineyards.
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plantlet Regeneration from Leaf Protoplasts in Seedling of Actinidia eriantha Benth.
Author: Zhang Yuan-ji, Mu Xi-jin, Cai Qi-gui, Zhou Yun-luo and Qian Ying-qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    Newly extended leaves of in vitro seedling of Actinidia eriantha Benth. were used for protoplast isolation. Protoplasts were cultured in liquid MS medium (devoid of NH4NO3) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.4 mol/L glucose. The plating efficiency after 3 weeks of culture was about 19.4 %. Protoplasts-derived cells divided sustainably and developed into calli of 2 mm in size in the original protoplast-culture-medium without adding fresh medium so to decrease the osmotic pressure. These calli regenerated shoots when being transfered to MS medium with 0. 5 mg/L zeatin and 0. 1 mg/L IAA. Regenerated shoots were rooted by immersion in 20 ppm IBA solution before culturing on half-strength MS medium devoid of growth regulators.
Abstract (Browse 1761)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytogenetical Toxical Effects of Heavy Metals on Vicia faba and Inquires into the Vicia玨Micro nucleus
Author: Duan Chang-qun and Wang Huan-xiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    Under the treatment of heavy metal ions Pb2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+, the interval of mitotic stage was shortened, and the time of interphase prolonged so that the cell cycle was prolonged in the root-tip cells of broadbean (Vicia faba L. ). With the increase of concentrations of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ below 1.0, 0.01 and 10 ppm respectively, the mitosis index (IM) rose in root-tip cells, but IM decreased when the root-tips were treated with the some heavy metal ions above the above-mentioned respective concentrations. IM was inhibited in Hg2+ of any concentrations. Within the concentration of Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Zn2+ below 1.0, 0. 50, 5.0, 100.0 ppm respectively, the frequency of micronucleus (MCNF) rose as the concentrations were increased, and lowered as the respective concentrations exceeded those stated above. Similar changes occurred in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAF) when the concentration of Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Zn2+ were below or above 5.0, 5.0, 0.50, 100.0 ppm respectively. Mn2+ had no significant effects to them. By data processing with the method of gray system control and computer aided drawing to IM, MCNF and CAF, it was shown that the three parameters varied tremendously in different dose-effect ranges. All of which suggested that in order to obtain a reliable results in the environmental monitoring and hazardous material detection, genetoxicity inspection should be carried out under the optimal condition when (1) the concentration of the heavy metal to be detected does not seriously inhibit mitosis and (2) CAF and MCNF is in positive correlation.
Abstract (Browse 2296)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes of Blue-Green Algae Isolated by a New Gel Electrophoresis System with High Resolving Power
Author: Li Tong-zhu and Lin Shi-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    At least 13 chlorophyll bands from the thylakoid membranes of blue-green algae could be clearly resolved by SDS-PAGE employing a new improved procedure. They were designated as CPIa, CPIb, CPIc, CPId, CPIe, CPIf, CPIg, CHIh, CPal, CPa2, CPa3, CPa4 and FC. 8 chlorophyll-protein complexes, CPIa-CPIh, had the same absorption spectrum at 676 nm in the red and 436 nm in the blue region. They belonged to the chlorophyll-protein complexes of PS i. 4 chlorophyll-protein complexes, CPal-CPa4, had a red absorption peak at 670­672 nm and a blue one at 436 nm. Their fluorescence emission peak at 77K was at 685 nm. They were chlorophyll-protein complexes of PS j.
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Development and Structure of the Generative Cell Wall in Polygonatum simizui
Author: Luo Yu-ying and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    The developmental structure and components of the generative cell wall in Polygonatum sirnizui Kitag were studied by means of cytochemical and electron microscope observation. The early generative cell wall separating the generative and vegetative cytoplasm contains callose and cellulose. From the time when the generative cell detaches from the intine untill it is freely suspended in the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell, the wall becomes progressively thinner and does not show the specific fluorescence when stained with aniline blue and cai- cofluor white although it remains PAS positive. At later developmental stage when the generative cell moves into the pollen tube but before its initiation of mitosis, an envelope with weak PAS positive reaction appears on the surface of the cell. Its morphological nature is similar to that of the sperm cell discribed as the "periplasm§. This study proves that a cell wall is present in the generative cell of Polygonatum simizui throughout the developmental process, althrough changes in structure and components of the wall may occur. The properties of the generative cell wall at different stages, its significance in differentiation between generative and vegetative cytoplasm and translocation of nutrient materials, and the possible mechanism of the detachment of the generative cell from the intine are the subjects to discussion.
Abstract (Browse 1904)  |  Full Text PDF       
Single-Pair Fusion of Various Combinations Between Female Gametoplasts and Other Protoplasts in Nicotiana tabacum
Author: Sun Meng-xiang, Yang Hong-yuan, Zhou Chang and Koop H U
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    This paper reports an enzymatic maceration-osmotic shock method for isolation of tobacco embryo sac and its component cell protoplasts, and also a new method for fusion between single pairs of selected mesophyll protoplasts using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as on inducing agent. An integration of these two methods has led to the successful fusion of female gametoplasts with other kinds of protoplasts. The female gametoplasts described here, in a broad sense, include the egg cell (E), central cell (C) and synergid (S). One of the female gametoplasts was selected and fused with another female, male (generative cell, G) or somatic (mesophyll, M)protoplast. Various combinations were involved: E+S, E+C, E +G, E+M, C+C, C+S, C+G, C+M, S+S, S+G, S+M, etc. Briefly, the authors were able to choose any desired combination to realize single-pair fusion by the new PEG method. For the purpose of culturing such fusion products that were limited in number, the authors had done some preliminary experimets using mesophyll protoplasts as feeder cells. Two methods were adopted: the microdrop culture, and the millicell culture with feeder cells. The mesophyll protoplasts were precultured for 2〞3 days in large for population expansion before they were used as feeder cells. One or several protoplasts were cultured in a microdrop or a millicell and were induced formation of small cell clusters. This result indicated that the culture methods might also be suitable for culturing the products from fusion of female gametoplasts and other protoplasts in this plant species.
Abstract (Browse 1755)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents from Root Bark of Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem.
Author: Fang Zha-pu, Lei Jiang-ling and Zeng Xian-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(1)
      
    Eleven constituents were isolated from root bark of Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem. Their structures were elucidated by spectra(IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and chemical analyses. They were deglucose chikusetsusaponin l (AT每i), chikusetsusaponin Na (AT每j ), zingibroside R1 (AT每k), ginsenin R0 (AT每IV), decaisneanaside (AT每m), armatoside (AT-o), araloside A (AT每o), octacosanoic acid (AT每p), 汕-sitosterol (ATIX ), mixture of 汕-sitosterol and stigmastterol (AT每℅), oleanolic acid (AT每Xl ). They were for the first time found in this plant, AT每n is a new saponin.
Abstract (Browse 2246)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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