June 1995, Volume 37 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
PCR Amplification and Sequencing of a Wheat rbc S Gene Promoter
Author: Zeng Wei-ke, Wang Jin-zhao, Feng Yu, Ding Yue-yun, Wu Nai-hu and Ma Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    The promoter region of the rbc S gene from Triticum aestivum L. FAN-61 was amplified by PCR. Two commonly used restriction enzyme sites, Barn HI and Sma , were respectively added to the 5 and 3 ends of the promoter fragment in order to make it easier for subsequent manipulation. The amplified fragment was cloned into pUC18/19 vectors and its sequence was determined. The 704 bp promoter fragment contained a TATA Box (TATATATA) and an Box (GATAAT). The sequence of CCAAC in it was similar to the sequence of CCAAT found upstream of other eukaryotic genes. Moreover, it also contained the consensus sequences of CCACA and GAACGTGAGCCA which were present in those of other monocot rbc S.
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Dispersed Cuticle of Cordaites from the Coal of Late Paleozoic, North China
Author: Wang Shi-jun, Nie Ji-hong, Yu Bing, Zhang Jing and Quan Biao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    A dispersed cuticle from the coal of Taiyuan Formation, Xuzhou Coalfield, Jiangsu Province, North China was described. It was considered as the cuticle of Cordaites because of its epidermal structures and other features evidenced by optical and scanning electronic microscopic study. Compared with the known cuticles of other species of Cordaites, it was clear that the specimen under discussion was a new type of cuticle of Cordaites. Stomata were few in number on the upper cuticle, and usually arranged in a lengthwise and intermittent file, seperated by nonstomatal cell rows. Stomatal apparatus haplocheillic nearly square in shape, 30--50 m long and 35--55 m wide in size and consisted of a pair of slightly sunken guard cells surrounded by 2 lateral and 2 polar subsidiary cells, orientation longitudinal and regular. Numerous stomatal apparatus on the lower cuticle were arranged mostly in a defenite file seperated by nonstomatic band with 1--10 (often 3--5) rectangular cell rows. Usually small papillae were situated on the outer periclinal wall. The guard cell was reniform and bean-shaped, 10--14 m long and 3--5 m wide in size. The lateral subsidiary cell was more or less rectangular or elliptical in shape, 40--125 m long and 1725 m wide in size, and with papillae on the outer periclinal wall. The polar subsidiary cell was some what round, short-elliptical or some rhomboid in shape and usually shared by adjacent stomatal apparatus in the same file.
Abstract (Browse 1783)  |  Full Text PDF       
Apoplastic -1, 3-Glucanases in Leaves of Tomato Systematically Infected by TMV
Author: Shi Yi-min, Yan Ji-qiong, Fei Xue-nan and Xu Yu-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Apoplastic -1, 3-glucanase was purified from leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) which were systematically infected by TMV (tobacco mosaic virus). The enzyme obtained through -20 acetone precipitation, CM-Sephadex C-25 ion exchange chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex A-25 ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, showed homogeneity in PAGE, and SDS-PAGE which had two isoenzymes of 27 kD and 36 kD. The enzyme hydrolysed laminarin at an optimum pH of 4.8--5.2 and was stable between pH 4--8 and at an optimum temperature between 30--40, and stable at 40 after 1 hour of incubation, It had a Km of 9. 2 mg/mL. SDS-PAGE profiles of the proteins in the tomato leaf intercellular fluid had the bands of 22 kD, 27 kD and 36 kD that were -1, 3-glucanases.
Abstract (Browse 1808)  |  Full Text PDF       
Peroxidase Isozyme Study in the Interspecific Advanced Lines From Gossypium
Author: Wang Zhi-long, Sun Chuan-wei, Zhang Xin-xue, He Jian-xing and Jiang Ru-qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    By using thin-layer-isoelectrofocusing technique, the authors have been studied peroxidase isozymes activities of the true leaves (at the flower bud stage) and the anthers in the interspecific advanced lines (ALs) from Gossypiurn hirsuturn G. arboreum, which have been steadily inherited from twenty generations. It was found that: 1. The peroxidase isozymes were similar in different varieties of plants from the same species, but some what different among species originated from the same genome group, and showed remarkably interspecific isozymes difference among species originated from different genome group. 2. The zymograms of the ALs were similar to those of the female parent G. hirsuturn "Keiyi 2, and obviously different from those of the male parent G. arboreum "Wanzi.
Abstract (Browse 1718)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of Somaclones and Their Chromosomal Variation in Allooctoploid Triticum- Agropyron Hybrids
Author: Wang Guan-lin and Fang Hong-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Calli were induced from the leaves, young inflorescences and mature embryos of five allooctoploid hybrids (2n = 56) between Triticurn aestivum Agropyron intermediurn. Somaclones (regenerated plants) were obtained and 37.5 % of them showed genetic variation. Among the variational somaclones high rate of varied regenerated plants were morphologically similar to wheat and some aneuploid plants were also observed. On the other hand, variations of chromosomal structure such as rearrangement, crossover, translocation, breakage and fusion of chromosomes were detected in calli and pollen mother cell of several regenerated plants. So. somaclone variations of these hybrids could be used in transformation of chromosomal genes. The process of forming green spots in differentiation of callus was also observed. For the first time, the two types of green spots, bud green spot and root green spot, were proposed and the difference between them was described.
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction of Haploid Durum Wheat Plants Through Pollination of Maize Pollen
Author: Sun Jing-san, Lu Tie-gang and Xin Hua-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    When tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum Desf. ) variety DR147 was crossed with maize (Zea mays L. ) variety suppersweet ss 7700, pollen readily germinated on the stigma and one or more pollen tubes reached the embryo sac in 83.4% of wheat florets. The frequency of fertilization and embryo formation was 44.5% and 42. 6% respectively. The hybrids were karyotypically unstable and the maize chromosomes were eliminated early in the development. Thus haploid wheat embryos were form. Although the double fertilization frequency of durum wheat X maize was high (32.7%) to form embryos and endosperms, yet the endosperms were highly abnormal. It was very difficult to produce viable mature seeds from the mother durum wheat plants. The survival of hybrid embryos produced by durum wheat X maize could be improved or prolonged by treatment with 100 ppm 2, 4-D (either by dipping inflorescences in solution or injecting 0.3 to 0.5 mL 2, 4-D solution into the uppermost internodes of the wheat stem). 9 to 13 days after pollination, caryopsis were excised from the pollinated spikes and surface sterilized for peeling of the embryos in different developing stages. The embryos were plated on MS solid medium containing 3% sucrose, 200 mg/L casein hydrolysate for embryo rescue. The experimental results revealed that the well developed embryos (larger than 0. 5 mm with scutellum structure) were easy to produce calli by callus induction or produce haploid wheat plants by embryo rescue, whereas the poorly developed embryos (globular, pear or torpedo-shaped embryos smaller than 0.3 mm) responsed very poorly. The germination frequencies of well and poorly developed embryos were 83.3 % and 12.5 %, respectively. Chromosome counts of root tip cells of the rescued plants proved their haploid nature (2n= 2x= 14).
Abstract (Browse 1980)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biological Properties, Trunk Anatomy and Growth Patterns of Cycas panzhihuaensis
Author: He Yong-hua, Wang Qian and Shi Pei-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Cycas panzhihuaensis L. Zhou et S. Y. Yang is a rare and endangered Cycad that grows in dry-hot valley of Jinsha River. The biological properties, trunk anatomy and growth patterns were studied by field investigation and location observation. The results showed as follows: The sex ratio of cones was strongly male based on reproductive episode. There were no significant sexual differences in leaf number, leaf size, trunk size and ramet number. More than 70% of the adult plants produce ramets, with a mean number of ramets per adult plant of about 2.8. The proportion of individuals with ramets and the number of ramets was positively correlated with trunk height. Maximum mean trunk diameter and mean number of leaves were reached when the plant reached 30--40 cm tall. Further increase of leaf width ceased when the plant reached 5 years old. Leaf reached its maximum length when the trunk was 10 cm tall. Growth units of trunk showed a linear relationship with height. The estimated age could be obtained by counting growth units of the trunk. The survival curve of leaves was well described by Deevey type . The survival time of many leaves was two growth units. The rate of leaf mortality abruptly increased after two growth units. Few leaves could survive five units.
Abstract (Browse 2321)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Physiological Basis of Growth Inhibition of Halophytes by Potassium
Author: Zhao Ke-fu, Fan Hai and Harris P J C
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Salt-dilution halophyte Suaeda salsa, salt-secretory halophytes Atriplex centrMasiatica and Limonium bicolor were treated with different concentrations of KC1 and isosmotic NaC1. It was found that the organic dry weight and net photosynthetic rate of these plants were inhibited by 100--500 and 100--400 mmol/L KC1 respectively, indicating the existance of a relationship between the growth inhibition by K+ and the decrease of photosynthesis in halophytes. After treatment with 100--400 mmol/L KCI, the content of K+ increased while that of Na+ decreased, but there were no change in osmotic potential and ability of osmotic adjustment. It proved that growth inhibition by K+ was related to Na+ deficiency in osmotic adjustment and the toxic effect of high K+ on cells. Further there was no direct relation between the decrease of growth and photosynthesys and the content of sugars in leaves. Moreover, the inhibition of ATPase activity by high K+ concentration was probably related to growth inhibition.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Study on Cis-Trans Interaction in Transcriptional Regulation of a Wheat High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Glutenin Gene
Author: Huang Wei-da, Jiang Xue-un, Huang Hao, He Bin and Sun Chong-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Cis-trans interactions between 5 -flanking region of a HMW glutenin gene and nuclear factors from immature wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds, were studied by using gel retardation assay. Four DNA fragments, totally 900 bp in length, were prepared as probes from a plasmid containing the 5'-flanking region of the HMW glutenin gene by using polymerase chain reaction technique. Gel retardation assays showed that the different nuclear protein factors were able to bind the four DNA fragments specifically. The results indicated that the transcription of the HMW glutenin gene is regulated by multiple cis-trans interactions in a complicated fashion.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anticarcinogenic Alkaloids in the Cultured Cells of Cephalotaxus fortunei
Author: Hu Zhi-bi, Zhou Xiu-jia, Guo Ji-xian, Wu Cheng-wei, Huang Lian-dong, Wu Yao-ping and Zhang Guo-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Calli were induced from the leaves and stems of Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook. f. on MS medium supplemented with 0. 1 mg/L KT and 3 mg/L NAA, and from which the suspension culture cell line of this plant was established for the first time. Factors such as light, pH value of the medium, concentration of plant hormone, carbon resources and addition of substances to the medium, which affect the growth of suspension cells were investigated. The results showed that suspension cells grew appropriately at pH 5.8 with a low concentration of sucrose or glucose, and a low level of NAA. No difference effect on cell growth was seen between sucrose and glucose. Phenylalanine and protein hydrolysate were not suitable for cell growth in suspension cultures, and light inhibited cell growth. A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for detecting the alkaloids in cultured cells. The results revealed the following contents of cephalotaxine and its anticancer esters in cultured cells: harringtonine, isoharringtonine and homoharringtonine. The total alkaloid production in cell suspension cultures was doubled as that in solid cultures. The relative amounts of cephalotaxine, drupacine, harringtonine, homoharringtonine and isoharringtonine in suspension cells was 22%, 6%, 8%, 23% and 41% respectively. In addition, other alkaloid as deoxyharringtonine and some steroids, including ergdst-5-en-3-ol. stigmasta-5, 22-dien-3-ol, -sitosterin and 2-naphthalenamine have also been detected in cell cultures using GC/MS combined technique.
Abstract (Browse 1892)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isozyme Studies in Predicting the Potential Yield of Heterosis in Maize
Author: Yang Tai-xing, Duan Zhang-xiong, Guo Le-qun, Liu Xin-zhi and Si Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Electrophoretic isozyme zymogram patterns of peroxidase (POD), cytochrome oxidase (COD), esterase (Est), -amylase (-Amy), catalase (Cat), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (Acp), etc. obtained from 108 maize inbred lines and their 199 hybrids were analyzed. The soluble protein patterns from these materials were tested as well. The authors had probed into the relationship between the index of zymogram difference and potential yield of heterosis in maize. The results indicated that hybrids from parents which showed high zymogram difference index could produce high heterosis and those from parents which had low zymogram difference index could also produce high heterosis as well. But hybrids from the sister lines which had lower zymogram difference index could only produce lower heterosis. There was no significant statistical difference between isozyme zymogram difference index and potential yield of heteroSis on a genetic background with complex combinaton.
Abstract (Browse 1892)  |  Full Text PDF       
Annonsilin A -- A Novel Seco-Tris-Tetrahydrofuranyl Annonaceous Acetogenin
Author: Yang Ren-zhou, Zheng Xiang-ci, Wu Shu-jun and Qin Guo-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Compound A4 isolated from the seeds of Annona squamosa L. was a new compound with structural characteristics of adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran and seco-bis-tetrafuranyl annonaceous acetogenins. A4 was found as the first example of this new type of seco-tris-tetrahy- drofuranyl annonaceous acetogenins and was named annonsilin A.
Abstract (Browse 1782)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Materials of the Early Cretaceous Monolete Spore Ferns and Their Taxonomic Study
Author: Deng Sheng-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(6)
      
    Based upon the characters of the fertile segments and the reproductive structures, four early Cretaceous monolete spore ferns: Athyrium asymmetricum (Meng) comb. nov. of Athyriaceae, Asplenium popovii Samylina of Aspleniaceae, Dryopterites gracilis sp. nov. and D. liaoningensis sp. nov. of Dryopteriaceae have been described from Xiaominganbei Formation, Tiefa Basin, Liaoning Province, China.
Abstract (Browse 1746)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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