March 1995, Volume 37 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Protein Electrophoresis of Single Pollen Grains of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Author: Pang Guang-chang, Chu Cheng-cai, Wang Jing-yang, Wang Yu and Lu Wen-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    Electrophoresis and staining of proteins from the single pollen grains of Hibiscus rosasinensis have been developed by using general ultrathin polyacrylamide gel combined with highly-sensitive silver staining technique. The result revealed that the pollen abortion could occur in different stages of pollen development. The protein patterns varied greatly in different stages of pollen development, even in the different pollen grains in the same anther at the same development stage. Some bands exhibited a disjunction by classical Mendelian ratio 1: 1, suggesting that the gene loci were heterogeneous and the proteins were related to the expression of the genes at the early stage of pollen development.
Abstract (Browse 2120)  |  Full Text PDF       
Three Novel Chemical Compounds of Annonaceous Acetogenins from the Seeds of Annona squamosa
Author: Zheng Xiang-ci, Yang Ren-zhou, Qin Guo-wei, Xu Ren-sheng and Fan Da-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    Seven compounds (A1--A7) were isolated from the seeds of Annona squamosa L. Three of them, A2, A3, and A5, are new compounds of annonaeeous aeetogenins, and they were name neo-desacetyluvaricin (A2), neo-annonin B (A3) and neo-reticulatacin A (A5), respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1879)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Dynamics of Seed Bank on Shapotou Artificially Stabilized Dunes
Author: Wang Gang and Liang Xue-gong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    There were 46 species belonging to 17 families in the soil seed bank on Shapotou artificially stabilized dunes. Compositae was the family with most species '(11 species) and the others were Chenopodiaceae (7 species), Gramineae (7 species), Leguminosae (4 species), etc. 33.3 % of the species lived in the community also had seeds in soil. The seed production of Artemisia ordosica, Hedysarum scoparium, Caragana korshinskii was 545.57 676.73 grains/m2. 6.67 13.74 grains/m2. 0. 0320. 024 grains/m2, respectively. The seeds of A. ordosica were not destroyed by pests, but 31.9%, 83.29% of the seeds of H. scopariurn. C. korshinskii respectively were destroyed by pests. Under the most suitable burying depth, the cumulative seed germination rate of A. ordosica, H. scoparium, C. korshinskii were 78. 3%, 66.7%. 85.0%, respectively. The rate of germination was in the order of: A. ordosica>H, scoparium>C, korshinskii. The vegetation succession would tend towards community mainly consisted of A. ordosica, Bassia dasyphylla, Eragrostis poaeoides, etc.
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis on the Mechanism of Seed Dispersal of Puccinellia chinampoensis on Alkalized Meadow in Songnen Plain of China
Author: Yang Yun-fei and Zhu Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    Adopting the method of centrifugal sequence sampling of seeds quantitative analysis on the mechanism of seed disperesal of Puccinellia chinampoensis Ohwi on alkalization meadow in Songnen Plain of China was conducted. Among the eight orientation that have been investigated, only the South-west orientation demonstrated a near-parent-plant seed disposal pattern, whereas seed disposal pattern of far distance from parent plants were found in the other 7 orientations. Correlative analysis had revealed that the seed number disposed in different orientations was positively correlated with the fair wind speed and the freguency of direction chang of wind during seed disposal. It indicated that P. chinampoensis fulfils its strategy of population development via wind media to expand its potentiality in the ecological space far from the parent plants. Seed disposal of P. chinampoensis exhibited a pattern of continuous distribution with an average disposed radius of 175 cm in natural condition in Songnen Plain of China.
Abstract (Browse 1814)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction and Differentiation of Callus from Female Gametohyte Explants of Pinus bungeana Zucc. and P. tabulaeformis Carr.
Author: Gu Shu-rong, Zhu Zhi-qing, Zhao Jing-fang and Chen Zheng-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    Immature endosperms (female gametophyte) of Pinus bungeana Zucc. and P. tabulaeformis Carr. were used as explants for establishing tissue cultures. Calli induction and differentiation were studied on a modified MS medium containing 3 % sucrose and various concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. Callus tissues of P. bungeana and P. tabulaeforms could be induced on media supplemented with 1--6 mg/L naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L 6-BAP. The highest induction frequency of calli was 250%. Histocytological observation revealed that the callus cell was haploidy with, N= 12. Differentiation of green buds occurred on the medium supplemented with 0. 1 mg/L ABA, whereas no plantlet was developed, however.
Abstract (Browse 2206)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Study on Interaction of DNase with Pollen Actin and Rabbit Muscle Actin
Author: Liu Xiong and Yan Long-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    Actin purified from maize pollen grains like actin from other sources could considerably inhibit the activity of DNase . A linear relationship existed between inhibition and the concentration of actin. However, DNase was less inhibited by pollen actin than by rabbit muscle actin under the same conditions. The values of Kapp of inhibition were 1.25 g/mL for pollen actin and 0.75 g/mL for rabbit muscle actin. DNase depolymerized both pollen and rabbit muscle actin filaments. But the rate of depolymerization of pollen F-actin was higher than that of rabbit muscle F-actin under the same conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1792)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification and Characterization of Cotton Lectin
Author: Zeng Zhong-kui, Wu Qia-qing and Bao Jin-ku
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    Defatted seeds of wilt-disease resistant were extracted overnight with PBS at 4 . After centrifugation. 90% saturated (NH4)2SO4 was added to the supernatant. The precipitates were dialysed against H2O, then lyophilized. The purified lectin was obtained by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-100 filtration, and Sepharose 4B-Hog thyroglohulin affinity chromatography. The activity of the lectin was tested with fresh rabbit erythrocyte in each step of the procedure, and the active part was collected. This sample demonstrated single band on PAGE, SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The lectin was a glycoprotein. It contained 1.5% of neutral saccharide and its molecular weight was 63000 determined by Sephadex G-100 filtration. The N-terminal amino acid of the lectin was Val. The lectin showed no specific agglutination with any type of human erythrocytes. The hemagglutinaition activity could be inhibited by galactose and hog thyroglobilin, and depended on Ca2+, Mn2+, especially on Ca2+, not Mg2+. Its biological activity lost at 65 for S min. This lectin is used as a mitogen for human peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Abstract (Browse 1998)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Activities of Stage Specific Enzyme During Softening of Kiwifruit
Author: Wang Gui-xi, Hang Ya-shan and Yu Mu-Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    

The activities of several stage specific enzymes (SSE) and the changes of some compounds during softening of “Qinmei” kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) were studied. The resuits showed that there were two phases of kiwifruit softening. Firstly the rapid softening phase was coincided with starch degradation (r= 0. 99) and the increase of amylase activity. It suggested that amylase was the key SSE for softening at this phase. In the second phase, the rate of softening was decreased, the contents of water insoluble pectin and cellulose apparently were reduced and the activities of polygalacturoase (PG) and cellulase were markedly increased, which indicated the PG and cellulase were the key SSE in the second softening phase. Besides, ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) activity and ethylene production were at their peaks between the two phases as they might play the part as triggers of the PG and cellulase activities. The experiments also showed that the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) was not related to the softening of kiwifruit. The maximum activities of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found after the softening stages. It seemed that they were not the key SSE for the softening of kiwifruit.

Abstract (Browse 1920)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Comparative Study on PS Light Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Protein Complexes Between Spinach and Cucumber
Author: Lou Shi-qing, Wang Ke-bin, Zhao Fu-hong, Xu Chun-hui and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    PS light harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complexes (LHC ) were isolated from chloroplast of spinach (Spinacia oleracea Mill. ) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ). Comparative studies were made on the polymerized forms. Chl a/b ratio, spectral characteristics and polypeptide components of these two kinds of LHC . Experimental results showed that the LHC from spinach had a Chl a/b ratio of 1.33 and the LHC from cucumber had a Chl a/b ratio of 1.77. The spectral characteristics of the LHC from cucumber also indicated the enrichment of Chl b in this LHC . There was also obvious differences in the polypeptide components between these two kinds of LHC , the LHC of spinach contained a 27 kD and a 25 kD polypeptides, while the LHC of cucumber contained only a 27 kD polypeptide. This showed that the 25 kD polypeptide contained less Chl b. The analysis of the chlorophyll protein complexes showed that the monomer, dimer and trimer of the LHC of spinach were composed of two polypeptides, while all the polymerized forms of cucumbers LHC were composed of one polypeptide.
Abstract (Browse 2016)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of A Ribonucleoprotein Gene from Rice Seedlings
Author: Xin Hua, Cao Kai-ming, Zhan Shu-xuan, Xing Kui-yi, Sun Chong-rong and Masahiro Sugiura
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    The mixed oligonucleotides derived from partial amino acid sequence of RNP-CS I and RNP-CS I were used as primers for PCR amplification from cDNA of rice (Oryza sativa L. "Guangluai No. 4 ) etiolated seedling and a 300 bp fragment was obtained. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene fragment contains two partial RNP-CS-type RNA binding domains with space region which is typical of ribonucleoprotein in feature.
Abstract (Browse 1764)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence Factors of in Situ Hybridization in Triticeae
Author: Zhang De-yu, Zhong Shao-bin, Li Hao-bing and Yao Jing-xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    In order to increase the efficiency, accuracy, fidelity and reliability of in situ hybridization to identify the alien chromosomes and chromosome fragments in triticeae, major steps including probe labelling, chromosome denaturation, DNA concentration for blocking and post-hybridization washing in in situ hybridization were optimized. The results are as fel-lows. (1) The cloned repetitive DNA sequence could be biotin labelled more efficiently by nick translation than by random oligonucleotide labelling method: whereas the random oligonucleotide labelling is more suitable for genomic DNA probe and the labelling efficiency could be increased by prolonging the labelling time appropriately. (2) Denaturation of the biotinylated probe and chromosomes together in oven at 75 showed the satisfactory results of in situ hybridization, but the contour of treated rye chromosomes often became blurred when the temperature of denaturation was higher than 85. When 70% formamide (in 2 SSC) was used to denature the chromosome DNA, rye chromosomes often swelled although the biotinylated signals could be detected. (3) The unlabeled DNA concentrations for blocking were tested in genomic in situ hybridization to detect the Haynaldia villosa chromosomes with biotin labelled H. villosa genomic DNA as probe. The best contrast between H. villosa and wheat chromosomes was obtained without using the blocking DNA (unlabeled wheat genomic DNA). (4) Post-hybridization washes were carried out in 50% formamide (in 2 SSC) or in 2 SSC at different temperature. When the post-hybridization washing temperature were increased gradually from room temperature to 42 in 50% formamide (in 2 SSC). specific in situ hybridization signals on chromosome in triticeae were observed using both biotinylated repetitive DNA and genomic DNA as probe. With the improved resolution of this protocol, in situ hybridization would be widely applied to wheat breeding and genetics researches.
Abstract (Browse 2027)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fertilization and Embryo Development in Hybridization Between Wheat and Leymus
Author: Wang Jing-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    Observations were made of the fertilization and embryo development in intergeneric cross between Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring and Leyrnus secalinus Tzrel. The pollen germination of Leymus secalinus appeared normal on the stigma of Triticum aestivum and the pollen tubes grew into the style and entered the embryo sacs. Double and simple fertilization were observed in the pollinated florets. Of the 319 ovaries examed 62 (19.44%) had double fertilization and had embryo and endosperm, but endosperm development was slower than that of the embryos, 49 (15.36%) had only embryo and 7 (2.19%) had only endosperm. The total percentage of fertilization was as high as 36.99%. However, only I seed was obtained from 150 wheat ftorets pollinated with Leymus secalinus. This was obviously due to the absence or poor development of the endosperm. It may be suggested that the potential of increasing the frequency of hybrid plant obtainment was great in the cross between wheat and leymus, if embryo culture technique is employed at the early stage of hybrid embryo development.
Abstract (Browse 1787)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Transfer Cells in Endosperm of Coix lacryma-jobi
Author: Xi Xiang-yuan and Leng Mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    Special attention was paid to the ultrastructure of transfer cells (TCs) in different locations of basal endosperm in Coix lacryma-jobi at 10 and 25 days after pollination. At 10 days after pollination. TCs of the outermost layer had long wall ingrowths (WIs) whereas those of the second layer possessed fewer and shorter Wis. In both layers TCs had a lobed nucleus, abundant mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), ribosomes, and a certain number of dictyosomes and vesicles which contained dense substance connected with plasma membrane of WIs. Mitochondria were located near or between WIs. The distribution of organelles in TCs of the second layer was similar to that of the outermost layer. Mitochondria had well defined cristae and dictyosomes and RER seemed more numerous than in TCs of the outermost layer. At 25 days after pollination, TCs of the outermost and the second layer were almost filled with Wis but the organelles were recognizable. TCs of the fourth layer had branched and network-like WIs, many mitochondria, starch grain within plastids and lipids locating near WIs and in the interstices of WIs. Dictyosomes were frequently found but less RER fragments were seen. TCs of the fifth layer with short WIs contained large starch grains and small protein bodies. Plasmodesmata were not observed in the walls of TCs of the outermost and second layer at both 10 and 25 days after pollination but were found in the walls of TCs of the fourth and upper layers and also in the network-like WIs at 25 days after pollination. The roles of the organelles and functions of TCs of different layers were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1792)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytochemical Studies on Fertilization in Wheat
Author: Tian Guo-wei and Shen Jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(3)
      
    In a mature embryo sac of wheat (Triticum aestivum) the egg contained numerous perinuclear starch grains and fewer diffused lipid globules. The synergids contained a lot of lipids but no starch grains whereas the central cells contained only a moderate amount of diffused starch grains and lipids. There was little change of starch grain contents in all cells of an embryo sac during fertilization. The lipid globules increased sharply in the egg and central cells at the time of fusion of sperm and egg nuclei. Zygote and the corresponding free nuclear endosperm contained fewer diffused lipid globules. At early proembryo stage the proembryo cells and endosperm contained numerous lipid globules in their cytoplasm. The lipid content exhibited a regular change in the inner integument cells of an ovule. No cytoplasmic storage protein was detected in ovules at all observed stages. The changes of lipids in ovules might be associated with the nutrient of the female cells and early proembryo, and the chemotropic growth of pollen tubes.
Abstract (Browse 1763)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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