August 1995, Volume 37 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Studies on Transgenic Potato with High Essential Amino Acid Encoding Gene
Author: Wang Guang-qing, Wang Yun-zhu, Yang Jin-shui, Ying Yan-ru, Qian Min and Ge Kou-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Leaf discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum) "Dongnong 303 sterile seedlings were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 harbouring a helper plasmid pGV2260 and a binary vector plasmid pPZH1. Wounded leaves formed kanamycin-resistant calli on a selective medium. The transformation rates ranged from 4 % to 38 % for different varieties. Regenerated transgenic plantlets confirmed by NPT (neomycin phosphotransferase) activity assay and DNA hybridization have been obtained. The data of amino acid assay revealed that the contents of most amino acids of the transgenic microtubers displayed various increments as compared with those of control microtubers and that the content of total amino acids increased by 96.1% over the control.
Abstract (Browse 1951)  |  Full Text PDF       
Localization of Heat Shock Protein of Low Molecular Weight by Electromicroscopic Immunogold-Labelling
Author: Liu Jian, Yang Xiao-he and Wu Xian-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Inspire of the large amount of low molecular weight heat shock protein (LMW HSP) present in plant, its function has still not been clearly known. Understanding the distribution and movement of LMW HSP in cells could provide useful information about its biological functions. A 14 kD HSP was purified from the microsome isolated from the bean of a highly thermotolerant plant Phaseolus vulgaris. Antiserum against this protein was preparaed. The localization of the protein in the cell was analysed by means of electromicroscopic immunogold-labelling method. The images of electromicrograph showed that 14 kD HSP mainly existed in both cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum and that no labeled gold was found in tonoplasma, mitochondria or cell wall.
Abstract (Browse 1771)  |  Full Text PDF       
Reprobing into Rice Breeding for High Photosynthetic Efficiency
Author: Tu Zeng-ping, Lin Xiu-zhen, Cai Wei-juan and Yu Zhao-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    The leaf area index (LAI) development, which is related to the capacity of light interception, and the maximum leaf photosynthetic rate (Pmax), which related to the efficiency of light energy conversion, are two key photosynthetic traits to increase the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Using the Guangdong rice "Qiguizao', which belongs to low light adapt-able ecotype and characterized by quick developing LAI, and the US rice "Lemont', which belongs to high light adaptable ecotype and characterized by higher light saturation point of photosynthesis, as parents to make a hybrid (Le/Qi) by means of chemical hybridizing agent, the authors successfully solved the contradiction between LAI and Prix. The hybrid Le/Qi not only showed quick developing LAI, but also higher Pmax, less or no midday depression of photosynthesis and less or no photooxidation under high light induced conditions. The photosynthetic productivity and adaptability of Le/Qi were increased over 20 % and improved a lot according to the growth analysis under different light and temperature conditions in growth chambers and field trials in flatlands, hilly land or mountain area. This study indicated that utilization of high light adaptable US elite rice as parent to make a hybrid with Guangdong low light adaptable local elite rice by means of chemical hybridizing agent is an effective and quick breeding approach to improve the adaptability of Guangdong rice to high light and to increase the photosynthetic productivity in turn the economic income.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Fusinized-Wood Fossils of Podocarpaceae from Huolinhe Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China
Author: Cui Jin-zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Some fusinized-wood fossils from seam 14 and seam 17 of Lower Coal-bearing Member of Huolinhe Formation in Huolinhe Coalfield were observed and described. They were as- signed to Podocarpoxylon dacrydioides sp. nov., Podocarposcylon sp., Phyllocladoxylon sp. 1 and Phyllocladoscylon sp. 2. P odocarpoylon and Phyllocladoxylon were two types of ancient wood fossils of Podocarpaceae. That both of them were found in Huolinhe Coalfield, seven among the twelve observed specimens belonged to the former, and the others to the latter, indicating that the plants of Podocarpaceae might be the main coal-forming plants in the coalfield.
Abstract (Browse 1811)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seed Germination and Seedling Development of Several Tree Species in the Lower Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaf Forest
Author: Chen Zhang-he, Chen Hui-qin, Liu Hui-qiong, Guo Li-rong and Wen He-qun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Studies on seed germination and seedling development of Ormosia glaberrima Wu, Ouercus hui Chun, Diospyros morrisiana Hance, Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent., Toona sinensis (A. Tuss. ) Roem. and Paulownia fortunei (Seem.) Hemsl. revealed that had rapid germination but Ormosia glaberrirna. Germination began 2--3 days and ceased 24 weeks after the initiation of the experiment. Fast-growing sun trees Oroxylum indicurn, T. sinensis, and P. fortunei germinated faster than did the species in the forest. Germination of Oroxylum glaberrirna was delayed because of its hard seed coat, but became rapid when its coat was slit open. Species in the forest and Oroxylurn indicurn and T. sinensis could germinate in both dark and light, tiny seeds of P. fortunei germinated poorly in dark. Water absorption of seeds presented three phases which varied among the species. Morphology of the seedlings might be related to shading-tolerance and growth speed of species.
Abstract (Browse 2090)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Floristic Composition Similarity of Mangrove Among Their Global Distribution Regions
Author: Han Bo-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Based on set theory, the similarity and disparity indices among plant distribution regions were defined with the Jaccards similarity index. The similarity among six mangrove distribution regions in the world was analysed. The results showed that the region most similar to the eastern coast of Africa was the coast of Oceania, the region most similar to the coast of Asia and the eastern Pacific Archipelago was the coast of Oceania, the region most similar to the western coast of America was the western coast of Africa, the region most similar to the western coast of Africa was the eastern coast of America. By cluster analysis of the six mangrove distribution regions, the western coast of Africa and the eastern coast of America, the coast of Asia and eastern Pacific Archipelago and the coast of Oceania, were merged into two large regions respectively. The six mangrove distribution regions were further merged into two large regions which were consistent with the east central group and the west central group.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Convergent Passages of Water Conducting Elements in Secondary Xylem of Fagaceae
Author: Lin Jin-xing and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Structural variations in the convergent passages of water conducting elements were described in secondary xylem of 70 species of Fagaceae. Two types of water conducting systems were recognized on the ground of water-flow directions. The convergent passages of the longitudinal system mainly exhibited in the forms as perforations between the ends of Vessel elements, lateral wall pitting between the lateral walls of vessel elements, pitting be-tween vessel elements and imperforate tracheary elements, and pitting between imperforate tracheary elements. The convergent passages in the transverse system consisted of pitting between vessel elements and ray cells, pitting between imperforated tracheary elements and ray cells and simple pitting between ray cells. In addition, the roles of vasicentric tracheids and broad rays played in terms of conducting effectiveness and efficiency as proposed by Zimmermann were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1749)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Jincheng Juice Sac of Citrus sinensis
Author: Guan Xue-lian, Zhu Cheng and Zhang Jin-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Ultrastructure of Jincheng juice sac of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. was continuously investigated from the initial cell to the stalk-bearing sac. The initial cell and cells formed globularstructure, as well as the uper cells of the column-structure were typical meristem cells with mitochondria, plastids, rough endoplasmic reticulum, rich ribosome without Golgi body in their dense cytoplasm. These meristem cells would differentiate into parenchyma ceils pro2 viding storage function. At the beginning of differentiation of the meristem cells, the number of small vacuoles increased and some Golgi bodies appeared. Small vacuoles gradually fused into a central vacuole. During the fusion of small vacuoles, the cytoplasm became thinned, but still contained mitochondria, plastids, Golgi bodies, end0plasmic reticulum and some chromplasts with lipid drops. Almost no organelle were ever observed in the parenchyma cells of juice sac from mature fruit.
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observation of Pollen Tube Behaviour and Early Embryogenesis Following Interspecies Pollination Between Actinidia deliciosa and A. arguta
Author: Liang Tie-bing and Mu Xi-jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    The pollen tube behaviour in the style and early embryogenesis following interspecies pollination between Actinidia deliciosa No. 26 and A. arguta were observed by means of fluorescence and light microscopy. Pollen grains germinated on the papillate stigma and pollen tubes grew along the V-shaped open-type style. Pollen tubes showed slower growth and reached the ovules 50--60 hours later than those of the control. Several abnormalities of pollen tubes have been observed at the base of the style, including wave-like pollen tubes, pollen tubes with swollen or pointed tips, with variable diameters, and a few with irregular growth. Random deposition of callose along pollen tube wall and even the whole wall was observed. About 26.74 % of the ovules were successfully fertilized and developed into seeds, among them 68.50% of the seeds were normal and 31.50% were abortive. About 11.41% were empty seeds without embryo and endosperm. Unfertilized small ovule was 61.45 %. Normal seed and its embryo were smaller than those of the control. The development of embryo was of the Soland type. The endosperm was cellular. The zygote remained quiescent for about 12-15 days before it started to divide, eventually forming a cotyledonary embryo 50 days after pollination.
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
Specific Isozyme Marker of a Virus Resistant Barley Derived from Interspecies Cross Between Hordeum vulgare and H. bulbosum
Author: Zhang De-yu, Zhong Yu-quan, Wang Yu-huan, Jiang Jin-ruo, Zhong Shao-bin, Shi Su-yun and Yao Jing-xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    A diploid barley cultivar "Supi 1" was crossed with a tetraploid Hordeum bulbosum GBC141 to transfer the disease resistant traits. Eleven viable triploid F1 plants were produced by means of embryo rescue technique. The resulting triploid hybrids were backcrossed to diploid barley, and seven BC1 plants were obtained. One of the BC1 plants exhibited barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) resistance when grown in the diseased nursery. Isozyme analysis of H. vulgate, H. bulbosum and their backcross hybrids were made via slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. The primary results showed that zymogram variation could be obviously found between diploid barley "Supi 1' and tetraploid H. bulbosurn "GBC141. A peroxidase isozyme (Rf=0.47) from H. bulbosum was detected in the peroxidase isozyme zymogram of young roots of backcross hybrid BC1-2. This peroxidase isozyme was related to the BaYMV resistance but the linkage relation will be determined by the genetic analysis of the F2 population in the future. The BaYMV resistant line of the backcross with isozyme marker is the important resource of barley disease-resistant breeding.
Abstract (Browse 1783)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation, Purification and Some Properties of Invertase from Leaves of Mandarin Orange
Author: Tang Yun-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Highly active acid invertase was found in the young leaf extract of mandarin orange Citrus reticulata Blanco). The invertase was isolated and purified from the young leaf extract of mandarin orange through the procedures of ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. 6.4% of the invertase activity was recovered. Invertase was 179.2-folds purified. The purified invertase preparation was homogeneous as shown in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Sephacryl S-200 molecular sieve chromatography. The molecular weight of the native invertase determined by gel filtration was 80 kD. The invertase consists of two identical subunits with apparent equal subunit weight of 40 kD as determined on SDS-PAGE. The invertase followed typical Michaelis-Menten Kinetics with apparent Km Of 1. 6 10-2 mol/L for sucrose. Vmax of the invertase was 100 mg reducing sugar mg-1 protein h-1 The optimum pH was 5.0 (stable from 4.55.5). The optimum temperature was 55.
Abstract (Browse 2470)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Purification of Viable Sperm Cells from Stored Bicellular Pollen of Lilium davidii Duch.
Author: Chen Zhong-ying, Zhu Guang-lian and Cao Zong-xun (Tsao T. H.)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    A successful mass isolation of viable sperm cells from stored bicellular pollen of Lilium davidii Duch. was reported. When fresh pollen was cultured in BKS 15 medium, 87 % germinated in which the generative cells of the fresh pollen underwent mitosis and formed sperm cells within 28 hours. For pollen stored at -20 and -70 for 6 months, only less than 20 % germinated; but the germination percentage rose to 80 % after they have been hydrated and gradually warmed. Pollen grains of L. davidii which have been stored at -70 for 6 months, after being thawed were firstly germinated in a 15% sucrose medium for 28 hours, and then osmotically shocked with 10 % sucrose Solution. The solution was later adjusted to a final sucrose concentration of 15%. After density gradient centrifugation, 4 mL suspension of purified sperm cells with a density of 6 106 cells/mL were obtained at the interphase of 5%15% percoll, with a 12% yield of viable sperm cells. The purified sperm cells had a diameter of 1315 m and reacted positive to fluorochrome, indicating that they have intact plasma membrane.
Abstract (Browse 1849)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Sequencing of phbB and phbC in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 and Construction of Their Plant Expression Vectors
Author: Xie An-yong, Cui Xiao-jiang and Song Yan-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase gene (phbB) and poly--hydroxybu-tyrate (PHB) synthase gene (phbC) for biosynthesis of PHB were amplified and cloned from chromosomal DNA of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 using PCR. The restriction maps and sequencing results show that both phbB and phbC have been cloned. It was found that the two genes cloned were highly homologous in DNA sequences to those being reported abroad. By DNA processing, the authors have constructed three tuber-specific plant expression vectors: pPSAGB (containing phbB), pBIBGC (containing phbC) and pPSAGCB (containing both phbB and phbC).
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
Male Sterile Tobacco Plants Obtained by Genetical-Engineering
Author: Li Sheng-guo, Liu Yu-le, Zhu Feng, Luo Yu-ying, Kang Liang-yi and Tian Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(8)
      
    Chimaeric TA29-barnase gene was obtained by fusing tobacco anther-specific promoter TA29, barnase gene and NOS terminator and was inserted into a plant expression yector containing bromoxynil-resistant bxn gene and then introduced into tobacco plants. Some transgenic tobacco plants were resistant to 1.0 10-3 mol/L bromoxynil. At about 26, all of the 9 transgenic plants were male fertile; However, at 20, 7 out of 11 transgenic plants were male sterile.
Abstract (Browse 1871)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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