September 1995, Volume 37 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
Accumulation of Superoxide Radical in Corn Leaves During Waterlogging
Author: Yan Bin, Dai Qiu-jie, Liu Xiao-zhong, Huang Shao-bai and Wang Zhi-xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    The changes in superoxide (O2-) production, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and active oxygen scavenging system in corn (Zea mays L. ) leaves under waterlogging stress were investigated to explore the relationship between O2- accumulation and waterlogging injury. Corn plants were grown in pots in a controlled environment. The results showed that prolonged waterlogging treatment conducted at 4-leaf stage caused a significant increase in the production of O2- and H2O2, while the extent of O2- change was more than that of H2O2. Malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, chlorophyll loss and electrolye leakage were positively correlated with O2- production in corn waterlogged leaves. Foliage spraying with 0. 1 mmol/L paraquat (02- producer) at the start of waterlogging treatment led to a significant increase in 02-, H202 and MDA levels. The addition of DDTC (SOD activity inhibitor) aggravated 02- formation in waterlogged leaves. Waterlogging apperantly reduced the activities of SOD. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (AP) and the concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH). It was noted that the decline in SOD activity proceeded the diminishment of H2O2 scavengers in chloroplasts (i. e. AP, AsA and GSH). The present findings suggest that O2- is involved in waterlogging damage, and excessive accumulation of 02- is due to the reduced SOD activity.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Different Pretreatment on Three Endogenous Hormones Contents and Peroxidase ctivity in Barley Anther
Author: Li Wen-ze, Song Zi-hong, Jing Jian-kang and Hu Han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    Endogenous hormones (ABA, IAA, IPA) contents and peroxidase activity during the mannitol and cold pretreatment periods were measured in two varietion ("Igri' and "Har- rington' ) barley (Hordeum vulgate L. ) anther. The results were as follows: Firstly, anther endogenous hormone contents were identical changes in both varieties during mannitol pretreatment period. The endogenous hormone contents of anthers were rapidly increased during the early period of pretreatment, reaching their maximum at the first 12 h or the 1st day. After then. the contents began to reduce until they reached a stable level. The result suggested that combined effect of some endogenous hormones, including ABA, was essential for changing the developmental pathway of pollen. Secondly, similar changes in peroxidase activity during the period of mannitol pretreatment were seen in both barley varieties. The activity of peroxidase was remarkably increased during the early period of pretreatment, being highest at the 3rd day. After that, it was reduced from the 3rd day to the 5th day, but increased again from the 5th day to the 7th day. Finally, there were two peaks of peroxidase activity during the cold pretreatment period, which were at the 2nd day and the 14th day for "Harrington' or the 5th day and the 21st day for "Igri'. The second peak was higher than the first one. A second increase in the peroxidase activity for both genotypes were observed from the 28th day to the 35th day during the cold pretreatment period as this phenomenon was in concert with that of mannitol pretreatment.
Abstract (Browse 1716)  |  Full Text PDF       
Change in Cytokinin Levels in Reproductive Organs of Nicotiana tabacum Before and After Pollination
Author: Yang Zhong-han, Yang Ying-zhou and Cao Zong-xun(Tsao T H)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    Immunoaffinity systems and indirect competitive ELISA were used to determine the changes of cytokinin (CTK) content in reproductive organs of Nicotiana tabacum before and after pollination. It was found that t-ZR and iPA existed in all reproductive organs tested, and their contents were higher in female than in male organs. On the 5th day before anthesis. CTK reached its peak value in anthers and filaments, then it declined. In styles, CTK content increased after pollination and reached its peak one day later. In ovaries, levels of CTK began to increase two days after pollination and reached its peak two days later, just at the time when fertilization took place. If unpollinated, CTK levels decreased both in styles and ovaries. Pollination and fertilization resulted in an increment of CTK in pistils, accompanied with the process of pollen germinfition and pollen tube growth. It could thus be inferred that t-ZR and iPA played some active role in pollination and fertilization.
Abstract (Browse 1713)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Variation and IndicaJaponica Differentiation in Yunnan Indigenous Rice
Author: Liu Ke-de, Zhang Qi-fa, Zhang Duan-pin and Xie Yue-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    Yunnan, in Southwest China, has long been recognized as part of a center of diversity for Asia cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The authors surveyed DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in a sample of 87 accessions from Yunnan indigenous rice with 7 single copy probes. The results ihdicated that both indica and japonica rice are genetically highly diverse. The number of alleles and the level of genic diversity in japonica rice were higher than those in indica rice. The results also showed that indica and japonica rices were clearly differentiated and the extent of differentiation varies with chromosomal regions as represented by the RFLP markers. Authors' results appeared to be in favor of the diphyletic hypothesis concerning the origin of cultivated rice.
Abstract (Browse 1804)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of KCN and NaN3 Pretreatment on the Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Tobacco Callus
Author: Wen Jiang-qi and Liang Hou-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    The effects of KCN (0.5mmol/L) and NaN3 (0.01 mmol/L) pretreatment on the operation of the alternative pathway in subcultured tobacco (Nicotiana rustica L. cv. Gansu yellow flower) callus were analyzed. After treatment with KCN and NaN3 for 12 h, the total respiration rate (Vt) decreased by 12% and 17%, whereas oxygen consuption by the cytochrome pathway decreased by 22% and 28% respectively. The capacity of the alternative pathway (Valt) remained constant, while the activity of the alternative pathway (ѡ Valt ) inreased slightly. This changing pattern led to a declined contribution of the cytochrome pathway to the total respiration rate and an increased activity of the alternative pathway. Treatment with KCN for 24 h brought about a slight rise of oxygen consumption by the cytochrome pathway as compared with that in callus treated for 12 h, but the oxygen consumption was still lower than that in the untreated callus. Treatment with NaN3 for 24 h resulted in a profound decrease of the cytochrome pathway operation and a continuing increase of the alternative pathway operation. These data indicated that the enhanced operation of the alternative pathway played a compensatory role to the total respiration when the cytochrome pathway was partially inhibited in tobacco callus.
Abstract (Browse 2038)  |  Full Text PDF       
Haploid Plant Regeneration from Protoplast Cultures of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)
Author: Lu Tie-gang and Sun Jing-san(Sun C S)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    Haploid suspension callus cultures from embryos of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. ) maize (Zea mays L. ) crosses were used for protoplast isolation. Experimental results from enzyme digestion showed large numbers of viable protoplasts released from both suspension culture and solid culture of callus cut into small pieces of 1 mm in size prior to incubation in an enzyme solution containing 2.0% cellulase RS and 0.5 % pectolyase Y-23. Division frequency of protoplasts isolated from suspension cultured callus was quite different from that of solid cultured callus, however, the former being 5.20%, and the latter less than 1.0% when cultured on KM8p medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2, 4-D using LMP (low melting point) agarose embedding method. Embryogenic ealli could be selected out from protoplast-derived microcalli after 2 to 3 subcultures. Plants could be regenerated from protoplast-derived embryogenic calli after 20 days of culture on differentiation medium I (MS basal medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L 2, 4-D, 1.0 mg/L BAP, 0. I mg/L NAA, 3 %/4 su- crose, 200 mg/L casein hydrolysate, 146 mg/L glutamine, 300 mg/L aspartic acid) and (components were the same as I without 2, 4-D) respectively. The plant regeneration frequency was about 20%. Chromosome count of root tip cells of 4 plants of the 22 protoplast- derived plants sampled at random revealed haploid in nature (2n= 2x= 14).
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Membrane Surface Proteins of Sperm Cells and Somatic Protoplasts of Zea mays
Author: Chen Pin, Yang Zhong-han and Cao Zong-+un(Tsao T H)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    Viable sperm cells and somatic protoplasts (leaf, callus) of Zea mays were successfully isolated and purified. The plasma membrane surface proteins of intact somatic protoplasts and sperm cells were compared after probing with N-hydroxysuccinimido-biotin (NHS-bi-otin). Horseradish peroxidase-labelled avidin (HRP-avidin) was used to detect membrane proteins after separation by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Four protein bands characteristic of the surface membrane of sperm cells were identified varying from 48 to 78 kD, five bands of leaf protoplasts in the range of 4578 kD, and two bands of callus protoplasts, 67 and 80 kD were detected. One protein of 48 kD was specific to the surface membrane of sperm cells and might be related to the specific roles of sperm cell physiology.
Abstract (Browse 1773)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultracytochemical Localization of Calcium in the Stigma, Style and Micropyle of Sunflower
Author: Zhang Jin-song, Yang Hong-yuan, Zhu Ling and Tong Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    Calcium was localized ultracytochemically in the stigma, style and micropyle of sun-flower (Helianthus annuus L. ) by pyroantimonate precipitation technique. To identify the element constitution of the pyroantimonate deposits, wave-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (WDX) method was employed in addition to the energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and the deposits observed were directly proved as calcium pyroantimonate. In the stigma, calcium was more abundant on the receptive surface, especially outside and inside the papillae, than on the noo-receptive surface. In the style, more calcium was seen in the transmitting tissue as compared with the adjacent parenchymatous tissue, and was concentrated at the intercellular matrix and the boundary between the cell wall and the intercellular matrix. In micropyle region, the transmitting tissue on the side proximal to the funicle contained large amount of calcium, where as more calcium was localized in the intercellular matrix. As for the pollen tubes growing along the gynoecium, calcium was mainly localized at the pectin layer of the tube wall after 1.5 hours of pollination.
Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Cloning of the cDNA Encoding an Antifungal Protein in Gastrodia elata Bl.
Author: Shu Qun-fang, Xu Jin-tang and Sun Yong-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    Antifungal protein is the main inhibitor of fungal infection in the secondary corm of Gastrodia elata B1. was isolated and purified antifungal protein (GAFP) from the plant. Its molecular weight was about 14 kD. Polyclonal antibody against GAFP was produced. In vitro test, this antifungal protein inhibited the growth of some fungi in some crop including Gibberella zeae. cDNA was synthesized from poly (A) mRNA purified from G. elata. The cDNA was ligated into phage vector gtll DNA and packaged in vitro and the phages were propagated on E. coli Y1090 and a gtll expression library was constructed. A cDNA clone encoding for antifungal protein was screened out by immunoscreening of the library using the protein as a probe. The DNA containing insert was digested by Eco RI after isolated and purified recombinants DNA, the insert was obtained. The cDNA was 300 bp in length. The authors had isolated the cDNA clone encoding antifungal protein from G. elata.
Abstract (Browse 1798)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of Rice RAPD Molecular Linkage Map
Author: Chen Hong, Zhu Li-huang, Xu Ji-chen and Chen Mei-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    A rice (Oryza sativa L. ) molecular linkage map has been constructed form over 52 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers with the double haploid (DH) population. It covered a total genetic distance of over 898.4 cM (centimorgan) with 17.3 cM between markers and was complemental with RFLP linkage map.
Abstract (Browse 1732)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isozymatic Differentiation in Local Population of Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.
Author: Li Jun, Tao Yun, Zheng Shi-zhang and Zhou Ji-lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    The biochemical genetic structure and variation among local population of Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. were investigated based on isozyme analysis using the techniques of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoenzyme zymography of 6 enzymes viz malate dehydrogenase (MDH), peroxidase (PER), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), amylase (AMY), esterase (EST) and isocitric dehydrogenase (IDH) of 14 culture seedlings were respectively compared. Isozymatic analysis revealed high genetic variation in the population of G. soja. MDH, PER, ATPase, AMY are polymorphic. ATPase has the highest polymorphic index (PI=O. 1582). EST and IDH are monomorphic for all populations. The average population heterozygosity (He) was 0. 3141, and the average genetic distance (Da) among the 14 samples is 0. 1512. Cluster analysis and canonical analysis showed no correlation existed between the population's biochemical genetic structure and its environment. It was concluded that mutation could be the major cause of the high enzymatic polymorphism in population; and the mechanism that keeps the polymorphism could be random drift sampling strategy for conservation of crop genetic resources was also put forward.
Abstract (Browse 1771)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on Genetic Structure of Liaodong Oak (Quercus liaotungensis) Populations in Dry and Moist Habitats and It's Adaptive Implications
Author: Zhong Min, Wang Hong-xin, Hu Zhi-ang and Qian Ying-qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    The genetic structure of two Liaodong oak (Ouercus liaotungensis Koiz. ) populations whose habitats represent respectively moist and dry donditions at Dongling Mountain region, a suburb of Beijing City, was studied by using isozyme analysis. Thirty putative loci from thirteen enzyme systems were analyzed. The result showed very high genetic variability in the two populations, with a percentage of polymorphic loci of 86.6%, and an average number of alleles per locus of 2.25. There still existed obvious differences in a few loci although high levels of genetic similarity was observed, indicated by low value of both distance (D= 0. 029) and coefficient of gene differentiation (GsT = 0. 048). The dynamic changes of the gene frequencies of different age groups of oak trees may imply that the oak populations can be adaptive to different conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1724)  |  Full Text PDF       
Constituents of Aristolochia cinnabarina
Author: Li Hong, Youji Sakagami, Shingo Marumo, Chen Xin-min and Yang Jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1995 37(9)
      
    Nine compounds, aristolochic acid (1), aristolochic acid- (2), aristolochic acid- a (3), aristoloside (4), aristolactam-N--D-glucoside (5), aristolactam--D-glucoside (6), tuberosinone (7), tuberosinone N--D-glucoside (8) and 6-O-p-coumaroyl-D-glucopyranose (9), were isolated from methanol extracts of fresh roots of Aristolochia cinnabarina. Among them, compound 9 was reported in Aristolochiaceae for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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