March 1957, Volume 6 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
٧֧ߧڧ ѧէڧۧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ֧ߧڧ ӧӧڧߧڧ ѧߧէ
Author: ܧѧ ѧ -, ا -ߧ ڧ ߧ -ާ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(3)
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fertilizers in Relation to the Growth and Development of Crop Plants. V. On the Relative Growth in Wheat Plant
Author: Yan Y-rui, Pao Wen-kwei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(3)
      
    1. The growth of roots, shoots, and grains of wheat plant as measured by dry matter accumulation followed all closely the well known S-shaped growth curve . In the growing period of 180 days, about one half of the total dry matter in roots were accumulated within a period of 30 days arround the time of shooting. From shooting to blooming, a period of 75 days, nearly 70% of dry matter of the shoots were accumulated. The accumulation of dry matter in grains was exceedingly rapid. From heading to ripening, within 37 days, grains gained 41% of the total dry matter of the shoots. While in this same period of time, the shoots only gained 10-17% of dry matter. It becomes apparent therefore that at least 58%C75% of dry matter in grains was transferred from the material accumulated in leaves and stems before the time of heading. 2. In the tillering stage of wheat plant, the curve of relative growth rate between root and shoot ((root/shoot) 100 against the age of plant) as measured by dry matter accumulation goes down to a minimum, then rises rapidly during the end of tillering stage and reaches to a maximum at the time of shooting (about 90C105 days from the time of sowing under the natural condition of Chengtu), after this, the curve drops down rapidly as the plant going to maturation . 3. The more the application rate of fertilizers (NPK) used the lower will be the relative growth rate between root and shoot . However, when the dry weight of root was considered alone with the application rate of fertilizers, the data showed that a maximum root growth was tained for the variety 2419 with an application rate of 2.5 kg of NPK per mow and for the variety Chengtu-beardless, 5 kg. These application rates of fertilizers ware considered, therefore, as the optimum rates used before sowing. While for the shoots, the more the application rate of fertilizers used, the more will be the accumulation of dry matter. 4. Application of fertilizers (NK) at the beginning of shooting would result in lowering the dry matter accumulation in roots. While for the shoots, on the contrary, fertilization at that time would stimulate the accumulation of dry matter greatly. Thus, the relative growth rate between root and shoot would be lowered significantly by ferfilization at that time. 5. It is surprising to mention that the ratio between grain and shoot would be the minimum when the application rate of fertilizers before sowing was optimum . However, the ratio would be raised efficiently by the application of additional fertilizers (NK) at the beginning of shooting. Therefore, in order to secure good yield, proper fertilization practice should involve optimum application rates of fertilizers both before sowing and at the time of shooting. 6. About 15 days after the beginning of shooting the root growth as measured by dry matter would reach the maximum value, and afterward, practically no increment of dry matter in root could be detected. In order to avoid the draw back effect on root growth by additional application of fertilizers at shooting stage, it would therefore be wise to apply the fertilizers a little later than the beginning of shooting.
Abstract (Browse 1842)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Structure of the Siliques based ,upon the Teratological Material
Author: C. Yen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(3)
      
    Some interesting teratological materials of Brassica chinensis L. var, oleifera Makino, Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and var. botrytis L. were collected by the author in 1955C1956. These materials confirmed the four carpels theory of Cruciferae, which has been proposed by Eames, Wilson and Sanders. The samples show that siliques are formed by two whorls of carpels. The two carpels of upper set are fertile, with the locull disappearing. The two carpels of the lower set, valve-like structure are sterile. They enclose the ovules of their upper set carpels, where the loculi of silique are formed. The rolled and constricted tip of the upper set carpels forms the style and the stigma. The original number of floral leaves of each whorl is four, and the two-leaf whorls are degenerated types. The septum is formed by a bridge which connects the epidermis and parenchyma, situated along the adaxial and longitudinal line of the two fertile carpels. The fact that the integument (or ovule) is formed by the lobe (or lateral primordial branch) of the blade has also been confirmed by the present observations.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Recherches sur les bactries cellulolytiques arobies isoles du sol salin
Author: Wang T. L., Young Y. K., Lee C. s. and Chen S. W.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(3)
      
    Nous avons isoles 9 especes des bacteries cellulolytiques aerobies du sol salin de la region de Tchanyoung, Shungtung. Elles sont: 2 especes de Cytophaga, Cytophaga hutchinsonii Winogradsky et C. rubra Winogradsky; I espece de Cellfacicula, Cellfacicula fusca Winogradsky; 4 especes de Vibrio, Vibrio agarliquefaciens (Gray et Chalmers) Bergey et al., Cellvibrio fiavescens Winogradsky, C. fulvus Stapp et Bortels, C. vulgaris Stapp et Bortels, et 2 varietes d'especes de Cellulomonas, Cellulomonas ferruginea var. peptonificans et C. caesia var. nonliquefaciens. Les 2 dernieres sont 2 varietes nouvelles. L'une est identique practiquement a l'espece Cellulomonas ferruginea (Rullmann)Bergey et al., saul que le lait est acidifie, lentement coagule et digere. L'autre est semblable totalement a l'espece Cellulomonas caesia (Kellerman et al.) Bergey et al., a l'exception de geatine non liquefiee.
Abstract (Browse 3075)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Light on the Formation of Starch From Sucrose in Leaf Disks
Author: Li shu-jun and Yin Huny-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(3)
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies of Giant Cells in Tomato Root-Knot Incited by Meloidogyne Hapla
Author: C. L.Lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(3)
      
    The larvae of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, after entering the tomato root, stimulated the formation of giant cells. These were formed by the enlargement of single cells in which multiple divisions and fusions of nuclei occurred, although coalescence of adjacent cells in early stages of infestation likewise participated in the formation of giant cells. In a later stage, the nuclear-fusion like phenomena became very prominent. Nuclear divisions were at first uniform but soon led to irregular nuclear divisions. Although the giant cell characteristically was thin-walled, it might form an irregularly thickened secondary wall with simple pits and without lignification,
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Report of the Monoecious Plant in Ginkgo biloba
Author: C. L. Lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1957 6(3)
      
    Although the occurrence of a few monoecious plants in Ginkgo biloba L. in Europe resulted from grafting has been recorded in the literature, yet nothing has been reported concerning the growth of such plants under natural conditions. An old Ginkgo tree which is monoecious has been found at the Biological Station of the Peking University, King-shah, Peking. This tree bears male-flower branches on the lower part and both male-and female-flower branches on the upper. At present, it is somewhat difficult to determine whether this unusual form is the result of an artificial grafting which might have been done several hundred years ago. The author is more or less inclined to believe, in view of the present status of growth, that it might be a monoecious plant occurring in nature. However, further investigation by anatomical and cytological methods will be of great interest.
Abstract (Browse 2204)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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