July 1995, Volume 37 Issue 7

 

          Research Articles
Studies on Chemical Constituents of Rhodiola phariensis (H. Ohla) S. H. Fu
Author: Ma Zhong-wu,He Guan-fu, Wu Li-li, Qiu Lin-gang,Chen Jin-rui and Ni Zhi-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    Rhodiola phariensis (H. Ohla) S. H. Fu is native to China. This species is distributed in Xizang of China. So far no datum of its chemical constituents has been recorded. Fourteen crystalline substances were isolated from the petroleum ether and ethanol extractions of the rhizome of this plant. Thirteen of them were identified as 1-docosanol, cerotic acid, 1-nonadecanol, ¦Â-sitosterol, 1-hepacosanol, salidroside, maltose, gossypin, daucosterol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, gallic acid, umbelliferone by chemical and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C- NMR, and MS) analysis. ¢ú was a new compound named pharienside. It' s structure was elucidated as p-O-galloy salidroside by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and chemical reactions. Gossypin was obtained from the genus Rhodiola L. for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution, Accumulation, and Cycling of Several Mineral Elements of the Lower Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest in Heishiding Nature Reserve
Author: Chen Zhang-he, Wang Bo-sun, Zhang Hong-da (Chang Hong-ta) and Peng Shao-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    The distribution, accumulation, and cycling of N, P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg in terms of their concentration in the biomass was quite different from those in soil in Heishiding Nature Reserve (111¡ã53¡ä E, 23¡ã27¡ä N). The concentrations of N, Ca and P were higher in plant, and much lower in soil. The average content of the elements in different organs was in the order as: leaf>branch>bark>root>wood, although this was not true for all the elements. Trunk and leaf had the most and the least accumulation of the elements, respectively, and branch and root were comparable. In the forest, most of the elements (97 %) were concen- trated in the tree layer. The total amount of elements in the ecosystem was 3324.2 kg¡¤ ha-1 among which N amounted 1470.5, P 51.0, K 1097.7, Na 22.6, Ca 566.2, and Mg 116.2. Yearly absorption of the elements was 432.2 kg ¡¤ ha-1 among which N amounted 207.1, P 6.5, K 144.9, Na 6.9, Ca 52.6, and Mg 14. 1; and element absorption among different organs accounted as 35.0 kg ¡¤ ha-1 ¡¤ a-1 in wood, 14.8, in bark, 66.1 in branch, 143.2 in leaf, 25.3 in root, and 147.7 in fine root (D<3 mm). Total return of the elements from litterfall, death and fallen trees was 311.8 kg ¡¤ ha-1 ¡¤ a-1, among which N accounted for 154.3, P 4.7, K 102.1, Na 6.2, Ca 34.5, and Mg 10.0. Return from different organs was: wood 10.2, bark 4.3, branch 17.0, leaf 123.0, root (not in- cluding fine root) 9.4, and fine root 147.7. Total retention was 120.4 kg ¡¤ ha-1 ¡¤ a-1 among which N accounted for 52.8, P 1.8, K 42.8, Na 0. 7, Ca 18. 1, and Mg 4.1; retention in different organs was: wood 24.8, bark 10.5, branch 49.1, leaf 20. 2, and root 15.9. Ca, Mg and P have higher cycling and utilization efficiencies.
Abstract (Browse 1753)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Mannitol Pretreatment on Androgenesis of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Author: Li Wen-ze, Song Zi-hong, Jing Jian-kang and Hu Han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    The effects of mannitol pretreatment on androgenesis of barley were systematically studied in comparison with that of cold pretreatment and control. The results showed that mannitol pretreatment could significantly increase the frequency of pollen survival reaching 19.0% on the eighth day, while in cold pretreatment and control they were 8.4% and 6.6 %, respectively. Mannitol pretreatment could also improve the quality of pollen and inhibit starch production from microspore, which were quite advantageous to microspore division and development. The developing period was shortened 2--3 days as compared with cold pretreatment and control. The major developmental pathways of androgenesis after mannitol pretreatment were the equal division (B pathway). In addition, the majority of microspore nuclei were diploids. On the contrary, the major microspores pretreated with low temperature had fewer chromosomes than with mannitol pretreatment, the microspore nuclei were haploids.
Abstract (Browse 1926)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cold Tolerance of Indica Type Rice in Relation to Its Parents
Author: Li Ping, Chen Yi-zhu, Li Xiao-ping and Liu Hong-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    To understand the inheritance of cold tolerant characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L. ), the authors investigated the cold tolerance of hybrid progenies in relation to their parental lines which were "Qinghua 6¡ªa cold sensitive cultivar and "Guishan¡¯aixuan 3¡±¡ª a cold tolerant cultivar. The hybrid progenies were the cross and the reciprocal cross of these two cultivars. Results showed that after 1¡æ dark or light (250 ¦Ìmol ¡¤ m-2 ¡¤ s-1) treatment, the survival rate of seedlings was higher in "Guishan¡¯aixuan 3¡± than that in "Qinghua 6¡±. That of the hybrid "Qinghua 6¡± ( ¡á )¡Á "Guishan¡¯aixuan 3¡± (¡â) was higher than that . in hybrid "Guishan¡¯aixuan 3¡± ( ¡á ) ¡Á "Qinghua 6¡± (¡â). Detached flag leaves at heading stage when treated in light and chilling condition for 12, 24, 36 h, there was also less decrease of photosynthesis in "Guishan¡¯aixuan 3¡± and "Qinghua 6¡± ( ¡á ) ¡Á "Guishan¡¯aixuan 3¡± (¡â) than in ¡°Qinghua 6¡± and ¡°Guishan¡¯aixuan 3¡± ( ¡á ) ¡Á ¡°Qinghua 6¡± ( ¡â ). After being treated for 12 h, respiratory rate rose in the former but not the latter. Changes of fluorescence parameters, rise of Fo and decline of Fm and Fv, were caused by 1 ¡æ and light (250 ¦Ìmol¡¤m-2¡¤s-1) treatment. The decrease of Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm were more apparent in the former than in the latter after light and chilling treatment for 24 h, with a much faster recovery under normal temperature in the former than in the latter. Effect of the natural low temperature (cold, dew and wind) on the chlorophyll fluorescence of rice was similar to that of artificial treatment. It was suggested that cold tolerance of rice progenies seemed to be from maternal inheritance.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
Sporo-Pollen Assemblages from Late Phase of Early Cretaceous in Minhe Basin
Author: Ji Li-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    Plenty of sporo-pollen fossils were found from the Upper Subformation of Hekou Formation at Chaijiatai, Lanzhou of Gansu, Minhe Basin. The sporo-pollen assemblage of the upper stratum of the Upper Suhformation was named as Schizaeoisporites-Cicatricosisporites. It could be further divided into two subassemblages. The upper one was Classopollis-Schiza- eoisporites, and the lower one was Piceapollenites-Cicatricosisporites. By analysing the periods of the important species and genera in the assemblage and comparing with the known assemblages in various districts, the author cosidered that the geologic age of the assemblage was the late phase of Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Alhian). The age of the second subassemblage was later which was Albian. So far, the stratum where the sporo-pollen fossils assemblage were found was the uppermost one of the Lower Cretaceous that have been found in Minhe Basin.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Application of Electric Coupling on Basic Research of Grafting
Author: Lu Shan-fa and Yang Shi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    Electrical resistance changes in concert with the histological changes during the development of graft union. Four phases of change in electrical resistance of the compatible graft were demonstrated. Phase ¢ñ: There was a slight decrease of the electrical resistance, lasting about several hours. Phase ¢ò The resistance values increase rapidly, lasting for two days or so. Phase ¢ó: In the next four days, the resistance values decreased progressively. Phase ¢ô: The resistance values levelled off and approximated equal to the level before grafting. In contrast to the compatible grafts, three types of resistance change were observed in the incompatible graft: (1) The resistance values increased rapidly on the first day after grafting but only slightly afterwards decreased. (2) The electrical resistance rose rapidly to its peak on the first day after grafting and decreased rapidly in 2--3 days followed by steady increase again. (3) The change of resistance follows the track as in (2) for 2--3 days and then increased rapidly afterwards. The results suggested that measurement of electrical resistance could be useful tool for the detection of graft compatibility/incompatibility in commercial practice and basic research of plant grafting.
Abstract (Browse 1814)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical Studies on Secondary Xylem and Secondary Phloem of Dipentodon sinicus
Author: Zhang Xin-ying and Gao Xin-zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    The anatomy of secondary xylem and secondary phloem in Dipentodon sinicus Dunn a precious and protected plant in China was studied, and compared with the wood anatomy of 8 other genera in Celastraceae. The main characteristics of this genus were described as follows: vessel members length were relatively long with scalariform perforations in oblique end walls, which were formed by 14 (9--28) bars. Intervessel pits possessed scalariform pattern. Libriform fibres and tracheid-fibres were septate. The sieve tube elements of the secondary phloem were relatively shorter, with simple sieve plates in the slightly inclined to almost horizontal end walls. There was no obvious boundary between the functional and non-functional phloem. In the Baileyan sense, the secondary xylem possessed a lower level of specialization, and displayed an obviously primitive and conservative character. In contrast, the secondary phloem possessed a higher level of specialization and displayed advanced characters. Therefore, the phylogenetic evolution between xylem and phloem was not synchronous in this genus. The result provided a novel pattern in the development of xylem and phloem structure which has not been noticed before.
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes and Regulation of Stress Ethylene Production and Polyamine Content in Spring Wheat Leaves Exposed to O3
Author: An Li-zhe and Wang Xun-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    Spring wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. ) at 4-leaf stage were fumigated with 03 (0. 796¡À 0.04 mg/m3) in open-top chambes. The changes and regulation of stress ethylene production and polyamine metabolism in leaves were emphatically investigated. The results revealed that the stress ethylene production in leaves exposed to 03 increased at first and declined afterwards; and could be inhibited by COC12. During the initial stage of 03 stress, the activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) increased, but with the augment of leaf injury caused by 03, the ADC activity was correspondingly retarded. After leaves were sprayed with p-chloromercuri benzoie acid (PCMB), the ADC activity was inhibited and putamine content was reduced. However the Spd and Spm content rose slightly. After leaves were sprayed with CoC12, the ADC activity was not significantly altered, whereas the content of Spd and Spm accumulated greatly. Moreover, the high concentration of Spd and Spm maintained for a long time so as the leaf injury from 03 stress became less serious. These results indicate that the potyamine content can be accumulated by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The high concentration of Spd and Spm plays a major role in protection against 03 injury. Change of polyamine content in leaves is an adaptive regulatory mechanism against 03 stress.
Abstract (Browse 1809)  |  Full Text PDF       
Forms and Fates of Rhizobial Bacteria Present in the Infected Host Cells of Nodules
Author: Shan Xue-qin, Hou Shu-qin and Jing Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    There were two forms of rhizobial bacteria present in infected host cells of nodules. One was bacteroids which were enclosed in peribacteroid membrane originated from the infected host cells. The other was rhizobia as vegetative cells. The infected host cells were occupied by most of the bacteroids and a certain number of the vegetative cells respectively. With the nodule senescence, there were two kinds of fate of the bacteria: The bacteroids degenerated togather with the infected host cells at the same time and further disintegrated completely, so it is not possible that the disintegrated bacteroids could be returned into soil to revive: the vegetative cells did not disintegrate and die when the infected host cells senesced, eventually could be turned back into soil. The vegetative cells may play an important role, on the one hand, in cycle between legume and soil, on the other hand, maintain rhizobia in natural balance of population ecosystem.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Secretory Stigmas in Populus: Development, Cytochemistry, Ultrastructure and Their Relation to Intersectional Incompatibility
Author: Li Wen-dian, Sun Fu-sheng, Cheng Xiao-fei and Zhu Tong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    The stigmas of five species, Populus euphratica Oliv., P. alba L., P. sirnonii Carr., P. lasiocarpa Oliv. and P. nigra L. have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that exudates are present in the intercellular spaces, in the clefts between the multicellular papillae and on the receptive surface. Release and movement of exudates can be visualized when the fresh stigmas are stained with sudan ¢ó and auramine O. Paraffin and semithin resin sections of stigmas after glutaraldehyde-osmium fixation evidence the lipidic nature of the exudates. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the glandular features of the stigmatic papillae cells, such as abundance of rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, polyribosomes, and well-developed dictyosomes with secretory vesicles. Peuicle and epicuticular lamellate layers which have been considered as typical features of the dry-type stigmas are also present in the species where stigmas appear extremely wet. It is concluded that stigmas in all of the five species are secretory at the receptive stage. Well-developed generative and sperm ceils were observed in the pollen tubes penetrating through the deep layers of the stigmatic tissue in the reciprocal crosses between P. euphratica and P. simonii, which indicated that there is no significant barrier in the stigma.
Abstract (Browse 1959)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Gene Encoding Rice 10 kD Prolamin
Author: You Li-ru, Xie Ming, Qu Li-jia, Liang Xiao-wen, Gu Hong-ya and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(7)
      
    Using PCR technique, two prolamin genes from Oryza sativa var. indica (cv. Guanglu¡ä ai) and O. sativa var. japonica (cv. Zhonghua 8) were amplified and cloned. The prolamin gene contained 525 base pairs and encoded 134 amino acid residues. The two genes cloned from two different rice cultivars exhibited 100% homology and were highly homologous with the 10 kD prolamin gene in other rice species amountin an homology ranging from 96.6% to 100%. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 34.2% homology with that of maize 10 kD prolamin. As for dicots, only two types of storage protein shared some homology with rice 10 kD prolamin. One was from Brazil nut and the other from castor bean. Analysis on the signal peptide of rice 10 kD prolamin showed that it shared higher homology with that of storage proteins in some monocots such as maize, sorghum and oat. No similar sequence was found in dicots. The gene sequences of "Guangluai¡± and "Zhonghua 8¡± 10 kD prolamin would appear in EMBL data-base under the accession number L36604