November 1995, Volume 37 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
Callus Formation at Graft Interface in Ginkgo biloba L.
Author: Yang Xiong, Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee), Shen Xue-zhen, Liu Chang-ying and Ma Lian-bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    The early stages of graft union, when male branch was grafted onto female branch in Ginkgo biloba L. by cleft graft, have been observed under light microscope in order to determine the origin of callus cells between the stock and scion. Pith parenchyma cells near the graft interface were the earliest cells in response to such method of grafting. These cells dedifferentiated and then divided within 7 12 days after grafting. A large number of callus cells extended from the pith into the space between the graft interface linking the stock with the scion about 18 20 days after grafting; and then continued to proliferate and extend outwards along the space. Cambium cells and immature vascular tissue near the graft interface dedifferentiated into callus rather late. Theover all link between the stock and scion was completed in the sites 30 days after grafting. Callus cells were also produced from corticai parenchyma cells, but they were much limited in quantity. In conclusion, the graft interface may be considered as a "natural culture bed" after grafting, in which all undamaged, living cells are capable of dedifferentiation and producing callus cells for compatible graft union. In the case of G. biloba (male/female) it were the pith parenchyma cells that appeared first to form the callus cells and later extend to link the stock with the scion.
Abstract (Browse 2418)  |  Full Text PDF       
Enhancement of Plant Regeneration Rate of Brassica parachinensis Cultured in Vitro
Author: Zhang Peng and Ling Ding-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    Among the major factors affected plant regeneration in Brasica parachinensis, a combination of BAP (bacterial alhaline phosphatase) and NAA, at a concentration of 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively, could raise 26.8% of the regeneration rate. It was also found that Ag- NO3 or ABA when supplemented in the culture medium could increase the plant regeneration rate by 79. 0% and 32.30% respectively, indicating that AgNO3 was superior to ABA as a single factor. With a combination of AgNO3 (4 mg/L) and ABA (0. 5 mg/L) added to MS medium already supplemented with ABA 2.0 mg/L and NAA 1.0 mg/L the authors had achieved remarkable results in frequency increase of 89.0%, 84.3% and 86.0% in three explant varieties of B. parachinensis, viz "49-19', "60D' and "70D', respectively. Among the three explants (cotyledon, hypocotyl and petiole with cotyledon), petiole with cotyledon possessed the highest capability for plant regeneration. In addition the age of seedlings and mode of inoculations also influenced the frequency of plant regeneration.' Histological observation evidenced that the mode of plant regeneration in B. parachinensis was of organogenesis. Adventitions buds derived from the cells of vascular parenchyma at the cut surface of petioles. Mature plants were developed after the plantlets were transferred into the plot.
Abstract (Browse 1804)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical Structures of Microsporangiate Cone of Lepidodendrales-- Lepidos trobus Shanxiense sp. nov.
Author: Wang Shi-jun, Guo Ying-ting and Tian Bao-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    A new anatomically-preserved microsporangiate cone in the coal balls of Coal Seam No. 7 (P1) at the upper part of Taiyuan Formation in Xishan Coal-Field, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province of China was described. Having been studied, it was placed into Lepidostrobus Brongniart and considered as a new species. Vegetative organs of Lepidodendrales from mainly belonged to the natural genus Lepidodendron, such as stems, leaves and roots in the coal balls were visualized. However a few of them probably belonged to the natural genus Sigillaria. Besides, the single megasporophylls with megasporangia of Achlarnydocarpon (the megasporangiate cone of Lep/dodendron) have been found in the coal balls, so the specimens under discussion might belong to Lepidodendron. Lepidostrobus shanxiense sp. nov. The cone more than 3.5 cm long and 1.6 1.8 cm in width. The axis possesses siphonostele. The sporophylls on the axis in spiral arrangement. The pedicel 6 7 mm long and the distal lamina more than 1.2 cm long. The pedicel alate with alations extending about 2 2. 5 mm outward. The microsporangium probably bag-shaped, equal to the pedicel in length, 4.5 mm wide and 2 3 mm high, attached to the pedicel for about 2/3 of its length. The wall one cell thick in fully matured microsporan gia and consists of uniform columnar cells. The microspore 6877m in diameter, trilete and the surface minutely granular.
Abstract (Browse 2009)  |  Full Text PDF       
X-Ray Energy Spectrum Analysis on Organ Distribution of Lanthanum and Other Elements in Wheat Seedling
Author: Zhou Shi-gong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    Lanthanum and other elements were fixed in situ for integrated SEM observation and xray energy spectrum analysis. It was showed that most of the lanthanum ions entered the plant were accumulated on the cell wall of root tip, scarcely accumulated on the cell wall of the root cortex of elongation region, and leave; and none in the cytoplasm. It seems that lanthanum ions were transpoted and distributed only along the cell wall.
Abstract (Browse 1946)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study on the Senescent Process of Scales in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.
Author: Gao Wen-yuan, Li Zhi-liang, Xiao Pei-gen and Yang Shi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    The senescent process of scales in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was observed by means of light and transmission electron microscopy. Several layers of parenchymal cells near the adaxial cortex degraded at the outset, forming a clear broken cell zone. The degradation of cell protoplasm proceeded actively and orderly. Dictyosomes and endoplasmic reticulums produced many vesicles which were of priority importance during the process of protoplasmic degradation and intercellular transport of the degraded products. The abundant plasmodesmata between cells provided an efficient channel for the intercellular transport.
Abstract (Browse 1734)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Report on Breeding and Identification of Triticum aestivum and Roegneria kamoji Alien Addition Lines
Author: Wang Xing-fen, Wu Li-fang, Chen Pei-du and Liu Da-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    Three alien disomic addition lines (V35-8-8, V39-15-5 and V58-6-11) were isolated and identified from Triticum aestivum L. and Roegneria kamoji Ohwi progenies (Fs, BC1F3, BC1F4 and BC2F4), by means of morphological observation, cytogenetical analysis and chromosome C-banding technique. The value of C-banding technique in distinguishing the chromosome of R. kamoji from those of T. aestivum and other relevant points were also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1897)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Numerical Model of Radiation Distribution Under an Individual Tree
Author: Gao Qiong and Wen Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    A numerical model was developed to model the radiation distribution under an individual tree crown with different tree geometric parameters, different geographical locations and different topographical parameterrs and different transmissivity of the tree crown. The model was encoded into C and FORTRAN functions and could be utilized in agroforestry ecosystem modeling. The analysis showed that when the tree crown was more or less a conical shape with fixed tree height and crown radius, an increase in crown volume could even increase the average radiation under the tree.
Abstract (Browse 1704)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the PostFlowering Photoperiodic Responses in Soybean
Author: Han Tian-fu and Wang Jin-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    Typical varieties from the main ecological regions and of different maturity stages in China were chosen for studying the post-flowering photoperiodic responses to day length in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. ). The results indicated that the response to post-flowering photoperiod existed among all varieties with different maturity stages. The response was not due to of temperature effects, duration of photosynthesis or pre-flowering 15hotoperiodic after-effect Instead, it was typical photoperiodism. The response was found not only at the stages of flowering and podding but also at the stage of seed filling. Experimental results proposed that the photoperiodic demand for flowering and fruiting in soybean was a continuous process. The regulation of photoperiod on growth lasted from emergence of seedlings to maturation. There were some common basis in photoperiodic effects on both flowering induction and maturation promotion. However, the effects of photoperiodic induction had after-effect and were reversible.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of Nitrogen Sources on Glutamine Synthetase in Wheat Seedling
Author: Huang Qin-ni, Yin Li-ping, Chai Xiao-qing, Liu Xiang-lin, Hong Jian-ming and Zhao Wei-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    Influence of nitrogen sources on the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), GS isozymes and GS-mRNA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) seedlings has been studied by DEAE-cellu- lose column chromatography, enzyme activity assay and Northern blot technique, and activity of GS and nitrate reductase (NR) was compared. The results indicated that the activity of GS in roots (GSr) and cytoplasmic GS (GS1) in both intact and excised leaves was higher with NH4+-N as the sole nitrogen source than with NO3--N. However, NO3- promated the activity of chloroplasmic GS (GS2) in leaves of wheat with NO3- -N as the sole nitrogen surce. On the level of transcription, NH+ raised the level of GS mRNA in roots, but NO3- raised the level of GS-mRNA in leaves of wheat seedling.
Abstract (Browse 2138)  |  Full Text PDF       
Microspore Culture of Hybrids Between Brassica napus and B. campestris
Author: Zhou Yong-ming and Scarth R
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    Embryos and regenerated plants were produced by isolated microspore culture of inter-specific hybrids between Brassica napus and B. campestris. The NLN media with different sucrose concentrations and pH values were tested and a protocol for optimal microspore culture of B. carnpestris was identified. The reciprocal hybrids between UM921 (B. campestris) and 911186 (B. napus) had significant higher embryo yield than other cultured hybrids. Obvious improvement of embryo yield and quality was achieved when hybrid plants of reciprocal UM921 911186 were grown under 10 /5 (day/night) condition. There was significant correlation between embryo yield and seeds per pod on hybrid plants but no correlation between pollen fertility and embryo yield was detected among cultured.hybrids. The majority of microspore-derived plants from the reciprocal B. napus B. campestris hybrids are aneuploids and 22.8% of the plants observed originated from the microspores with parents chromosome numbers, almost all n = 19. The factors affecting the embryogenesis in microspore culture of interspecific hybrids and the possible applications of the technique are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2170)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of Bovine Growth Hormone Gene in Transgenic Potato
Author: Zhao Qian, Ao Guang-ming, Liu Shu-lan and Han Bi-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    The expression vector for the bovine growth hormone (bGH) cDNA was constructed. It was introduced into Agrobacteriurn turnefaciens strain LAB4404 by direct transformation. Using the modified leaf-disc co-cultivated method, the bGH gene was transformed into potato (Solanurn tuberosum). Potato tuber pieces started to form shoots on shoot-inducing medium containing kanamycin after infected by A. turnefaciens. Regenerated potato tubers were obtained on sucrose enriched medium. NPT assay, PCR and Southern blot analyses showed that the bGH gene has been integrated into genome of potato. RNA dot blot and Western blot indicated that the bGH gene was transcripted and expressed in transgenic plants.
Abstract (Browse 1790)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mechanism of Change in the Cation-Induced Excitation Energy Distribution Between PS and PS in the Chloroplast Membrane from Zostera marina
Author: Gao Zhen-pan, Ma Hong, Lou Qing-xiang, Zhai Xiao-jing, Ma Gui-zhi, Mao Da-zhang and Li Liang-bi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(11)
      
    The interrelations between thylakoid polypeptide components and Mg2+-induced Chl a fluorescence and thylakoid surface charge changes were investigated in Zostera marina chloroplasts treated with Ca2+ and trypsin. It was observed that: 1. The increase of Mg2+- induced PS fluorescence intensity was closely related to the decrease of Mg2+-induced surface charge density of the thylakoid membrane in the normal chloroplast; 2. Removal of the 3234 kD polypeptides of the thylakoid surface by Ca2+ extraction of the chloroplast did not affect the Mg2+-induced phenomena; 3. If the Ca2+-treated chloroplast was further digested by trypsin to remove the 26 kD polypeptide of the membrane surface, the Mg2+-induced phenomena disappeared completely. These results clearly indicated that the 26 kD polypeptide of thylakoid surface is the specific acting site of the cation that induced these two correlated phenomena in the chloroplast from Zostera marina. The mechanism on the regulating effect of the cation on excitation energy distribution between PS and PS was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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