April 1995, Volume 37 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Trinerviopteris cardiophylla (Zhu et Geng) Zhu gen. et comb. nov. and the Classification of Gigantopterides
Author: Zhu Jia-nan and Zhang Xiu-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    A new fossil genus and combination of gigantopterides is reported. The specimen was collected from the Late Paleozoic "Longtan Formation¡± of Jiangle county, Fujian Province of China. It was originally determined to the genus Gigantonoclea and named as G. cardiophylla Zhu et Geng by one of the present authors and his colleague some times ago. In view of its venation being trinervious and that the incompletely duplicated net-like veins are close to those of gigantopterides and the leaf bears sori on its back. Upon reconsideration it was renamed by the authors as Trinerviopteris cardiophyUa (Zhu et Geng) Zhu gen. et comb. nov. At the same time. the authors have confirmed that it is a kind of true fern. In association with the new taxon there are Sphenophyllum emarginatum, Bowmanites lascus, Lobatannularia lingulata, Chansitheca pcdaeosilvana, Ch. cf. kidstonii, Pecopteris anderssonii, P. echinata, P. taiyuanensis, P. unita, Danaeites mirabilis, Fascipteris densata, Cladophlebis permica, Compsopteris contracta, Gigantonoclea chingii, G. fukienensis, G. sp., G. sp., Gigantopteris cordata, G. nicotianaefolia, Taenioteris serrulata, T. szei, T. tingii, Radicites sp. 1, R. sp. 2 etc. The present flora is more simplified than the others which discovered from different areas in the same geological time. Based on the grouping of these fossil plants, the geological era of the present flora must be late Early Permian to early Late Permian. Moreover it is emphasized that the gigantopterides is only but an artificial compound taxon not only including seed ferns but also true ferns and others.
Abstract (Browse 1953)  |  Full Text PDF       
Succession and Changes of Grassland Quality of the Artificial Grassland Communities in Subalpine Meadow in Gannan
Author: Du Guo-zhen and Wang Gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    The investigation dealt with the changes of the community structure as well as its cause of change, also with the quality of the artificial grassland sown with Elymus nutans at different time in the subalpine meadow in Gannan. The results are described as follows. 1. The aboveground biomass of E. nutans in the 2 year-old artificial grassland was highest and the index of grassland quality (IGQ) was highest in the 2 and 3 year-old communities, whereas it decreased in the other communities. IGQ was the lowest in the 7 year- o1d community. 2. The number and diversity of E. nutans species in the artificial grassland communities increased with the age increase of the communities but differed in their patterns of increase. 3. The decrease in biomass of E. nutans and IGQ correlated with the decrease of available phosphorus and not with the concentration of nitrogen in soil. The time for utilization of the artificial grassland with E. nutans could be lengthened by additional phosphorus supplement in soil.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatase from Thylakoid Membranes of Spinach Chloroplasts
Author: Wang Guo-qiang, Peng Jian-xin, Qian Yue-qin, Li Rong and Zhang Zheng-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    A phosphatase from thylakoid membrane of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. ) chloroplasts was isolated with the methods of extraction with n-ButanoL centrifugation at 100000 g for 30 min and chromatographic separation through DEAE-Cellulose (DE 52) column.The phosphatase catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters (4-nitrophenyl phosphate). The optimal pH for enzyme catalysis was below 7. The peak rate of the enzyme reaction was obtained when it was incubated at 60¡æ for 15 min. The phosphatase was inhibited by ATP and phosphate. The results from SDS-PAGE showed that the preparation of enzyme was composed of two proteins.
Abstract (Browse 1779)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Exogenous ABA on the Salt Tolerance of Corn Seedlings Under Salt Stressª¤
Author: Zhao Ke-fu, Fan Hai and Harris P J C ª¤
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    The exogenous ABA in different concentrations was used to spray Zea mays L. (cv. Luyu 11) seedlings under different salinity. The growth status, osomotic potential and osmotic regulatory activity, the contents of Na+ and K+, soluble sugars and proline were determined at different time after treatment. The results were shown as follows: The exogenous ABA gave an increase in salt resistance and dry weight of corn seedlings under different salinity, this increase was as a result of inhanced osmotic adjustment activity and exclusion of sodium ions from the shoot through the action of exogenous ABA, resulting an accumulation of sodium in the roots. Moreover, the decrease of osmotic potential and the increase of osmotic regulatory activity were for reasons of enhancement of organic osmotors, instead inorganic, e.g. Na+ and K+ osmotors. The mechanism of sodium exclusion from the shoot was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2002)  |  Full Text PDF       
Somatic Embryogenesis and Plantlet Regeneration from Callus of Mature Zygotic Embryos of Masson Pine
Author: Huang Jian-qiu, Wei Zhi-ming and Xu Zhi-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    Embryogenic cultures were initiated from mature zygotic embryos of masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb. ) on DCR medium supplemented with 2, 4-D 10 mg/L, KT and BA each at 4 mg/L. Pale and translucent calli with early stage proembryos were maintained and multiplicated on DCR medium supplemented with 2, 4-D 1.0 mg/L KT and BA each at 0.4 mg/L. Robust late-stage proembryos were obtained when the calli were cultured on DCR medium containing 9000 mg/L myo-inositol. Abscisic acid and activated charcoal promoted the formation of cotyledonary embryos at the highest frequency of 35.1 %. Mature somatic embryos could germinate and develop further into plantlets when they were isolated and cultured on a hormone-free DCR medium.
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
Reactivation of Partially Metallocluster-deficient MoFe Protein by Chromium-Containing Reconstituent Solution
Author: Huang Ju-fu, Wang Zhi-ping, Luo Ai-ling, Zhong Ze-pu and Li Jia-ge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    By treating the reduced MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii with o-phenanthroIi e and O2, partially deficient in both FeMoco and P-cluster and inactive protein could be o rained. After incubating the treated protein with a reconstituent solution containing K2CrO4, ferric homocitrate, Na2S and dithiothreitol, a reactivated protein could be obtained. The absorption spectrum, circular dichroism spectrum, and the C2H2 and proton reduction activities of the reactivated protein were remarkably recovered. However, the spectra were somewhat different from those of the reduced MoFe protein. The results showed that some of the reactivated protein might be Cr-containing protein (CrFe protein) which were similar in function, but somewhat different in structure from MoFe protein.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
GA and ABA Regulation on the Cell Cycle in Germination of Tomato Seeds
Author: Liu Yong-qing, Bino R J and Karssen C M
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    Flow cytometric determination of ploidy levels in embryos of GA-deficient, ABA-deficient mutant and isogenic wild type tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) seeds revealed that, large amount of 2C DNA signals existed both in wild type and GA-deficient mutant seeds, showing that most cells had arrested in the cell cycle at presynthesis Gl, whereas a relative amount of 4C proportion which is a sign of seed germination was found in ABA-deficient mutant seeds, indicating that endogenous ABA play a role in regulating the switch from development to germination in seeds. DNA replication was stimulated 1 d after the seed was imbibed in water and a visible germination occurred subsequently either in wild type GA-deficient mutant seeds. But it was not the case for ABA-deficient mutant seeds unless an exogenous GA was supplemented. This demonstrated that DNA replication in embryo root tips cells was subjected to be a compulsory factor for seed germination, whereas endogenous GA triggered DNA synthesis. It was evident that exogenous ABA could inhibit seed germination not by suppressing DNA synthesis but by bloking the route leading to mitosis since a great amount of 4C proportion was found in the germinating wild type and GA-deficient mutant seeds in the ABA solution when visible ger mination did not occur. Finally a simple mode of hormonal regulation on cell cycle in high plants was hypothesized.
Abstract (Browse 1944)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intergeneric Somatic Hybrid Plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. and Lycium barbarum L. by Protoplast Electrofusion
Author: Liu Bao, Xing Miao, Zhang Zhong-heng, He Meng-yuan, Hao Shui, Gu De-feng, Zhao Ran and Wu Xin-kang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    Mesophyll protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum L. and protoplasts from cell suspension of Lycium barbarum L. were heterofused by electrofusion with a frequency of ca. 4%--5%. One hundred cell lines were selected at random identified by isozyme analysis with peroxidase and superoxide dismatase, and the differences from their parent were found. Results indicated that 9 cell lines expressed enzymatic bands characteristic of both parents. Five of the 9 cell lines were highly morphogenic and regenerated numerous young shoots that manifested morphological traits specific to both parents. However, these shoots never grew up or regenerate roots. Esterase analysis of leaf material from the regenerants of 5 morphogenic hybrid cell lines demonstrated that two of them (NL4 and NL8) expressed an unique hybrid band which were not shown in either parents. Cytological observation on parental and NL4 hybrid cell lines revealed that the somatic chromosome number of NL4 varied from 58 to 80, significantly higher than that of either parents. Ribosomal DNA analysis of NL4 and NL8 showed that NL8 covered all fragments of both parents: NL4 did not have the fragments characteristic of Lyciurn barbarurn L. Both hybrids had new fragments, suggestive of intermolecular recombination of rDNAs of the parents. Four normal plants morphologically similar to tabacco parent were obtained from hybrid cell hne NL4, which survived after being transferred to soil. Cytological analysis of root-tips from one of the plants indicated that it has ca. 58 chromosomes. This paper also discussed the problems on the production frequency and incompatibility of somatic cell hybrid.
Abstract (Browse 1959)  |  Full Text PDF       
Naked Oat¡ÁMaize Hybridization
Author: Sun Jing-san, Lu Tie-gang, Wang Jing-lin, Sun Xiu-hua, Yang Cai and Wang Xiu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    There is a certain frequency of fertilization and embryo productivity in naked oat (Avena nuda L. ) ¡Á maize (Zea mays L. ) crosses. The maize pollen readily germinated on the naked oat stigma and more than one pollen tubes grew into the style in about 68% of florets. In a sample of 163 florets fixed after pollination, 5 (3.07%) had only an embryo, 3 (1.84%) had only an endosperm and 10 (6.13%) had both. Overall, 9 haploid and 3 diploid naked oat plants were obtained from 12 seeds which formed following application of maize pollen to about 2200 emasculated naked oat florets. Preliminary studies indicated that elimination of the maize chromosomes occurred early in the embryo and endosperm development. This method gives a new approach for obtaining haplo!d naked oat.
Abstract (Browse 1869)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes of the Nucleolus During Cell Cycle in Triticum aestivum
Author: Zhang Fei-xiong, Jiao Ming-da and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    The ultrastructural changes of the nticleolus during cell cycle in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) were studied by an "en bloc" silver-staining method. It was observed that in interphase, the nucleolus was heavily stained, within which fibrillar centres, dense fibrillar component, granular component and nucleolar vacuoles could be identified. A large quantity of argentine fine granules were distributed in the condensed chromatin. Dur-ing prophase, along with the disintegration of the nucleolus and condensation of the chromatin, the larger heavily-stained granules gradually appeared at the periphery of the chromatin. At late prophase, the materials derived from the nucleolus were spread and deposited on the surface of the chromosomes. The silver-stained, larger granules, deriving from the disintegrated nucleolus, accumulated at the periphery of the metaphase chromosomes and formed an uneven and discontinuous "sheath"-like structure. This "sheath"-like structure was also observed at anaphase. In telophase, the silver-stained nucleolar materials were progressively separated from the "sheath' and fused with each other to form prenucleolar bodies, and at last, participating in the formation of new nucleoli. The results showed that the nucleolar materials were transferred directly to the surface of the chromosomes and formed a discontinuous coat, but not incorporated into the interior of the chromosomes. The silverstained granules inside the chromosomes were neither related to the nucleolus nor to the materials from the disintegrated nucleolus.
Abstract (Browse 1741)  |  Full Text PDF       
Light-Induced Damage of Amino Acid Residues and Degradation of Polypeptides in D1/D2/Cytochrome b559 Complex
Author: Yu Zhen-bao, Kuang Ting-yun, Lu Rong-he, Tang Chong-qin and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    Photosystem ¢ò reaction center D1/Dg/Cyt b559 complex is very sensitive to light. Besides pigments, some amino acids, like histidine and methionine residues on the polypeptide chain, were damaged and D1 and D2 proteins were degraded by illumination. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated an increased content of the D1 and D2 protein dimers and a new band with molecular weight of 41 kD after light treatment. Meanwhile, the D1 and D2 bands were shifted to apparent positions of higher molecular weight. During the consequent incubation in the dark following illumination, although there was no change in the composition of amino acids, the degradation process of D1 and D2 proteins and the production of 41 kD fragment continued. It was proposed that degradation of D1 and D2 proteins was probably due to the photodamage of some amino acids via chemical splitting and co-valent cross-linkage in this process.
Abstract (Browse 1766)  |  Full Text PDF       
Acceptance and Analysis of Plant Science Projects Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1994
Author: Zhu Da-bao and Chen Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
Abstract (Browse 1643)  |  Full Text PDF       
Synthesis of the Spider Insecticidal Gene and Construction of the Plasmid Expressing in Plant
Author: Jiang Hong, Zhu Yu-xian, Wang Ya-ping, Wang Ze-ping and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(4)
      
    According to amino acid sequence of the insecticidal peptide found in venom of Australia spider, the gene was constructed in four sections by annealing partially complementary single-stranded oligos using code preferred in plant. After having been sequenced, this gene was constructed into the plasmid expressing in plant.
Abstract (Browse 1731)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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