October 1995, Volume 37 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
Study on Pollen Transportation by Rivers
Author: Xu Qing-hai, Yang Xiao-lan, Wang Zi-hui, Wu Chen, Meng Ling-yao and Yao Zu-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    Pollen analysis of water samples of the Yellow River and the Luan River revealed that pollen grains were carried as sedimentary particles in water. The fluctuation in number of pollens grains in river water was related to the sand bearings of the water, not to the river flow. The changes of pollen percentage showed no clear evidence of sorting by river, but the changes of pollen concentration did.
Abstract (Browse 1700)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Neotriptetraolide Isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f.
Author: Ma Peng-cheng, Yan Wei, L Yang and Zheng Qi-tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    A new diterpenoid bisepoxide, neotriptetraolide, was isolated from the leaves and root of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Neotriptetraolide was crystallized from CH3OH as colorless needle-like crystal, with amp of 237238 . Its molecular formula was C20H2608. Its structure was elucidated by means of spectral analysis (UV, IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C- NMR, 2D-COSY, 2D-NOESY, 13C-NOE, and selective long-range DEPT spectroscopy) and the computation of molecular mechanics and molecular graph.
Abstract (Browse 1749)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Water Balance and Evapotranspiration of Artificial Vegetation in Shapotou Area, Tenger Desert
Author: Feng Jin-chao, Chen He-sheng, Kang Yao-hu and Liu Yuan-bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    Precipitation, the only water resource available for plants, is the main limited factor to plant growth in Shapotou area. After the vegetation protective system is built, the proportion between various components of water balance changes and exerts a great influence on growth and succession of artificial vegetation. By calculation on the basis of water balance using weighing electronic lysimeters, the results showed that the average precipitation (186.6 mm) met the need of plant growth in the earlier stage of sand control. The evapotranspiration of desert plants, of which the density is 75 in 100 m2 area of the ground, was much more than the annual' average precipitation. The ratio of evapotranspiration of Artemisia ordosica Kraschen. and Caragana korshinskii Kom. to precipitation was 136.6% and 131.1 % respectively. The ratio of soil evaporation in the water equilibrium rose as the precipitation decreased in the range of 100 200 mm. However when precipitation was around 100 mm, which was the lowest limit of precipitation available for artificial vegetation, water was almost solely dependant on the soil ineffective evaporation. The effects of precipitation distribution in time and space and formation of biocrust on the soil surface on water balance and water use in artificial vegetation were highly appraised.
Abstract (Browse 1789)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on the Litterfall and Coarse Woody Debris in Mid-Mountain Humid Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest in Ailao Mountains
Author: Liu Wen-yao, Xie Shou-chang, Xie Ke-jin and Yang Guo-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    The composition and amount of the litterfall and coarse woody debris (CWD), their time and space distribution and the element return were studied in mid-mountain humid ev-ergreen broad-leaved forest in Ailao Mountain in Yunnan, China. The average litterfall (leaves, wood (< 2.5 cm diameter), flower, fruit and mixed matter) was (6.77 1.43) t/(hm2 a) while the large wood litterfall () 2.5 cm diameter) was (0.450.18) t/(hm2 a). There were two marked peaks of annual litterfalh the main one from April to May and the second one from October to November. The standing crop of CWD in the forest was 98.46 t/hm2, in which logs made up to 85.8% of the total. As the CWD was not well-distributed in the forest, it increased the diversities of structure and site in the forest ecosystem. The total storage of C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, A1 and Fe in the CWD was 48699 t/hm2, but return of elements to the forest ground in the litterfall only made up 7.77% of the nutrient storage of the CWD.
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Peroxidase and Estease Isozymes During Periodicity of Cambial Activity in Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.
Author: Cui Ke-ming, Wei Ling-bo, Li Ju-huai, Li Shao-wen and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    Methods of sampling and sections preparaction were the same as reported previously. Except that sampling was made at monthly intervals between May 20 and July 30, then at 7C14 day-intervals between July 30 and October 14, and then at monthly intervals between October 14 and March 25 in the next year. The stored starch in various tissues was stained with PAS reaction. During active period of cambium in Broussonetia papyrifera after July 30, the cell layers of immature xylem and phloem decreased progressively, and the formation of mature xylem and phloem increased rapidly. The formation of late wood started early in August, formation of xylem ceased after September 5, followed by ceasation of phloem formation about 1.5 months later. Increasing and decreasing of stored starch were closely related to the periodicity of cambial activity during the year. Starch grains decreased progressively after cambial activity was resumed in early spring until they disappeared in all the stem tissues. Then, starch accumulated progressively again after cambial activity slowed down, particularly after the ceasation of xylem formation. However, after the formation of phloem had ceased, the stored starch once again disappeared progressively until the end of December, and accumulated again. Such changes might be related to the transition of cambium activity involving two periods of dormancy.
Abstract (Browse 1705)  |  Full Text PDF       
Diversity of Origin and Expansion Mode of Peribacteroid Membrane in Legume Nodules
Author: Shan Xue-qin, Hou Shu-qin and Jing Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    Bacteroids, in numbers of two, three or more, in the legume nodules of Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers., Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Pisum sativum L. were enclosed in each peribacteroid membrane (PBM). In view that PBM was formed synchronously with the bacteroid reproduction, the origin as well as the expansion of PBM ought to be in large scale in order to meet the need of the physiologic process of symbiotic nature. It was observed that in the same nodule sample there were kinds of modes of the PBM expansion, such as chimeric fusion between, or among the PBMs in which a protrusion of one PBM fit into a depression of another PBM, fusions of the PBM with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its vesicles, with small vacuole membrane, etc. Cytochemical study indicated that PBM, plasma membrane, ER membrane, etc. possessed the same type of ATPase, and the PBM was structurally similar to the plasma membrane. Therefore, the PBM appears to be a mosaic membrane possessing features of the plasma membrane, ER membrane and vacuole membrane, etc. In final, the physiological significance of the diversity in the origin and expansion modes of the PBM was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1748)  |  Full Text PDF       
Floral Morphogenesis of Aquilegia L. (Ranunculaceae)
Author: Feng Min, Fu De-zhi, Liang Han-xing and Lu An-min (Lu An-ming)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    The androecial and gynoecial initiation in Aquilegia ecalcarata Maxim. and A. caerulea James. were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Also the microspore developmental sequence of different whorls of stamens in the same androecium was examined under the light microscope (LM). It was shown that the androecial initiation was centripetal, whereas the microsporogenesis and anther maturation were centrifugal. Thus, the centrifugal development of androecium in this genus was a secondary phenomenon. The authors considered that as has been reported centrifugal development of androecium appeared in different groups could be parallel to centripetal development in the course of evolution, of which the phylogenetic significance merits further approach.
Abstract (Browse 1778)  |  Full Text PDF       
Complemental Effect of Osmotic Stabilizers and Their Roles in Degradation Cell Walls of Blue-Green Algae
Author: Chen Xian-jun and Guo Hou-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    The compound osmotic stabilizers consisted of several salt solutions exerted a greater effect on the isolation of blue-green algae spheroplasts than a single salt solution. However, the effect of compound osmotic stabilizers on the spheroplast stability could be multiphasic. Some osmotic stabilizers, such as the solution of (NH4) 2C4H406, (NH4) 2SO4 and MgSO4, exerted degradation on cell walls of the blue-green alga; among which the (NH4) 2C4H406 solution (0.15 mol/L) had the greatest degradation resulting in formation of spheroplasts. The spheroplasts were sensitive to hypotonic condition but were less transparent.
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  Full Text PDF       
Inhibitor of Redox System in Plant Plasmalemma and Its Properties
Author: Pei Zhen-ming, He Dao-yao and Tang Zhang-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    NADH-K3Fe (CN) 6 (FeCN) reductase activity was decreased to zero after 10 min or more of reaction. The activity was not recovered by the addition of substrates, NADH and FeCN, and plasmalemma together or separately. The probable reaction products, NAD+, Fe2+ and H+, were proved not to be as feed back inhibitors. The reaction medium containing plasmalemma, NADH and FeCN was centrifuged after incubation. It was found that the inhibitor was in the supernatant and the inhibitivity was lost after some six hous of storage.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Cold Hardening on SOD and Glutathion Reductase Activities and on the Contents of the Reduced Form of Glutathion and Ascorbic Acid in Rice and Cucumber Seedlings
Author: Wang Yi-rou, Zeng Shao-xi and Liu Hong-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    Rice and cucumber seedlings were employed in the study on changes of superoxide dismatase (SOD) and glutathion reductase (GR) activities, the contents of the reduced form of glutathion (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) in leaves and the chilling resistance as well as the level of lipid peroxidation products after cold hardening and chilling stress under light. The seedlings hardened under a day/night temperature variation of 15 /10 and photon flux density (PFD) of 250mol m-2 s-1 for 12 h/d indicated an increase of the activities of SOD and GR, and the contents of GSH and AsA. The resistance of the seedlings to chilling and light stress was enhanced by cold hardening. Under the stress condition, the stabilities of SOD and GR activities, and contents of GSH and AsA in hardened seedlings were higher than those in the unhardened seedlings; the lipid peroxidation was also less than that in the latter. It was thus concluded that cold-hardening under appropriate light leads on to the enhancement of function of membrane protective system and increase of cell membrane stability which is an important part of chilling-resistance mechanism in the plant.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ca2+ Activated Protein Kinases in Hypocotyl of Soybean (Glycine max L.)
Author: Zheng Chao-jun and Yu Shu-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    The soluble protein extract of soybean hypocotyl was autophosphorylated, the labeling products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A 18 kD protein band was intensely labeled when a relatively high concentration of calcium was present, meanwhile a weakly labeled 67 kD protein band was also observed. When the reaction time was prolonged to 15 or 30 min, the labeling intensity of them was weakened gradually and the labeled bands disappeared eventual ly from the autoradiograph. If the calcium chelater EGTA was added into the reaction sys tem, only 67 kD was phosphorylated with high intensity. When non-labeled ATP was added during the reaction process, 32p in the labeled proteins could be substituted gradually by Pi. This indicated that the reaction system was in a dynamic equilibrium of phosphorylation-de- phosphorylation. There were also data inferred that it was a calcium dependent process. Histon H1 could speed up the phosphorylation, suggesting that it was a suitable substrate for protein kinases in the extract. Findings support that 18 kD and 67 kD protein may be Ca2+ sensitive protein kinases that can be autophosphorylated. Their different responses to Ca2+ may make the calcium signal transduction controllable.
Abstract (Browse 1819)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Monoclonal Antibody Recognizing Nonderivative 13-Hydroxy Gibberellins and Their Glucosides
Author: Zheng Zhi-fu and Zhou Xie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    The production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MAb AB10) against GA3-glucoside as well as GA3 is described. MAb AB10 was derived from an immunogen in which human serum albumin (HSA) was linked to GA3 at carbon-3. This antibody showed high affinity for GA3-glucoside as well as for 13-hydroxy gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GAs, etc). The affinity of MAb AB10 for 13-hydroxy GAs was significantly reduced by methylation of the 7-oic acid but not by glycosylation of 3-hydroxyl group. Based on this antibody, both of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for GA3-glucoside and for GA3 were developed. These two ELISAs displayed linear detection ranges from 0.2 pmol to 20 pmol. Using these assays, the fluctuation of GA3-1ike and GA3-glucoside-like sub-stances in the leaves of Rurnex japonicus was investigated. The results indicated that the glycosylation of free GAs was connected with leaf senescence and that the function of 6-ben- zyl amino purine in retarding the leaf senescence was probably related to delaying the process of glycosylation of free GAs.
Abstract (Browse 1812)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Talinum paniculatum
Author: Zhang Xiang-qi, Wang Xian-ping, An Li-jia, Fan Song-hua and Xiang Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    The protoplasts of Talinum paniculaturn (Jaeq.) Gaertn. were isolated from leaves and calli. The mesophyll protoplasts did not undergo normal division and lived one week at the longest in culture. However, the callus protoplasts, cultured in P4 medium (K8p+2, 4-D 0.2 mg/L, NAA 1.0 mg/L, ZT 0.5 mg/L, coconut milk 50 mL/L, glucose 0.5 mol/L), underwent first division after 3 d of culture. The division frequency was 36.7 % after 7 d of culture. The regeneration frequencies of callus were 0.31% in liquid culture and 0.34% in double-layer culture. Shoots differentiated on regeneration media and rooted on R3 and R7 media. Mature plants were obtained 23 months after transplanting the protoplast-derived plantlets into flower pot or successive subculturing in test tubes. The results also indicated that: (1) Too long a period of callus culture in liquid medium or in solid proliferation medium was unfavorable to differentiation. (2) Low concentration of 6-BA in medium was suitable for callus differentiation. (3) GA3 promoted development of young adventitious bud. (4) Multi-effect triazole significantly strengthened sprout and root development in test tube cultures.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Generative Cell Development in Pisum sativum--With Special Reference to Cytological Basis of Plastid Maternal Inheritance
Author: Liu Xing-liang and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(10)
      
    It was proved by ultrastructural observations that few plastids and abundent mitochondria were ever present in the generative cell of Pisurn sativurn L. from its initiation to maturation. Fluorescence observations of DNA showed that many cytoplasmic DNA nucleoids were present in generative cell of mature pollen, but none in the early developing generative cell. During the germination of mature pollen in vitro, the cytoplasmic DNA nucleoids of the generative cell in the pollen tube degenerated gradually following the growth of the pollen tube and disappered completely 24 h after germination. The results provided a cytological basis for confirming the conclusion of plastid maternal inheritance in P. sativurn obtained from genetic study, and resolved the contradiction between results from cytological observation and genetic or RFLP analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1657)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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